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Task-based
Language Learning
1
2
• As teachers we always complain about our
students do not speak in English in our
classroom. They might feel threaten or shy;
but the fact is, few of them actually dare.
• The Task-Based Learning (TBL) helps students
to have a meaningful experience with the
language and give them context and the result
is motivation.
3
What is task?
A task is any activity that learners engage
in to process of learning a language.
(Williams and Burden, 1997:168)
4
A task is a range of learning activities from the
simple and brief exercises to more complex and
lengthy activities such as group problem-solving or
simulations and decision-making.
(Breen, 1987:23)
5
An activity which required learners to arrive
at an outcome from given information through
some process of thought and which allowed
teachers to control and regulate that process was
regarded as a task.
(Prabhu , 1987:24)
6
What is Task Based Learning?
7
 TBL is a teaching approach which focuses
on the student by asking to do meaningful
activities or task.
 These task can be daily routines like buying
a cup of coffee, going to the doctor, or talking
to someone on the phone
8
(Lightbrown and Spada, 1999)
Instead of a language structure or function to be
learnt, students are presented with a task they have to
perform or a problem they have to solve.
(Harmer, J. The practice of English Language Teaching, 2007:71)
9
10
Why do we use a task-based
approach?
11
• to give learners confidence in trying out whatever language
they know,
• to give learners experience of spontaneous interaction,
• to give learners the chance to benefit from noticing how
others express similar meanings,
• to give learners chances for negotiating turns to speak,
12
(Willis, 1996: 35–6)
Teacher Roles
1. Selector and sequencer of tasks
2. Preparing learners for tasks
3. Consciousness-raising
Learner Roles
1. Group Participant
2. Monitor
3. Risk-taker and innovator
13
1. Jigsaw Tasks
2. Information-gap Tasks
3. Problem-solving Tasks
4. Decision-making Tasks
5. Opinion exchange Tasks
14
15
-Books
-Newspaper
-Magazine
-Radio programs
-CDs
-TV
-Internet
-Board
-Worksheets
Pre-task
Task Cycle
Post-task
PROCEDURE
16
Pre-task
Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class,
highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task
instructions and prepare.
Task Cycle
Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors.
Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing)
how they did the task, what they decided or discovered.
Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written
reports and compare results. (Students receive feedback on their level of
success on completing the task).
Language
Focus
Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or
transcript of the recording.
Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns
occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. (Willis 1996: 38)
17
Fill in this chart about your classmates’ preferences
Name Favorite male
singer
Favorite
female singer
Favorite TV
actor or
actress
Favorite TV
series
Favorite place
in Bali
18
19
As the tasks are likely to be familiar to the
students (eg: visiting the doctor), students are
more likely to be engaged, which may further
motivate them in their learning.
• It is more student-centered
• Allows more meaningful communication
20
• TBLT allows meaningful communication.
• Students will be exposed to a whole range of lexical
phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language
forms.
• Encourages students to be more ambitious in the
language they use.
• The psychological dynamics of the group which
works together to complete a task will have a great
influence on the success.
21
Students will stay within the narrow confines of
familiar words and forms.
Some students can "hide" and rely on others to
do the bulk of the work and learning.
Difficulty of implementing task-based teaching
where classes are large and space limited
and/or inflexible.
It may help to encourage students to use the
target language actively and meaningfully.
But still, many aspects of TBL have to be justified
such as task type, task sequencing and evaluation of
task performance.
22
CONCLUSION

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TASK BASED LEARNING

  • 2. 2 • As teachers we always complain about our students do not speak in English in our classroom. They might feel threaten or shy; but the fact is, few of them actually dare. • The Task-Based Learning (TBL) helps students to have a meaningful experience with the language and give them context and the result is motivation.
  • 4. A task is any activity that learners engage in to process of learning a language. (Williams and Burden, 1997:168) 4
  • 5. A task is a range of learning activities from the simple and brief exercises to more complex and lengthy activities such as group problem-solving or simulations and decision-making. (Breen, 1987:23) 5
  • 6. An activity which required learners to arrive at an outcome from given information through some process of thought and which allowed teachers to control and regulate that process was regarded as a task. (Prabhu , 1987:24) 6
  • 7. What is Task Based Learning? 7
  • 8.  TBL is a teaching approach which focuses on the student by asking to do meaningful activities or task.  These task can be daily routines like buying a cup of coffee, going to the doctor, or talking to someone on the phone 8 (Lightbrown and Spada, 1999)
  • 9. Instead of a language structure or function to be learnt, students are presented with a task they have to perform or a problem they have to solve. (Harmer, J. The practice of English Language Teaching, 2007:71) 9
  • 10. 10 Why do we use a task-based approach?
  • 11. 11
  • 12. • to give learners confidence in trying out whatever language they know, • to give learners experience of spontaneous interaction, • to give learners the chance to benefit from noticing how others express similar meanings, • to give learners chances for negotiating turns to speak, 12 (Willis, 1996: 35–6)
  • 13. Teacher Roles 1. Selector and sequencer of tasks 2. Preparing learners for tasks 3. Consciousness-raising Learner Roles 1. Group Participant 2. Monitor 3. Risk-taker and innovator 13
  • 14. 1. Jigsaw Tasks 2. Information-gap Tasks 3. Problem-solving Tasks 4. Decision-making Tasks 5. Opinion exchange Tasks 14
  • 17. Pre-task Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task Cycle Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors. Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Students receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Language Focus Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording. Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. (Willis 1996: 38) 17
  • 18. Fill in this chart about your classmates’ preferences Name Favorite male singer Favorite female singer Favorite TV actor or actress Favorite TV series Favorite place in Bali 18
  • 19. 19 As the tasks are likely to be familiar to the students (eg: visiting the doctor), students are more likely to be engaged, which may further motivate them in their learning. • It is more student-centered • Allows more meaningful communication
  • 20. 20 • TBLT allows meaningful communication. • Students will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms. • Encourages students to be more ambitious in the language they use. • The psychological dynamics of the group which works together to complete a task will have a great influence on the success.
  • 21. 21 Students will stay within the narrow confines of familiar words and forms. Some students can "hide" and rely on others to do the bulk of the work and learning. Difficulty of implementing task-based teaching where classes are large and space limited and/or inflexible.
  • 22. It may help to encourage students to use the target language actively and meaningfully. But still, many aspects of TBL have to be justified such as task type, task sequencing and evaluation of task performance. 22 CONCLUSION