Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

What Happens when Creativity is Exhausted? Design Tools as an Aid for Ideation

519 views

Published on

Numerous studies have shown the value of introducing cognitive supports to encourage the development of creative ability, using both convergent and divergent methods to develop and synthesize ideas. As part of this iterative idea generation process, design students often struggle to explore new ideas after their initial ideas are exhausted. Yet, there is little instructional guidance on how to productively use the exhaustion of ideas as a way to encourage the development of creative ability, particularly in relation to creativity support tools. In this study, an idea generation tool called Design Heuristics was employed in an industrial design course at a large Midwestern university. Students were given a simple design task, and 30 minutes to generate concept ideas on their own; then, after ten minutes of instruction on the Design Heuristics tool, students generated more ideas for an additional 30 minutes using the same problem. Working on their own, students generated an average of 6 concepts, and generated 2.7 additional concepts while using the Design Heuristics tool. Even though the initial ideation session resulted in more concepts, once their ideas were exhausted, the students were able to continue creating more concepts using Design Heuristics. Concepts created in this second session were rated as higher in their novelty, specificity, and relevance. These results suggest the advantages of introducing creativity support tools following a period where students can work using their own ideas; once exhausted, they may be more open to adopting the method or tool introduced, and may produce more creative outcomes.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

What Happens when Creativity is Exhausted? Design Tools as an Aid for Ideation

  1. 1. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN 
 CREATIVITY IS EXHAUSTED? DESIGN TOOLS AS AN AID 
 FOR IDEATION Colin M. Gray1, Colleen M. Seifert2, 
 Seda Yilmaz1, Shanna R. Daly2, & Richard Gonzalez2 1Iowa State University; 2University of Michigan
  2. 2. HOW DO WE CREATE NOVEL & CREATIVE CONCEPTS? Photo courtesy of Rennet Stowe https://www.flickr.com/photos/tomsaint/2987926396 AND HOW DO WE KNOW WHEN WE NEED HELP?
  3. 3. INSTRUMENTAL JUDGMENT an understanding and value for design tools, methods, and strategies (Cross, 2011; Nelson & Stolterman, 2012; 
 Stolterman, 2008)
  4. 4. INSTRUMENTAL JUDGMENT TOOLS, METHODS, & STRATEGIES Reframing design problems (Akin & Akin, 1996; 
 Smith & Linsey, 2011) Imposing constraints (Biskjaer & Halskov, 2014; 
 Finke et al., 1992) Visual or analogical supports (Cheng, Mugge, & Schoormans, 2014; Viswanathan & Linsey, 2012, 2013) JUDGMENTS THAT RELATE TO USE OF THESE TOOLS?
  5. 5. THE CHALLENGE A focus on cognitive tools has generally neglected 
 how students are intended to develop their 
 abilities with these tools… AND
 
 Beginning designers need to develop sensibilities surrounding their use of tools in the design process. 
 (Self et al., 2014; Stolterman et al., 2008)
  6. 6. What happens when students use a cognitive support only after their own ability to generate concepts is exhausted, and what implications does this has for the development of pedagogical experiences that encourage idea fluency?
  7. 7. DESIGN HEURISTICS • Provides prompts to help designers generate alternatives that vary in nature, discouraging fixation and encouraging divergent patterns of thinking (Yilmaz, Daly, Seifert, & Gonzalez, 2011; Yilmaz, Seifert, & Gonzalez, 2010) • Derived from empirical evidence of industrial and engineering designs (Daly et al., 2012; Yilmaz, Christian, Daly, Seifert, & Gonzalez, 2012; Yilmaz & Seifert, 2010) • Validated through a range of product analysis, case studies, and protocol analyses, in both educational and professional contexts (e.g., Yilmaz & Seifert, 2009; Yilmaz et al., 2011; Yilmaz et al., 2010; Yilmaz et al., 2013; Yilmaz, Daly, Christian, Seifert, & Gonzalez, 2014)
  8. 8. DESIGN HEURISTICS
  9. 9. PARTICIPANTS • Sophomore undergraduate industrial design class at a large Midwestern university • 34 students (12 females and 22 males), aged 19 to 22
  10. 10. IDEATION SESSION Please design a seating unit. Generate 
 as many solutions as you can. BRAINSTORMING 30 MINUTES DESIGN HEURISTICS 30 MINUTES LEARN 10 MINUTES “ ”
  11. 11. ANALYSIS • Consensual Assessment Technique with two raters, blind 
 to condition (Amabile, 1982) • Rated on four concept characteristics, using a 7-point scale • Linear mixed model of scores from both raters • Intra-class correlation (ICC) to test for rater consistency and agreement
  12. 12. HOW MUCH CAN A COGNITIVE SUPPORT TOOL EXPAND IDEA GENERATION AFTER EXHAUSTION? BRAINSTORMING 6.06 CONCEPTS (sd=1.43) 205 CONCEPTS DESIGN HEURISTICS 2.76 CONCEPTS (sd=0.96) 93 CONCEPTS
  13. 13. CONCEPT CHARACTERISTICS 
 (adapted from Dean, Hender, Rodgers, & Santanen, 2006) NOVELTY
 The degree to which an idea is original and modifies a paradigm WORKABILITY/FEASIBILITY
 The degree to which an idea can be easily implemented and does not violate constraints RELEVANCE
 An idea is relevant if it applies to the stated problem and will be effective at solving the problem SPECIFICITY
 The degree to which an idea is specific (i.e., worked out in detail)
  14. 14. ARE THERE CHARACTERISTIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 
 CONCEPTS BY METHOD?   Average Ranking Working On Own (SD)     Average Ranking With Design Heuristics (SD)     Z p ICC agreement ICC consistency       No DH DH No DH DH Novelty 3.841 (1.1549) 4.280 
 (1.0695) -2.513 0.014 0.79 0.71 0.82 0.71 Specificity 3.220 (1.3007) 3.855 
 (1.3744) -5.276 0.000 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.87 Relevance 3.900 (1.3297) 4.188 
 (1.1466) -2.588 0.011 0.77 0.69 0.87 0.72 Feasibility 4.561 (1.1589) 4.360 
 (1.1618) 1.312 0.192 0.34 0.46 0.81 0.77
  15. 15. HOW DOES A COGNITIVE SUPPORT TOOL INFLUENCE IDEA GENERATION? THE AMBIENT CHAIR Chair has a built in “roof” which will provide over-head lighting THE POD Solid, partially enclosed chair that 
 allows for 360° movement (chair is 
 fixed in place)
  16. 16. HOW DOES A COGNITIVE SUPPORT TOOL INFLUENCE IDEA GENERATION? RUSSIAN DOLL CHAIR 3 chairs in one, 1st layer is comfortable padding, 2nd is sturdy metal frame + 3rd is a stool. All chairs would be functional by themselves THE CAROUSEL Four chairs are attached to a 
 center coffee table. #41: LAYER #47: MIRROR OR ARRAY
  17. 17. QUALITY OF CONCEPTS 
 INCREASED DISCUSSION Design Heuristics is a cognitive tool to combat creative “exhaustion” QUANTITY OF CONCEPTS 
 DECREASED BUT
  18. 18. DISCUSSION COGNITIVE SUPPORTS AS JUST-IN-TIME SCAFFOLDING • Supports are related to specific pedagogical contexts, and cannot be viewed only in abstraction • Knowing when to introduce cognitive tools based on known instructional barriers (and those yet to be discovered) • Starting the process of self-learning that will be relevant in future professional work
  19. 19. DISCUSSION DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ TOOL SENSIBILITY • Building instrumental judgment: not only objective knowledge of the tool, but how and when to use it • Increasing our understanding of key cognitive and emotive qualities that may increase receptivity to new cognitive supports • Heightening the role of cognitive tools/supports in developing a designer’s conceptual repertoire
  20. 20. CONCLUSION &
 FUTURE WORK • Triangulation with other data sources to understand individual students’ perception of their developing instrumental judgments • Clarifying the nature of instrumental judgment, particularly within disciplinary and identity framings • Learning to capitalize on exhausted creative states is a key area for future instructional development, developing pedagogical experiences that increase students’ design expertise
  21. 21. THANK YOU This research is funded by the National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education, Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (TUES Type II) Grants # 1323251 and #1322552. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. COLINGRAY.ME
 DESIGNHEURISTICS.COM

×