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STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
                BY
       OMOLE ADETOUN (ACIPM)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session, participants will be able to:
 explain the concept of change;
 discuss the phases in change management;
 highlight the role strategy plays in change
  management;
 mention critical factors to be considered in change
  management ; and
 highlight factors that may bring about resistance to
  change.           STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
INTRODUCTION
• Change is inevitable in all facets of life.
• Change is a significant alteration in the
  established pattern of expectation for good or
  bad, positive or negative. It is equally a
  process that involves the movement from a
  present state through a transitional state to a
  desired state (innovation).
• Change is a “state” or a “process” of being
  different from the former.

                  STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS

 CONCEPT OF CHANGE
 “Change is a permanent part of life. No matter who
  we are, where we live, how old or young, we all
  make changes in our lives. Most of us struggle with
  change …
  The ways we change inside, the ways we grow and
  learn, and become transformed are because of the
  changes in our lives.”
             - Orlando & Anaam
                    STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
STRATEGY
 planning in any field: a
carefully devised plan of
action to achieve a goal, or
the art of developing or
carrying out such a plan
 planning of war: the
science or art of planning
and conducting a war or a
military campaign
adaptation important to
evolutionary success: in
evolutionary theory, a
behaviour, structure, or
other adaptation that
improves viability.         STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
STRATEGIES FOR STAKEHOLDERS
• Identify the stakeholders whose commitment
  is required.
• For each type of stakeholder, describe the
  needed change, perceived benefits and
  expected resistance.
• Develop action plans including ones for the
  stakeholder groups that are not sufficiently
  committed.
• One critical group often ignored is higher-level
  administration; they must be included one of
  the key groups.

                 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
THE ROLE OF A CHANGE AGENT

an individual who takes responsibility for changing the
 existing pattern of behaviour of another person or social
 system; roles include:
  – develop the need for change
  – diagnosis the problem
  – establish information exchange channels
  – create an intent to change in the clients
  – translate an intent into action
  – stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance
                      STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
          CHANGE AGENT
    He / She is:
•   an analyst and developer of clear
    change goals and initiatives;
•    a facilitator;
•   an educator;
•   a marketer;
•   a systems integrator and coordinator ;
•   a monitor of change;
•   an effective communicator;
                 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
... CONTD.
 Change agents possess core competence
  such as:
• team building abilities;
• communication skills;
• excellent interpersonal skills;
• networking skills;
• personal enthusiasm;
• ability to stimulate motivation
  commitment; and
• negotiating skills.
              STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
Rogers: Adopter Categories
•   innovators - the first 2.5% to adopt the
    innovation
•   early adopters - the next 13.5% to adopt the
    new idea
•   early majority - next 34% of the adopters
•   late majority - the next 34% to embrace the
    change
•   laggards - the last 16% to adopt the
    innovation
                 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
. . . CONTD.




STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
Rogers: S-shaped Curve.
    Time as a critical factor in Change
             Management.




a period of slow adoption before experiencing a sudden period of rapid
 adoption and then a gradual leveling off .

                          STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
CHANGE MANAGEMENT
 Basically, this involves the process of ‘birthing’ the
    change, nurturing it and the eventual stability of
    the desired change.
Three phases of Change management are:
• Unfreezing phase - old ways are no longer
    appropriate and that change is needed
• Changing/Moving phase - select an appropriate
    and promising approach
• Refreezing phase – the new approach is
    implemented and it becomes established
                     STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
Everett Rogers:
Innovation/Decision Process Model




           STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
IS
        THE
CONSTANT THING IN LIFE                .




     STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
Useful Strategies to employ while
           ‘managing’ Change.
•   establish a sense of urgency
•   create a guiding coalition
•   develop a compelling vision and strategy
•   communicate the change vision widely
•   empower stakeholders for broad-based
    action on the vision
•   generate short-term wins
•   consolidate gains and produce more change
•   anchor new approaches in organizational
    culture

                STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE
 The responsibility is on Leaders to:
 initiate (conceive) change;
 communicate change;
 influence (direct) change;
 inspire change;
 handle resistance to change; and
 sustain (manage) change.

                 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
EXERCISE 1

•   Think of one successful change in your work
    environment. List the successful change variables
    that were in place. What was the critical factor(s)
    for the success of the change?

•    Think of some unsuccessful change from your
    environment. List the resistance to change
    variables that were present. What was the critical
    factor(s) that thwarted the change?

                    STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
EXERCISE 2


 With the benefit of hindsight, list
   some potential resistance to
       change factors in your
           organization.



            STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
CAUTION
 Consequences of innovation can
include:
– direct or immediate results
– indirect or undesirable consequences
  that are a result of the innovation
– anticipated or recognized/intended
  changes
– unanticipated consequences that are
  neither intended or recognized

              STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
CRITICAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER . . .

• Dynamic equilibrium
  – Change occurs at a rate that the institution can cope
    with it
  – System can adapt to the change
  – The organization is not overloaded with too rapid
    change that leads to an inability to adjust or
    disequilibrium
  – Can this be achieved within your organization?


                      STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
LIKELY CAUSES OF RESISTANCE TO
                  CHANGE
•   lack of trust
•   perception that change is not necessary
•   perception that change is not possible
•   relatively high cost
•   fear of personal failure
•   loss of status or power
•   threats to values and ideas
•   social, cultural or organizational disagreements
•   resentment of interference
                      STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
HANDLING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
   Leadership Commitment
   Knowledge of Change
   Effective Communication
   Active Participation
   Building the Requisite Technical Capacity
   Coercion
   Negotiation . . .

                  STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL
                 CHANGE
• dissatisfaction with the status quo
• people have the necessary knowledge and skills
• tools needed to effect and sustain change are available
• implementers have time to learn, adapt, integrate and
  reflect on change
• rewards or incentives exist for participants
• participation in process is expected and encouraged
• have support for innovation by key players and
  stakeholders

                     STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
BENEFITS OF SUCCESSFUL CHANGE
             MANAGEMENT

 enhances institutional best practices
 projects the organization as progressive, forward
 looking and proactive
 ensures quality service delivery
 earns the institution public goodwill and support
 creates an enabling work environment
 increases employee morale, attitudes and
 effectiveness . . .
                   STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
TEAM ACTIVITY
                             Case Studies
                             Discussion
                             Critical Analysis
                             Questions


                STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
SUMMARY / CONCLUSION

 Change is the permanent thing in life.

 Therefore, critical factors necessary
 for successful Change Management
 should be holistically considered and
 measures to ensure sustainability be
 put in place.

              STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
FURTHER READING LISTS

 References:
 HINARI – Access to Research: W.H.O
 Rogers, Everett M. (2003) Diffusion of
  Innovations, 5th Edition, Simon & Schuster.
 Orlando A.& Anaam C. The Change Agent
  http://www.nelrc.org/changeagent/
 Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008
  Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
                   STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING




         STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE

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Strategies for Managing Change - Adetoun Omole (mrs.)

  • 1. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE BY OMOLE ADETOUN (ACIPM)
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the session, participants will be able to:  explain the concept of change;  discuss the phases in change management;  highlight the role strategy plays in change management;  mention critical factors to be considered in change management ; and  highlight factors that may bring about resistance to change. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Change is inevitable in all facets of life. • Change is a significant alteration in the established pattern of expectation for good or bad, positive or negative. It is equally a process that involves the movement from a present state through a transitional state to a desired state (innovation). • Change is a “state” or a “process” of being different from the former. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 4. DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS  CONCEPT OF CHANGE “Change is a permanent part of life. No matter who we are, where we live, how old or young, we all make changes in our lives. Most of us struggle with change … The ways we change inside, the ways we grow and learn, and become transformed are because of the changes in our lives.” - Orlando & Anaam STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 5. STRATEGY  planning in any field: a carefully devised plan of action to achieve a goal, or the art of developing or carrying out such a plan  planning of war: the science or art of planning and conducting a war or a military campaign adaptation important to evolutionary success: in evolutionary theory, a behaviour, structure, or other adaptation that improves viability. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 6. STRATEGIES FOR STAKEHOLDERS • Identify the stakeholders whose commitment is required. • For each type of stakeholder, describe the needed change, perceived benefits and expected resistance. • Develop action plans including ones for the stakeholder groups that are not sufficiently committed. • One critical group often ignored is higher-level administration; they must be included one of the key groups. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 7. THE ROLE OF A CHANGE AGENT an individual who takes responsibility for changing the existing pattern of behaviour of another person or social system; roles include: – develop the need for change – diagnosis the problem – establish information exchange channels – create an intent to change in the clients – translate an intent into action – stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF A CHANGE AGENT He / She is: • an analyst and developer of clear change goals and initiatives; • a facilitator; • an educator; • a marketer; • a systems integrator and coordinator ; • a monitor of change; • an effective communicator; STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 9. ... CONTD. Change agents possess core competence such as: • team building abilities; • communication skills; • excellent interpersonal skills; • networking skills; • personal enthusiasm; • ability to stimulate motivation commitment; and • negotiating skills. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 10. Rogers: Adopter Categories • innovators - the first 2.5% to adopt the innovation • early adopters - the next 13.5% to adopt the new idea • early majority - next 34% of the adopters • late majority - the next 34% to embrace the change • laggards - the last 16% to adopt the innovation STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 11. . . . CONTD. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 12. Rogers: S-shaped Curve. Time as a critical factor in Change Management. a period of slow adoption before experiencing a sudden period of rapid adoption and then a gradual leveling off . STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 13. CHANGE MANAGEMENT Basically, this involves the process of ‘birthing’ the change, nurturing it and the eventual stability of the desired change. Three phases of Change management are: • Unfreezing phase - old ways are no longer appropriate and that change is needed • Changing/Moving phase - select an appropriate and promising approach • Refreezing phase – the new approach is implemented and it becomes established STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 14. Everett Rogers: Innovation/Decision Process Model STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 15. IS THE CONSTANT THING IN LIFE . STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 16. Useful Strategies to employ while ‘managing’ Change. • establish a sense of urgency • create a guiding coalition • develop a compelling vision and strategy • communicate the change vision widely • empower stakeholders for broad-based action on the vision • generate short-term wins • consolidate gains and produce more change • anchor new approaches in organizational culture STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 17. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE The responsibility is on Leaders to:  initiate (conceive) change;  communicate change;  influence (direct) change;  inspire change;  handle resistance to change; and  sustain (manage) change. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 18. EXERCISE 1 • Think of one successful change in your work environment. List the successful change variables that were in place. What was the critical factor(s) for the success of the change? • Think of some unsuccessful change from your environment. List the resistance to change variables that were present. What was the critical factor(s) that thwarted the change? STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 19. EXERCISE 2  With the benefit of hindsight, list some potential resistance to change factors in your organization. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 20. CAUTION Consequences of innovation can include: – direct or immediate results – indirect or undesirable consequences that are a result of the innovation – anticipated or recognized/intended changes – unanticipated consequences that are neither intended or recognized STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 21. CRITICAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER . . . • Dynamic equilibrium – Change occurs at a rate that the institution can cope with it – System can adapt to the change – The organization is not overloaded with too rapid change that leads to an inability to adjust or disequilibrium – Can this be achieved within your organization? STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 22. LIKELY CAUSES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE • lack of trust • perception that change is not necessary • perception that change is not possible • relatively high cost • fear of personal failure • loss of status or power • threats to values and ideas • social, cultural or organizational disagreements • resentment of interference STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 23. HANDLING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE  Leadership Commitment  Knowledge of Change  Effective Communication  Active Participation  Building the Requisite Technical Capacity  Coercion  Negotiation . . . STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 24. CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL CHANGE • dissatisfaction with the status quo • people have the necessary knowledge and skills • tools needed to effect and sustain change are available • implementers have time to learn, adapt, integrate and reflect on change • rewards or incentives exist for participants • participation in process is expected and encouraged • have support for innovation by key players and stakeholders STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 25. BENEFITS OF SUCCESSFUL CHANGE MANAGEMENT  enhances institutional best practices  projects the organization as progressive, forward looking and proactive  ensures quality service delivery  earns the institution public goodwill and support  creates an enabling work environment  increases employee morale, attitudes and effectiveness . . . STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 26. TEAM ACTIVITY  Case Studies  Discussion  Critical Analysis  Questions STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 27. SUMMARY / CONCLUSION  Change is the permanent thing in life.  Therefore, critical factors necessary for successful Change Management should be holistically considered and measures to ensure sustainability be put in place. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 28. FURTHER READING LISTS References:  HINARI – Access to Research: W.H.O  Rogers, Everett M. (2003) Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition, Simon & Schuster.  Orlando A.& Anaam C. The Change Agent http://www.nelrc.org/changeagent/  Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE
  • 29. THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE

Editor's Notes

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