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Journal of Athletic Enhancement
 Journal of Athletic Enhancement (JAE) is a peer-reviewed hybrid,
scholarly journal which publishes the most complete and reliable
source of information on the discoveries and current
developments in the interdisciplinary areas of sport science &
medicine.
 Submit your manuscript at
Online Submission Portal
 Email us at
editor.jae@scitechnol.com
 Athletes may get injured in various athletic activities
performed.
 Sports injuries are commonly caused by overuse, direct
impact, or the application of force that is greater than the
body part can structurally withstand.
 There are two kinds of sports injuries:
I. Acute
II. Chronic
 Sport injuries require special focus on the identification of
injuries, care, prevention and treatment, therapies for injury
management.
 An injury that occurs suddenly, such as a sprained
ankle caused by an awkward landing, is known as an
Acute injury.
 Chronic injuries are caused by repeated overuse of
muscle groups or joints. Poor technique and structural
abnormalities can also contribute to the development
of chronic injuries.
 Muscle sprains and strains
 Tears of the ligaments that hold joints together
 Tears of the tendons that support joints and allow
them to move
 Dislocated joints
 Fractured bones, including vertebrae.
Sport injuries
 Sprains—tears to the ligaments that join the ends of bones
together. The ankles, knees, and wrists are commonly affected by
sprains.
 Strains—pulls or tears of muscles or tendons (the tissues that
attach the muscles to the bones)
Common Sport Injuries : Body Parts
 Dislocation or fracture of Bones
 "Shin splints“- pain along the outside front of the lower leg, commonly
seen in runners
 Achilles tendonitis or rupture of the Achilles tendon—These injuries
involve the large band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel
 Lumbar strain: The standard weightlifter's injury can also occur in sports
that involve sudden twisting of the back, such as golf and baseball.
Complications of Sports Injuries
 Lateral and medial epicondylitis :More commonly known as
backhand and forehand tennis elbow. Forehand tennis elbow
is also common in golfers, baseball players, and people who
have to lug heavy suitcases around.
 Metatarsal stress fracture: The second to fourth toes are
vulnerable to breakage if you push off with your toes when
sprinting or running long distances. Army cadets doing running
and marching drills are likely to suffer stress fractures during
training camps.
 Warm up and performing slow, sustained stretches.
 Wearing appropriate footwear.
 Tape or strap vulnerable joints, if necessary.
 Using the appropriate safety equipments, such as mouth guards,
helmets and pads.
 Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after the game.
 Avoiding exercising in the hottest part of the day.
 Maintaining a good level of overall fitness, particularly in the “off
season”.
 Cross-train with other sports to ensure overall fitness and muscle
strength.
 Ensure training includes appropriate speed and impact work so
muscles are capable of the demands of a game situation.
 Never exert beyond the level of one’s own fitness. Should be
increased gradually.
 Use good form and technique.
 Cool down after sport with gentle, sustained stretches.
 Allow adequate recovery time between sessions.
 Regular medical checkups.
 Treatment depends on the type and severity of
the injury.
 Mild sprain or strain can be treated at home
using RICE therapy.
 But some injuries may require additional
treatment and medical attention.
 One should call a health professional if
experiences severe pain, swelling, or
numbness, joint instability, the inability to bear
weight on a limb, or any other symptoms.
Optimal management of an acute injury :
RICE Method
 Rest: Minimize movement of the injured body part)
 Ice: Apply a cold pack
 Compression: Light pressure wrap to the affected body part can help
minimize leakage of blood and swelling
Elevation (raise the body part up so that
the pressure from the blood and tissue
swelling the affected area is reduced as
the fluids drain from the area by gravity)
 Pain Relief: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
 Painkillers, such as paracetamol can be used to help ease the pain.
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen,
can also be used to help ease the pain caused by sprains and
fractures and help reduce any swelling.
 Aspirin should not be given to children under 16 years of age.
Immobilization
Immobilisation helps prevent further damage by reducing
movement. It also reduces pain, muscle swelling and muscle spasm.
Corticosteroid injection may be recommended for severe or
persistent inflammation.
Surgery
 Only Severe injuries such as badly broken bones may require corrective
surgery.
 In some cases it may be possible to use a non-surgical technique,
closed reduction to realign broken bones.
 During surgery for a broken bone it may be necessary to fix the bones
with wires, plates, screws or rods, known as open reduction and internal
fixation (ORIF).
Physiotherapy:
 Physiotherapy involves using massage,
manipulation and special exercises to improve the
range of motion and return the normal function of
injured area.
 Long-term injury can be treated with a programme
of walking and swimming to help strengthen the
muscles in the affected body part
Heat Treatment
The effects of heat therapy include:
 Increased blood flow to an area
 Relief from tension or tightness in muscles
 May reduce joint stiffness
 Optimizes healing/rehabilitation environment - tissue repair
 Pain relief
 Increase in flexibility
 Healing process.
 Rehabilitation is an important part of treating sports injuries.
 A rehabilitation programme aims to return the injured body part to normal
function by gradually introducing it to movement and exercise.
 With most sports injuries, after the initial recovery, it helps to move the
injured part as soon as possible to help speed up the healing process.
 Gentle exercises should help improve the area’s range of motion.
 Avoid painful activities and do not return to your sport until you have no
pain, and full strength and flexibility have returned to the injured area.
 Sports injuries are treated much better than olden days.
 Advanced technologies include :
 Arthroscopy (fiber optic scopes put through small cuts in the skin to see
inside joints)
 Tissue engineering (using a person's own tissues or cells to help heal
injuries)
 Targeted pain relief (pain-reducing drug patches put directly on the injured
area).
 Advanced imaging techniques (like x rays) that will lead to better diagnosis
and treatment.

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Sport injuries

  • 1. Journal of Athletic Enhancement
  • 2.  Journal of Athletic Enhancement (JAE) is a peer-reviewed hybrid, scholarly journal which publishes the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the interdisciplinary areas of sport science & medicine.
  • 3.  Submit your manuscript at Online Submission Portal  Email us at editor.jae@scitechnol.com
  • 4.  Athletes may get injured in various athletic activities performed.  Sports injuries are commonly caused by overuse, direct impact, or the application of force that is greater than the body part can structurally withstand.  There are two kinds of sports injuries: I. Acute II. Chronic
  • 5.  Sport injuries require special focus on the identification of injuries, care, prevention and treatment, therapies for injury management.
  • 6.  An injury that occurs suddenly, such as a sprained ankle caused by an awkward landing, is known as an Acute injury.  Chronic injuries are caused by repeated overuse of muscle groups or joints. Poor technique and structural abnormalities can also contribute to the development of chronic injuries.
  • 7.  Muscle sprains and strains  Tears of the ligaments that hold joints together  Tears of the tendons that support joints and allow them to move  Dislocated joints  Fractured bones, including vertebrae.
  • 9.  Sprains—tears to the ligaments that join the ends of bones together. The ankles, knees, and wrists are commonly affected by sprains.  Strains—pulls or tears of muscles or tendons (the tissues that attach the muscles to the bones) Common Sport Injuries : Body Parts  Dislocation or fracture of Bones
  • 10.  "Shin splints“- pain along the outside front of the lower leg, commonly seen in runners  Achilles tendonitis or rupture of the Achilles tendon—These injuries involve the large band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel  Lumbar strain: The standard weightlifter's injury can also occur in sports that involve sudden twisting of the back, such as golf and baseball. Complications of Sports Injuries
  • 11.  Lateral and medial epicondylitis :More commonly known as backhand and forehand tennis elbow. Forehand tennis elbow is also common in golfers, baseball players, and people who have to lug heavy suitcases around.  Metatarsal stress fracture: The second to fourth toes are vulnerable to breakage if you push off with your toes when sprinting or running long distances. Army cadets doing running and marching drills are likely to suffer stress fractures during training camps.
  • 12.  Warm up and performing slow, sustained stretches.  Wearing appropriate footwear.  Tape or strap vulnerable joints, if necessary.  Using the appropriate safety equipments, such as mouth guards, helmets and pads.  Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after the game.  Avoiding exercising in the hottest part of the day.  Maintaining a good level of overall fitness, particularly in the “off season”.
  • 13.  Cross-train with other sports to ensure overall fitness and muscle strength.  Ensure training includes appropriate speed and impact work so muscles are capable of the demands of a game situation.  Never exert beyond the level of one’s own fitness. Should be increased gradually.  Use good form and technique.  Cool down after sport with gentle, sustained stretches.  Allow adequate recovery time between sessions.  Regular medical checkups.
  • 14.  Treatment depends on the type and severity of the injury.  Mild sprain or strain can be treated at home using RICE therapy.  But some injuries may require additional treatment and medical attention.  One should call a health professional if experiences severe pain, swelling, or numbness, joint instability, the inability to bear weight on a limb, or any other symptoms.
  • 15. Optimal management of an acute injury : RICE Method  Rest: Minimize movement of the injured body part)  Ice: Apply a cold pack  Compression: Light pressure wrap to the affected body part can help minimize leakage of blood and swelling Elevation (raise the body part up so that the pressure from the blood and tissue swelling the affected area is reduced as the fluids drain from the area by gravity)
  • 16.  Pain Relief: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)  Painkillers, such as paracetamol can be used to help ease the pain.  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can also be used to help ease the pain caused by sprains and fractures and help reduce any swelling.  Aspirin should not be given to children under 16 years of age.
  • 17. Immobilization Immobilisation helps prevent further damage by reducing movement. It also reduces pain, muscle swelling and muscle spasm. Corticosteroid injection may be recommended for severe or persistent inflammation.
  • 18. Surgery  Only Severe injuries such as badly broken bones may require corrective surgery.  In some cases it may be possible to use a non-surgical technique, closed reduction to realign broken bones.  During surgery for a broken bone it may be necessary to fix the bones with wires, plates, screws or rods, known as open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).
  • 19. Physiotherapy:  Physiotherapy involves using massage, manipulation and special exercises to improve the range of motion and return the normal function of injured area.  Long-term injury can be treated with a programme of walking and swimming to help strengthen the muscles in the affected body part
  • 20. Heat Treatment The effects of heat therapy include:  Increased blood flow to an area  Relief from tension or tightness in muscles  May reduce joint stiffness  Optimizes healing/rehabilitation environment - tissue repair  Pain relief  Increase in flexibility  Healing process.
  • 21.  Rehabilitation is an important part of treating sports injuries.  A rehabilitation programme aims to return the injured body part to normal function by gradually introducing it to movement and exercise.  With most sports injuries, after the initial recovery, it helps to move the injured part as soon as possible to help speed up the healing process.  Gentle exercises should help improve the area’s range of motion.  Avoid painful activities and do not return to your sport until you have no pain, and full strength and flexibility have returned to the injured area.
  • 22.  Sports injuries are treated much better than olden days.  Advanced technologies include :  Arthroscopy (fiber optic scopes put through small cuts in the skin to see inside joints)  Tissue engineering (using a person's own tissues or cells to help heal injuries)  Targeted pain relief (pain-reducing drug patches put directly on the injured area).  Advanced imaging techniques (like x rays) that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment.