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Scaling Xen within
Rackspace Cloud Servers

                            Chris Behrens
                    chris.behrens@rackspace.com


XenSummit 2012, San Diego, CA USA
August 28, 2012




                                                  1
Agenda
•  Intro to Rackspace Cloud Servers
•  Why Xen?
•  Xen to XenServer
•  OpenStack Basics
•  OpenStack at Rackspace
•  Scaling OpenStack Deployment
•  Future




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Intro to Cloud Servers




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Intro to Cloud Servers
Overview

•  Public Cloud product under Rackspace’s Open Cloud portfolio
•  First Gen
 –  Code originated from Slicehost acquisition
 –  Initially Xen 3.x, but migrated to XenServer
•  Next Gen
 –  Public Launch 8/1/2012
 –  Powered by OpenStack
•  XenServer 6
•  Linux, Windows, and FreeBSD VMs




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Intro to Cloud Servers
Statistics

•  180,000+ total Rackspace customers (not just Cloud Servers)
•  Tens of thousands of hosts
•  Hundreds of thousands of VMs
•  Millions of snapshots




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Why Xen?




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Why Xen?

•  Thin hypervisor layer
•  Open source
•  Excellent driver support due to Linux dom0
•  Good API
•  Good performance
•  Along with Linux, Windows VMs are a must
 –  Same virtualization technology desired for Windows
 –  Microsoft will support
 –  Good PV driver support




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Xen to XenServer




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Xen to XenServer
Cloud Servers use of Xen

•  LVM
 –  Logical volumes per VM
•  Base images stored as tar files
•  Kernel and ramdisk outside of images
•  Shell out to run ‘xm’ commands
•  Snapshots w/ LVM
 –  Mounted and contents rsynced to another host
•  No agent
 –  Modifications inside images done via mounting powered off VM




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Xen to XenServer
Xen to XenServer changes

•  VHDs for virtual disk images
 –  Tarred and gzipped
•  Kernel and ramdisk inside images
•  Snapshots via XenAPI
 –  Whole VDI chain wrapped in OVF container for upload to glance
•  Agent inside VM images
 –  Communication via Xenstore
 –  File injection, password resets, networking setup




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Xen to XenServer
Migrating

•  Pick a XenServer host
•  Create VDI
•  Attach VDI to dom0
•  Partition, mkfs, and mount the new virtual disk
•  LVM Snapshot original Xen VM and mount it
•  rsync snapshot contents to mounted VDI on new host
•  Power off original Xen VM and mount its virtual disk
•  rsync again to new host to catch changes since snapshotting
•  Extract a tar file into mounted VDI containing kernel, ramdisk, agent
•  Unmount and detach VDI from dom0
•  Create new VM record and attach VDI
•  Start the new VM


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OpenStack
 The Basics




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OpenStack
Components

•  Nova
  –  Compute controller with various hypervisor drivers
•  Glance
  –  VM Image registry
•  Swift
  –  Object storage
•  Quantum/Melange
  –  Networking
•  Cinder
  –  Volumes/Block storage
•  Keystone
  –  Authentication
  –  Authorization
  –  API Endpoint discovery

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OpenStack
Typical OpenStack Deployment

                                   keystone



                  nova                                     glance

               nova-api                       glance-api                            glance-registry
 RabbitMQ




                               MySQL
            nova-scheduler
                                                                                        MySQL
            nova-network



                nova-compute                                swift




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OpenStack
nova-compute w/ XenAPI

•  Runs in a utility domU on each host
•  Images downloaded in dom0              Physical host running XenServer"
 –  glance XenAPI plugin
•  Images attached to nova-compute           dom0"           nova utility domU"
   domU
 –  Partitioning changes                 glance plugin              nova-compute
 –  file-system resizing
                                          agent plugin
•  Monitors VMs’ power_state
•  Snapshots/backups                     xenstore plugin                nova instance
•  VM resize/migration                                                     domUs
 –  rsync to new host
•  Communicates w/ agent inside VMs
 –  Via xenstore


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OpenStack
XenAPI VM Calls

•  VM.start / VM.start_on   •  VM.add_to_VCPUs_params
•  VM.destroy               •  VM.get_VBDs
•  VM.clean_reboot          •  VM.get_record
•  VM.hard_reboot           •  VM.get_by_uuid
•  VM.clean_shutdown        •  VM.get_by_name_label
•  VM.hard_shutdown         •  VM.set_name_label
•  VM.pause                 •  VM.add_to_xenstore_data
•  VM.unpause               •  VM.remove_from_xenstore_data
•  VM.suspend               •  VM.assert_can_migrate
•  VM.resume                •  VM.migrate_send
•  VM.snapshot              •  VM.pool_migrate




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OpenStack
Rackspace Specifics




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OpenStack Rackspace Specifics
Source Code

•  Rackspace tracks trunk
 –  Deployed code generally less than 2 weeks behind trunk
•  Some custom patches on top of trunk
 –  Features specific to Rackspace
 –  Custom scheduling to meet Rackspace needs
 –  Scaling with OpenStack Compute Cells




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                                                                                                          18
OpenStack Rackspace Specifics
OpenStack Compute Cells

•  Scaling beyond small nova deployments
  –  Effectively ties multiple nova deployments together
•  Developed by Rackspace
•  Targeted for Grizzly OpenStack release
•  Hierarchical tree
  –  Multiple parents supported
•  API cell(s) at top of the tree
•  Compute cell(s) underneath
•  DB and RabbitMQ per cell
•  Scalability
  –  Splits connections to DB and RabbitMQ
  –  Less work to schedule new VM placement




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OpenStack Rackspace Specifics
   OpenStack Nova Multi-cell Diagram
            API Cell

                          RabbitMQ




                                                               MySQL
                                         nova-api

                                     nova-cells


Compute Cell 1"                                                              Compute Cell 2"

                  nova-cells                                            nova-cells



                                                    RabbitMQ
 RabbitMQ




                                                                                                                  MySQL
                                     MySQL


                nova-scheduler                                     nova-scheduler

                nova-network                                           nova-network



                    nova-compute                                          nova-compute

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Deploying OpenStack




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Deploying OpenStack
‘Inception’

•  Private internal cloud
  –  Based on Openstack, called iNova
  –  OpenStack services for public cloud run virtualized under iNova
•  Easy to spin up additional services for load balancing
  –  Enables quick reaction to load spikes
•  Easier deployments of new compute cells
•  Automated reaction to downed hosts
•  Enables new strategies for deployments
  –  Replace vs Upgrade




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Deploying OpenStack
iNova Diagram



                   iNova"
                                   OpenStack Control
                                                                         Public Cloud
                                    Infrastructure for
                                                                          XenServer
                                      Public Cloud"
                                                                            hosts
     XenServer hosts"


             domUs

          XenServer host w/                                              Public Cloud
         OpenStack Control
       Infrastructure for iNova"                                          XenServer
                                                                            hosts



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                                                                                                      23
Deploying OpenStack
Continuous Deployment

•  Trunk and custom branches merged multiple times daily
 –  Unit Tested and Packaged
•  Configuration managed with puppet
 –  Follows same QE and Continuous Deployment rules as code
•  QE Environment
 –  OpenStack control infrastructure deployed on iNova
 –  nova-compute upgraded on 200 hosts
 –  Smoke tests
•  Staging Deploy
 –  Uses the same packages and puppet manifests




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                                                                                                           24
Future




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Future
Improvements desired from Xen

•  Better VM resource isolation
  –  I/O scheduling weights per virtual disk
•  Built in live migration without shared storage
•  More information about VM resource usage
  –  Disk usage
  –  Help us improve OpenStack code
  –  Help customers react to bad situations
•  XenAPI call to write to live xenstore
•  Improve XenServer upgrade experience




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Future
Rackspace’s Other Interests

•  Better VDI introduction for new VMs
 –  Look at VDI.introduce vs mv’ing VDIs and doing an sr-scan
•  Incremental backups
 –  Delta VHDs instead of all VHDs
•  Updated plugins using python >= 2.6
 –  Cleans up workarounds for no built-in ‘uuid’ module
 –  Allows use of newer python features like context managers
•  Better continuous deployment and testing
 –  Virtualize all of OpenStack
   •  Requires spinning XenServer on XenServer
   •  Wipe out compute nodes for QE environment
   •  Enable virtual labs for OpenStack developers
 –  Puppet used to configure XenServer



                                                                RACKSPACE® HOSTING   |   WWW.RACKSPACE.COM
                                                                                                             27
Future
iNova with Dev/QE Environments



                                          OpenStack QE
                iNova"                     Environment"


                                        OpenStack
                                                                 XenServer
                                           Control
                                                                  ‘hosts’
                                       Infrastructure




       XenServer hosts"
                                                    OpenStack Dev
                                                     Environment"

         domUs
                                                 OpenStack
                                                                        XenServer
                                                    Control
                                                                         ‘hosts’
                                                Infrastructure
              XenServer host w/
             OpenStack Control
           Infrastructure for iNova"




                                                                                    RACKSPACE® HOSTING   |   WWW.RACKSPACE.COM
                                                                                                                                 28
"
                                                                        Chris Behrens"
                                                                chris.behrens@rackspace.com"




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                                                                                                                                                                                                             29

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  • 1. Scaling Xen within Rackspace Cloud Servers Chris Behrens chris.behrens@rackspace.com XenSummit 2012, San Diego, CA USA August 28, 2012 1
  • 2. Agenda •  Intro to Rackspace Cloud Servers •  Why Xen? •  Xen to XenServer •  OpenStack Basics •  OpenStack at Rackspace •  Scaling OpenStack Deployment •  Future RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 2
  • 3. Intro to Cloud Servers RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 3
  • 4. Intro to Cloud Servers Overview •  Public Cloud product under Rackspace’s Open Cloud portfolio •  First Gen –  Code originated from Slicehost acquisition –  Initially Xen 3.x, but migrated to XenServer •  Next Gen –  Public Launch 8/1/2012 –  Powered by OpenStack •  XenServer 6 •  Linux, Windows, and FreeBSD VMs RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 4
  • 5. Intro to Cloud Servers Statistics •  180,000+ total Rackspace customers (not just Cloud Servers) •  Tens of thousands of hosts •  Hundreds of thousands of VMs •  Millions of snapshots RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 5
  • 6. Why Xen? RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 6
  • 7. Why Xen? •  Thin hypervisor layer •  Open source •  Excellent driver support due to Linux dom0 •  Good API •  Good performance •  Along with Linux, Windows VMs are a must –  Same virtualization technology desired for Windows –  Microsoft will support –  Good PV driver support RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 7
  • 8. Xen to XenServer RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 8
  • 9. Xen to XenServer Cloud Servers use of Xen •  LVM –  Logical volumes per VM •  Base images stored as tar files •  Kernel and ramdisk outside of images •  Shell out to run ‘xm’ commands •  Snapshots w/ LVM –  Mounted and contents rsynced to another host •  No agent –  Modifications inside images done via mounting powered off VM RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 9
  • 10. Xen to XenServer Xen to XenServer changes •  VHDs for virtual disk images –  Tarred and gzipped •  Kernel and ramdisk inside images •  Snapshots via XenAPI –  Whole VDI chain wrapped in OVF container for upload to glance •  Agent inside VM images –  Communication via Xenstore –  File injection, password resets, networking setup RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 10
  • 11. Xen to XenServer Migrating •  Pick a XenServer host •  Create VDI •  Attach VDI to dom0 •  Partition, mkfs, and mount the new virtual disk •  LVM Snapshot original Xen VM and mount it •  rsync snapshot contents to mounted VDI on new host •  Power off original Xen VM and mount its virtual disk •  rsync again to new host to catch changes since snapshotting •  Extract a tar file into mounted VDI containing kernel, ramdisk, agent •  Unmount and detach VDI from dom0 •  Create new VM record and attach VDI •  Start the new VM RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 11
  • 12. OpenStack The Basics RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 12
  • 13. OpenStack Components •  Nova –  Compute controller with various hypervisor drivers •  Glance –  VM Image registry •  Swift –  Object storage •  Quantum/Melange –  Networking •  Cinder –  Volumes/Block storage •  Keystone –  Authentication –  Authorization –  API Endpoint discovery RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 13
  • 14. OpenStack Typical OpenStack Deployment keystone nova glance nova-api glance-api glance-registry RabbitMQ MySQL nova-scheduler MySQL nova-network nova-compute swift RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 14
  • 15. OpenStack nova-compute w/ XenAPI •  Runs in a utility domU on each host •  Images downloaded in dom0 Physical host running XenServer" –  glance XenAPI plugin •  Images attached to nova-compute dom0" nova utility domU" domU –  Partitioning changes glance plugin nova-compute –  file-system resizing agent plugin •  Monitors VMs’ power_state •  Snapshots/backups xenstore plugin nova instance •  VM resize/migration domUs –  rsync to new host •  Communicates w/ agent inside VMs –  Via xenstore RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 15
  • 16. OpenStack XenAPI VM Calls •  VM.start / VM.start_on •  VM.add_to_VCPUs_params •  VM.destroy •  VM.get_VBDs •  VM.clean_reboot •  VM.get_record •  VM.hard_reboot •  VM.get_by_uuid •  VM.clean_shutdown •  VM.get_by_name_label •  VM.hard_shutdown •  VM.set_name_label •  VM.pause •  VM.add_to_xenstore_data •  VM.unpause •  VM.remove_from_xenstore_data •  VM.suspend •  VM.assert_can_migrate •  VM.resume •  VM.migrate_send •  VM.snapshot •  VM.pool_migrate RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 16
  • 17. OpenStack Rackspace Specifics RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 17
  • 18. OpenStack Rackspace Specifics Source Code •  Rackspace tracks trunk –  Deployed code generally less than 2 weeks behind trunk •  Some custom patches on top of trunk –  Features specific to Rackspace –  Custom scheduling to meet Rackspace needs –  Scaling with OpenStack Compute Cells RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 18
  • 19. OpenStack Rackspace Specifics OpenStack Compute Cells •  Scaling beyond small nova deployments –  Effectively ties multiple nova deployments together •  Developed by Rackspace •  Targeted for Grizzly OpenStack release •  Hierarchical tree –  Multiple parents supported •  API cell(s) at top of the tree •  Compute cell(s) underneath •  DB and RabbitMQ per cell •  Scalability –  Splits connections to DB and RabbitMQ –  Less work to schedule new VM placement RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 19
  • 20. OpenStack Rackspace Specifics OpenStack Nova Multi-cell Diagram API Cell RabbitMQ MySQL nova-api nova-cells Compute Cell 1" Compute Cell 2" nova-cells nova-cells RabbitMQ RabbitMQ MySQL MySQL nova-scheduler nova-scheduler nova-network nova-network nova-compute nova-compute RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 20
  • 21. Deploying OpenStack RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 21
  • 22. Deploying OpenStack ‘Inception’ •  Private internal cloud –  Based on Openstack, called iNova –  OpenStack services for public cloud run virtualized under iNova •  Easy to spin up additional services for load balancing –  Enables quick reaction to load spikes •  Easier deployments of new compute cells •  Automated reaction to downed hosts •  Enables new strategies for deployments –  Replace vs Upgrade RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 22
  • 23. Deploying OpenStack iNova Diagram iNova" OpenStack Control Public Cloud Infrastructure for XenServer Public Cloud" hosts XenServer hosts" domUs XenServer host w/ Public Cloud OpenStack Control Infrastructure for iNova" XenServer hosts RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 23
  • 24. Deploying OpenStack Continuous Deployment •  Trunk and custom branches merged multiple times daily –  Unit Tested and Packaged •  Configuration managed with puppet –  Follows same QE and Continuous Deployment rules as code •  QE Environment –  OpenStack control infrastructure deployed on iNova –  nova-compute upgraded on 200 hosts –  Smoke tests •  Staging Deploy –  Uses the same packages and puppet manifests RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 24
  • 25. Future RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 25
  • 26. Future Improvements desired from Xen •  Better VM resource isolation –  I/O scheduling weights per virtual disk •  Built in live migration without shared storage •  More information about VM resource usage –  Disk usage –  Help us improve OpenStack code –  Help customers react to bad situations •  XenAPI call to write to live xenstore •  Improve XenServer upgrade experience RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 26
  • 27. Future Rackspace’s Other Interests •  Better VDI introduction for new VMs –  Look at VDI.introduce vs mv’ing VDIs and doing an sr-scan •  Incremental backups –  Delta VHDs instead of all VHDs •  Updated plugins using python >= 2.6 –  Cleans up workarounds for no built-in ‘uuid’ module –  Allows use of newer python features like context managers •  Better continuous deployment and testing –  Virtualize all of OpenStack •  Requires spinning XenServer on XenServer •  Wipe out compute nodes for QE environment •  Enable virtual labs for OpenStack developers –  Puppet used to configure XenServer RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 27
  • 28. Future iNova with Dev/QE Environments OpenStack QE iNova" Environment" OpenStack XenServer Control ‘hosts’ Infrastructure XenServer hosts" OpenStack Dev Environment" domUs OpenStack XenServer Control ‘hosts’ Infrastructure XenServer host w/ OpenStack Control Infrastructure for iNova" RACKSPACE® HOSTING | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 28
  • 29. " Chris Behrens" chris.behrens@rackspace.com" RACKSPACE® HOSTING | 5000 WALZEM ROAD | SAN ANTONIO, TX 78218 US SALES: 1-800-961-2888 | US SUPPORT: 1-800-961-4454 | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM RACKSPACE® HOSTING | © RACKSPACE US, INC. | RACKSPACE® AND FANATICAL SUPPORT® ARE SERVICE MARKS OF RACKSPACE US, INC. REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES. | WWW.RACKSPACE.COM 29