SlideShare a Scribd company logo
by Jennifer Paliatka
Assistant Reference Librarian
Elmhurst College
created on 11/01/2004
revised on 08/31/2010
 Observation
 Measurement
 Experimentation
 Theory
 Speculation
 Tradition
 Explanation
 Introduction – where an assertion, idea or thesis is
proposed
 Methods – describes the nuts and bolts of the
experiment
 Results – raw data
 Conclusion/Discussion - discusses the findings of
the experiment and how the research proves or
disproves the initial assertion
:20
1 2
50%50%
1. Yes
2. No
:20
1 2
50%50%
1. Yes
2. No
:20
1 2
50%50%
1. Yes
2. No
 A survey, an examination, an analysis of the
existing empirical articles in a particular area of
study
 Not always formatted in same manner
 A great way to find out about current findings,
experiments and ideas in a given field.
:20
1 2
50%50%
1. Yes
2. No
:30
1 2
50%50%
1. Yes
2. No
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