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       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
A Framework for
Project Management

  The Project Management
          Institute
   Education Department

       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
A Framework for
            Project Management Units
1. Introduction and Key Concepts6. Controlling Projects
2. Project Life Cycle Models          7. Closing Projects
3. Initiating Projects                8. Organizational Impacts
4. Planning Projects                  9. Overview of Knowledge Areas
5. Executing Projects               10. Role of the Project Manager


 Additional materials
 A. Seminar Evaluation Forms
 B. Exercises
 C. Resources for Project Management Professional Candidates


                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
   AND KEY
  CONCEPTS

  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 1: Introduction and Key
               Concepts
Upon completion, you will be able to …
• Define key PM concepts
• List the reasons why PM is needed
• Explain the difference between projects and
  operations
• Identify trends in the PM environment
• List project success and failure factors
• Identify potential benefits of PM
               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key PM Concepts from the
     PMBOK® Guide
                                                    The Project
                                                    Management
                                                 Body of Knowledge




                     Generally Accepted
                    Project Management
                   Knowledge and Practice




             General
           Management                 Application
            Knowledge               Area Knowledge
           and Practice               and Practice




     This figure is a conceptual view of these
     relationships. The overlaps shown are Iqbal
           Prepared by: Syed Khurram not proportional.
Why Do We Need Project
                    Management?*

    •   Exponential expansion of human knowledge
    •   Global demand for goods and services
    •   Global competition
    •   Above requires the use of teams versus
        individuals
* Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr.


                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project and Statement of
            Work (SOW)

• A project is ―a temporary endeavor
  undertaken to create a unique product
  or service.‖
• A SOW is a narrative description of
  products or services to be supplied
  under contract.

             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Management

―The application of knowledge, skills, tools
              and techniques
  to project activities in order to meet or
        exceed stakeholder needs
     and expectations from a project.‖




              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
PM Environment
      Discussion Question

• What are some trends that impact the
  environment in which projects are
  managed today?




             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Accelerating Trends


•   Corporate globalization
•   Massive mergers and reorganizations
•   Flatter organizations
•   Short-term results driven



               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Accelerating Trends
            (continued)

•   Team environment
•   Contract PM and outsourcing
•   Primacy of interpersonal skills
•   Multinational projects
•   Importance of cultural differences
•   Dependence on technology
                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
A Balancing Act
Schedule requirements cost
                                    The
                                    Project

                                Risk        Risk


                      Customer                     Business
                     Expectation                   Objective




 Source: William Gendron, presentation at 1998 PMI Global Forum

                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
A Balanced Project


Time                                     Cost

                 Scope




                 Quality

       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Expectation and Objective
       Congruency
                        Client/Customer Expectations
                             Low                    High
                                              Customer wants
                                                more than the
             Low              OK
                                                 organization
                                             intends to provide.
Business
Objectives
                       Business needs
             High   more from the project           OK
                     than the customer.




               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Contrast Projects and
           Operations
      Discussion Question

• How are ―projects‖ different from
  ―operations‖?




              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Contrast Projects and
              Operations
Projects                            Operations
• Create own charter,               • Semi-permanent
  organization, and goals             charter,
• Catalyst for change                 organization, and
                                      goals
• Unique product or
  service                           • Maintains status quo
• Heterogeneous teams               • Standard product or
                                      service
• Start and end date
                                    • Homogeneous teams
                  Prepared by: Syed • Ongoing
                                    Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 1-1
     PM Pitfalls and Pluses

• Looking back on projects with which you
  were associated, what were the top
  three factors that caused serious
  problems?
• That created a perception of success?


             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Common Pitfalls
•   Unclear objectives
•   Lack of senior management support
•   Lack of effective project integration
•   Inadequate funding
•   Change in business priorities
•   Original assumptions invalid
•   Ineffective team
•   Lack of effective communication processes
•   Other?
                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Factors Affecting Project
                   Success
   • Coordination and relations
   • Adequacy of structure and control
   • Project uniqueness, importance, and public
     exposure
   • Success criteria salience and consensus
   • Competitive and budgetary pressure
   • Initial over-optimism, conceptual difficulty
   • Internal capabilities buildup
Source: NASA study, ―Determination of Project Success,‖ 1974, by David C. Murphy,
Bruce N. Baker, and Dalmar Fisher

                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Potential Benefits of PM for
         the Organization

• Improved control
• Improved project support opportunities
• Improved performance




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Potential Benefits of PM for
                 You
•   Recognition of PM as a profession
•   Future source of company leaders
•   High visibility of project results
•   Growth opportunities
•   Build your reputation and network
•   Portable skills and experience

               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Integration Management



Cost                                     Time

           Integration




                 Quality

       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Summary
• Defined key PM concepts
• Described why PM is needed
• Explained difference between projects
  and operations
• Identified trends in the PM environment
• Discussed project success and failure
  factors
• Identified potential benefits of PM
             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 2:
 PROJECT LIFE
CYCLE MODELS


  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 2: Project Life Cycle
               Models
Upon completion, you will be able to …
• List the purpose and types of project life
  cycle models
• Distinguish between project and product life
  cycle
• Define the role of phase reviews in PM
• Apply a model to a hypothetical and a real
  project
               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key Concepts
• Project phase: ―A collection of logically
  related project activities usually culminating
  in the completion of a major deliverable.‖
• Project life cycle: ―Collectively the project
  phases are known as the project life cycle.‖
• Product life cycle: The natural grouping of
  ideas, decisions, and actions into product
  phases, from product conception to
  operations to product phase-out.
                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Generic Cost and Staffing
              Life Cycle
Cost and                           Intermediate Phases
Staffing                               (one or more)
 Level
               Initial                                      Final
               Phase                                       Phase




           Start                                             Finish
                                 Time



                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Life Cycle
                Example Phases
Concept and
 Proposal

                Development


                               Implementation


                                                    Verification


                                                                   Termination



Initial Phase                 Intermediate Phases                  Final Phase

                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Pharmaceutical Project Life
                      Cycle Model
                                                            Process Development

                                                             Formulation Stability
                Screening      Preclinical                                                                                      A
                Lead           IND            File       Phase I      Phase II   Phase III   File                               P
                Identified     Workup                    Clinical     Clinical   Clinical    NDA                                P
Drug Sourcing                                 IND        Tests        Tests      Tests              Postregistration Activity   R
                                                                                                                                O
                                                                                                                                V
                                                                                                                                A
                                                                    Metabolism                                                  L
                             Patent Process                         Toxicology


                               Preclinical
Discovery       Screening      Development                  Registration(s) Workup                   Postsubmission Activity

                                        Ten Plus Years




                                                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Spiral Methodology
Evaluate                                                                            Identify



                                                              Deploy Operations and
                                                                     Production Support




            Test                                                     Unit
                                                                     Requirements

                   Evaluation
                                                               Subsystem
                                                               Requirements
                          Evaluation
                                                       System
                                                       Requirements
                                  Risk
                                  Analysis Business
                                           Requirements

                                        Proof of Conceptual
                                        Concept Design
                                First                    Logical
                                Build                    Design

                        Second                                  Physical
                        Build                                   Design

               Final                                                    Final
               Build                                                    Design




Construct                                                                           Design

             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Importance of Phase Reviews


                   Requirements Review
 Proposal
                                         General Design Review
Preparation
              Requirements
                                                           Detailed Design Review
                Analysis

                                  General Design                                    Unit Test

                                                     Detailed Design


                                                                       Code and Debug




                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Phase Initiation Example
               Detailed Design Phase
• Ensure correctness and completeness of previous phase,
  e.g., general design phase
     Assess all aspects of requirements, design approach, and
      deliverables
     Identify and work off items

• Determine contractor rewards/payment for closing phase
• Conduct a readiness review to begin next phase, e.g.,
  detailed design phase
     Resource estimates and availability
     Design maturity
     Project plan review and update

• Secure stakeholder approval to proceed
                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 2-1
    Project Life Cycle Model

• Divide a current project on which you
  are working into phases, name them,
  and write a brief statement of purpose
  for each phase




             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Summary
• Explained the concept and purpose of
  project life cycles
• Defined the role of phase reviews in PM
• Described life cycle models
• Differentiated project life cycle and
  product life cycle
• Applied a model to hypothetical and real
  projects
             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 3:
INITIATING
PROJECTS


Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 3: Initiating Projects

Upon completion, you will be able to …
• List the main functions of each PM process
    group
•   Describe the purpose of the initiation process
•   Identify its inputs and outputs, tools and techniques
•   Develop a sample project charter
•   Give an example of how process groups can apply
    to the project as a whole or to a project phase

                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Process Definition


• ―A series of actions people take to bring
  about a desired result.‖
• Types of processes
     Project management processes
     Product-oriented processes
     Business-oriented processes



                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Management Process
                        Groups
Commitment to        Approach to
executing project    executing project
      Initiating                 Planning
                                                             Coordinating
      Processes                 Processes
                                                              people and
                                                            other resources
             Controlling                          Executing
             Processes                            Processes
Monitoring, measuring, and
taking corrective action         Closing                 Formal product
                                Processes                acceptance and
                                                         end of project
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Process Interactions


•   Inputs
•   Tools and techniques
•   Outputs
•   Taxonomy



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Process Group Overview

Initiating Processes
                                             To the
                                             Planning
     5.1                                     Processes
     Initiation                              (Figure 3–5)




           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


                   Initiation

    1. Formal authorization that the project exists
    2. Recognition the project should continue
       into the next phase




                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Purpose of Initiation Process

1. To commit the organization to a project or
   phase
2. To set the overall solution direction
3. To define top-level project objectives
4. To secure the necessary approvals and
   resources
5. Validate alignment with strategic objectives
6. To assign a project manager

               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Initiating Core Process—Initiation
              Input                         Process                              Output
1. Product description          ―Initiation is the process of        1. Project charter
2. Strategic plan               formally recognizing that a new      2. Project manager identified/
3. Project selection criteria   project exists or that an existing      assigned
                                project should continue into its     3. Constraints
4. Historical information
                                next phase.‖
                                                                     4. Assumptions




                                   Tools and Techniques
                                1. Project selection methods
                                2. Expert judgment




                                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


                              Initiation
                              Tools
                              • Project selection methods
                              • Expert judgement




                                                            Outputs
 Inputs                                                     •   Project charter
 •   Product description                                    •   PM assigned
 •   Strategic plan                                         •   Constraints
 •   Selection criteria
                                                            •   Assumptions
 •   Historical information


                              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


                          Inputs
• Product description – Documents characteristics of the
  product or service and its relationship to a business need

• Strategic plan – Describes the organization’s mission,
  vision, and goals for the future, which the project supports

• Project selection criteria – Defined in terms of the
  product and covers the full range of management concerns

• Historical information – Results of previous project
  decisions and performance


                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


            Tools & Techniques
    • Project selection methods (Decision
      models)
        – Benefit-measurement methods – Comparative
          approaches; scoring models; benefit-contribution
          and economic models
        – Constrained optimization methods – Mathematical
          models using linear, dynamic, integer, and multi-
          objective programming algorithms

    • Expert judgment – Experts with specialized
       knowledge or training assess the inputs to this process

                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


                    Outputs
   • Project charter
   • Project manager selected
   • Constraints – Factors that limit the project
     management team’s options regarding scope,
     staffing, and schedule
   • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning
     purposes, will be considered to be true, real,
     or certain
                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Charter


    ―A document issued by senior
          management that
provides the project manager with the
          authority to apply
 organizational resources to project
              activities.‖



           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Initiation


                   Project Charter
   • Formally recognizes the existence of a
     project
   • Refers to the business need the project is
     addressing
   • Describes the product to be delivered
   • Gives the project manager the authority to
     apply resources to the project

                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Charter Content
•   Business need
•   Project objectives
•   Project deliverables
•   Assumptions
•   Constraints
•   Key staff
•   Written authorization

               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 3-1
          Project Charter

• Using the handout, complete the sample
  project charter
• Assume you are the project manager
• As an example, choose an anticipated
  major project assignment


             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Sample Initiating Activities
• Negotiate, write, and refine the project charter
• Confirm how the project links to the business
  need
• Identify management responsibilities
• Identify geographic locations involved
• Test top-level objectives versus strategic
  business plans
• Make strategic procurement decisions, e.g.,
  make, buy, or identify qualified vendors
                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key Outputs of Initiation
                 Process


•   Project charter
•   Project manager identified/assigned
•   Other key positions identified/assigned
•   Constraints identified
•   Assumptions identified

                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 4:
PLANNING
PROJECTS


Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 4: Planning Projects
Upon completion, you will be able to …
• Describe the purposes of the planning processes
• Identify the inputs and outputs of core planning
  processes
• Describe the function and develop sample planning
  deliverables such as a scope statement, WBS, and
  milestone chart
• List the major tools and techniques used in the core
  planning processes
• Identify the planning facilitating processes and their
  functions
                    Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Planning Process Group

 Initiating              Planning
Processes               Processes



                                                Executing
         Controlling
                                                Processes
         Processes


                             Closing
                            Processes



              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Management Process
                        Groups
Commitment to        Approach to
executing project    executing project
      Initiating                 Planning
                                                             Coordinating
      Processes                 Processes
                                                              people and
                                                            other resources
             Controlling                          Executing
             Processes                            Processes
Monitoring, measuring, and
taking corrective action         Closing                 Formal product
                                Processes                acceptance and
                                                         end of project
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Purpose of Planning
                                Processes
     To develop a project plan that:
     • Facilitates later accomplishment*
     • Ensures project wide integration
     • Monitors change effectively
     • Provides decision support information to
       stakeholders
     • Can be updated by iterative planning activities

* Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr.


                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning
A written statement that includes:
• Project justification, the major
  deliverables, and the project
  objectives
• Criteria used to determine if the
  project or phase has been
  successfully completed


            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                             Scope Planning
             Input                       Process                          Output
1. Product description       "… the process of developing a     1. Scope statement
2. Project charter           written scope statement as the     2. Supporting detail
3. Constraints               basis for future project           3. Scope management plan
                             decisions including, in
4. Assumptions
                             particular, the criteria used to
                             determine if the project or
                             phase has been completed
                             successfully.‖


                                Tools and Techniques
                             1. Product analysis
                             2. Cost/Benefit analysis
                             3. Alternative identification
                             4. Expert judgment




                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning
                          Tools
                          •    Product analysis
                          •    Benefit/cost analysis
                          •    Alternatives identification
                          •    Expert judgment



                                                        Outputs
Inputs                                                  • Scope statement
•   Product description
•   Project charter                                     • Supporting detail
•   Constraints                                         • Scope management
•   Assumptions                                           plan


                              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning


                         Inputs
 • Product description – Contains the characteristics of
   the product or service in which the project will result
 • Project charter – Formally recognizes the existence of a
   project
 • Constraints – Factors that limit the project management
   team’s options regarding scope, staffing, and schedule
 • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will
   be considered to be true, real, or certain



                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning


          Tools & Techniques
   • Product analysis – Techniques to develop a
      better understanding of the product (e.g., systems
      engineering, value engineering, function analysis,
      quality function deployment)
   • Benefit/cost analysis – Estimating the tangible
      and intangible costs (or outlays) and the benefits (or
      returns) of various project alternatives
   • Alternative identification – Techniques used to
      generate different approaches to the project
         (e.g., brainstorming and lateral thinking)
   • Expert judgment
                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning


                       Outputs
   • Scope statement – Written statement of
     project. It contains:
       – Project objectives
       – Project justification
       – Project deliverables

   • Supporting detail – Supporting documentation
      containing identified requirements, plans,
      assumptions, and constraints


                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Scope Statement
                Purpose
• To provide a general description of the
  sum of the products and services to be
  provided by the project
• To develop a common understanding of
  project scope among stakeholders
• May make explicit some exclusions that,
  based on the audience, would be
  assumed to be part of the project
             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Planning


          Scope Management Plan
     Guidelines for how scope is to be
     managed and how scope changes are
     to be integrated into the project
             •It includes:
                  •An assessment of the stability of the
                  project scope
                  •A clear description of how scope
                  changes will be identified and
                  classified
                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 4-1
          Scope Statement


• Using the handout in your manual,
  develop a project scope statement
  based on the project charter developed
  in the initiating process exercise




             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                         Scope Definition
             Input                      Process                             Output
1. Scope statement          ―… subdividing the major project     1. Work breakdown structure
2. Constraints              deliverables (as identified in the
3. Assumptions              scope statement) into smaller
                            more manageable components
4. Other planning outputs
                            …‖
5. Historical information




                               Tools and Techniques
                            1. Work breakdown structure
                               templates
                            2. Decomposition




                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition
• Subdividing major project deliverables into
  manageable components, in order to
  improve the accuracy of cost, time, and
  resources estimates
• Provides a baseline and assigns
  responsibility
• A scope baseline is the original plan, plus
  or minus approved changes

               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition


                   Scope Definition
                             Tools
                             • WBS templates
                             • Decomposition



Inputs                                                     Outputs
•   Scope statement                                        • Work
•   Constraints                                              breakdown
•   Assumptions                                              structure
•   Other planning inputs                                  • Scope
•   Historical information                                   Statement
                                                             Update

                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition


                       Inputs
   • Scope statement
   • Constraints
   • Assumptions
   • Other planning outputs – Outputs of the
     processes in other knowledge areas should be
     reviewed for possible impact on project scope
     definition
   • Historical information – About previous projects
                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition
                   Tools & Techniques
      • WBS templates – Use a WBS from a previous
         project or a standard template to develop a WBS for
         this project

      • Decomposition – Subdividing major project
         deliverables into smaller, more manageable
         components until deliverables are defined in sufficient
         detail for supporting future project activities
           – Identify major elements of the project
           – For each element, decide if adequate cost and duration
             estimates can be developed at this level of detail
           – Identify constituent elements (e.g., tangible, verifiable
             results)
           – Verify the correctness of the decomposition – is it necessary
             and is it sufficient for completion of the item decomposed
                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Work Breakdown Structure
                (WBS)
• ―A deliverable oriented grouping of
  project elements which organizes and
  defines the total scope of the project.
• Each descending level represents an
  increasingly detailed definition of a
  project component.
• Project components may be products or
  services.‖
             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition

                   WBS Definition
                                             Deliverable oriented grouping
                                                 of project elements that
                                               organizes and defines the
                                                total scope of the project

 Hardware      Services       Data




                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
WBS Purpose
• To define:
      Solution strategy or general approach
      Implementation tactics

• To support more accurate estimates of project
  duration and cost than can be made at the project
  level
• To provide a basis for estimating project resources:
      Departmental or subcontractor support
      Vendors and their products
      Services
      Any other identifiable resource


                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition


                                   Typical WBS
                                                  Information
                                                    System
                                                 1.


       Project         Systems          Hardware            Software          Facilities         Training
   Management        Engineering       Acquisition       Development       Modifications      Development
   1.1              1.2               1.3                1.4               1.5                1.6


          Project         Product              CPU            Operating          Facility           Training
         Planning          Design         Acquisition          System              Plans              Plans
      1.1.1            1.2.1             1.3.1              1.4.1             1.5.1              1.6.1

          Project         Systems           Auxiliary         Database           Facility           Training
         Control        Integration       Equipment         1.4.2             Modification          Courses
      1.1.2            1.2.2             1.3.2                                1.5.2              1.6.2

          Project          Test &            Printer         Application         Facility
            Data        Evaluation        Acquisition       Development        Installation
      1.1.3            1.2.3             1.3.3              1.4.3             1.5.3




                                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition

                 Responsibility
               Assignment Matrix                                  Work
                                                               Breakdown




                   Functional
                   Organization




                                                                             Work
                                                                           Packages
                                                                              &
                                                                           Planning
                                                                           Packages




                                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Validate Your WBS
• All major elements been identified at top level?
• Decomposed into measurable components?
• Lower level(s) items necessary? All inclusive?
• Would stakeholders agree WBS is satisfactory?
• Can elements be scheduled, budgeted, and
  assigned to a unit that will accept responsibility?
• Too much or too little visibility and control ?
• Can status reports be generated at all levels?

                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Using the WBS to Estimate
                   Cost
• Project manager establishes work
  requirements by defining the
     What—―shalls‖ and ―wills‖
     When—sequence
     Why—dependencies

• Functional managers estimate cost by
  determining
     How—equipment and methods
     Who—type and level of expertise
     Where—location, department

                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scope Definition
                           WBS
      • Code of accounts – Uniquely identifies each
        element of the WBS

      • Work packages – A deliverable at the lowest
        level of the WBS

      • WBS dictionary – Includes work-package
        descriptions
                     Outputs
      • Work breakdown structure
      • Scope Statement Update
                    Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 4-2
  Work Breakdown Structure

• Using ―Post-it® Notes,‖ construct a
  WBS for your project or subproject
• Apply the WBS validation criteria
• Discuss any learning or insights with a
  classmate, including any learning from
  applying the WBS test criteria

              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Definition
• Identify the activities that must be
  performed to produce the project
  deliverables

• Define the activities that must be
  performed to meet the project
  objectives


              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                   Activity Definition
              Input                    Process                            Output
1. WBS                      ―Identifying the specific         1. Activity list
2. Scope statement          activities that must be           2. Supporting detail
3. Historical information   performed to produce the          3. WBS updates
                            various project deliverables.‖
4. Constraints
5. Assumptions
6. Expert Judgment




                               Tools and Techniques
                            1. Decomposition
                            2. Templates




                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Definition
                         Tools & Techniques
                         • Decomposition
                         • Templates




Inputs
•   WBS                                                        Outputs
•   Scope statement                                            • Activity list
•   Historical information                                     • Supporting detail
•   Constraints                                                • WBS updates
•   Assumptions
•   Expert Judgment
                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Definition


                         Inputs
    • WBS – Primary input to activity definition
    • Scope statement – Project justification and project
      objectives
    • Historical information – The activities that were actually
      required on previous, similar projects
    • Constraints – Factors that will limit the PM team’s
      options
    • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will
      be considered to be true, real, or certain
    • Expert Judgment


                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Definition


           Tools & Techniques
        • Decomposition – Subdividing project
          activities into smaller, more manageable
          components
        • Template – An activity list from a previous
          project or an activity list for a WBS element
          from the current project




                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Definition


                        Outputs
        • Activity list – A list of all the activities that
          will be performed on the project and a
          description of each

        • Supporting detail – Documentation that
          contributes to the process, including all
          identified assumptions and constraints

        • WBS updates – Refinements to the
          existing WBS

                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


Establishing the activity logic and the
dependencies needed to create a
realistic and achievable schedule




            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                  Activity Sequencing
            Input                          Process                           Output
1. Activity list                ―… identifying and                1. Project network diagrams
2. Product description          documenting interactivity         2. Activity list updates
3. Mandatory dependencies       dependencies.‖
4. Discretionary dependencies
5. External dependencies
6. Milestones




                                   Tools and Techniques
                                1. Precedence diagramming
                                   method (PDM)
                                2. Arrow diagramming method
                                   (ADM)
                                3. Conditional diagramming
                                   method
                                4. Network templates


                                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing
                                 Tools & Techniques
                                 • Precedence diagramming
                                   method (PDM)
                                 • Arrow diagramming
                                   method (ADM)
                                 • Conditional diagramming
                                   methods
                                 • Network templates
Inputs
•   Activity list                                              Outputs
•   Product description                                        • Project network diagram
•   Mandatory dependencies                                     • Activity list updates
•   Discretionary dependencies
•   External dependencies
•   Milestones
                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing
                              Inputs
      • Activity list
      • Product description – Product characteristics
        affect activity sequencing
      • Mandatory dependencies (Hard logic) –
        Determined by the qualities of work to be done
      • Discretionary dependencies (Soft logic) –
        Defined by the project management team
      • External dependencies – Relationships
        between project activities and non-project
        activities
      • Milestones
                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


         Tools & Techniques
       • Precedence diagramming method
         (PDM)
           – Nodes represent activities and arrows
             show dependencies
                      A               B

      Start                                             E   Finish


                      C              D
                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Precedence Diagramming
        Method




     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


        Activity Sequencing Process
        Finish-to-Start – Activity A must finish
        before Activity B can start
                      A                                     B

         Start-to-Start – Activity A must start
         before Activity B can start
                                      A                         B

                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


        Activity Sequencing Process
         Finish-to-Finish – Activity A must finish
         before Activity B can finish
                 A                            B

        Start-to-Finish – Activity A must start
        before Activity B can finish


                A                             B
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


         Tools and Techniques (cont.)
    •    Arrow diagramming method (ADM) – Uses
         arrows to represent activities and connecting
         nodes to show dependencies
             Start
                          A
                                                B
                      C
                                        D                       E
                                                                    Finish
        • ADM uses finish-to-start dependencies only and uses
          dummy activities to show logical relationships

                              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Arrow Diagramming Method




      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing


          Tools & Techniques (cont.)
        • Conditional diagramming methods –
          Diagramming techniques such as
          Graphical Evaluation and Review
          Technique (GERT) and System Dynamics
          models allow the depiction of non-
          sequential activities and conditional
          branches
        • Network templates – Can include an
          entire project or just a portion of it (i.e.,
          subnets and fragnets)
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Sequencing

                         Outputs

       • Project network diagram – Schematic
         display of project’s activities and
         dependencies

       • Activity list updates – Dividing or
         redefining activities so that the
         relationships are correctly diagrammed



                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Duration Estimating



  Estimating the number of work periods likely
      to be needed to complete each activity
• Elapsed time (Delay) – Work periods
  between the finish of one activity and the
  start of another activity


                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
              Activity Duration Estimating
            Input                      Process                               Output
1. Activity lists           ―… assessing the number of          1. Activity duration
2. Constraints              work periods likely to be           2. Basis of estimates
3. Assumptions              needed to complete each             3. Activity list updates
                            identified activity.‖
4. Resource requirements
5. Resource capabilities
6. Historical information
7. Identified risks


                               Tools and Techniques
                            1. Expert judgment
                            2. Analogous estimating
                            3. Quantitatively based durations
                            4. Reserve time (contingency)




                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Duration Estimating

                             Tools & Techniques
                             •   Expert judgment
                             •   Analogous estimating
                             •   Quantitatively based durations
                             •   Reserve time (contingency)
Inputs
•   Activity list
•   Constraints                                                Outputs
•   Assumptions                                                • Activity duration estimates
•   Resource requirements                                      • Basis of estimates
•   Resource capabilities                                      • Activity list updates
•   Historical information
•   Identified Risks

                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Duration Estimating
                                         Inputs
    • Activity list
    • Constraints
    • Assumptions
    • Resource requirements – Duration estimates are
      influenced by resource effort and assignments
    • Resource capabilities – Duration estimates are
      influenced by the capability of the people and the material
      resources assigned to them
    • Historical Information
       – Project files
       – Commercial duration estimating databases
       – Project team knowledge
    • Identified Risks
                               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Duration Estimating

                 Tools & Techniques

        • Expert judgment – Used with historical
          information
        • Analogous estimates (Top-down
          estimating) – Uses duration of a
          previous, similar activity as the basis for
          the of estimate of a future activity
        • Quantitatively based durations
        • Reserve time (contingency)



                               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Activity Duration Estimating



                                   Outputs
        • Duration estimates – Quantitative
          assessments of the likely number of work
          periods required to complete an activity

        • Basis of estimate – Documentation of the
          assumptions used for developing the
          estimates


        • Activity list updates
                               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Purpose


• Converts the project plan to an
  operating plan that is the basic tool for
  controlling project activities
  Benefits of a realistic schedule?



              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Benefits of a Realistic
                 Schedule
• Framework for managing critical project activities
• Determines planned start and completion dates
• Identifies activity and task precedence
  relationships
• Aids project team in defining critical
  communication content
• Specifies times when staff must be available
• No surprises
• Other?

                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key Scheduling Definitions
•   Network
•   Network techniques
•   Path
•   Node
•   Arc
•   Event
•   Activity

              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scheduling Techniques
 Activity on Arrow Example
                        B
Start   A                                     C

        D                                     F   Finish
                        E




            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Network Techniques
           AOA Example
• Activities specified on arrows
• Also called arrow diagramming method
  (ADM)
• Nodes show relationship
                  Result 1              Result 2                 Result 3
      Set up                 Work                    Finish
     Activity 1           Activity 2                Activity 3



                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scheduling Techniques
           Activity on Node
• Activity on node network format
     Arrows show precedence relationships
     Nodes show activities

• 3 types of precedence relationships
     Activity on node 1—successor but no
      predecessor
     Activity on node 2—predecessor and successor
     Activity on node 3—predecessor but no
      successor



                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Precedence Relationships
     Finish to Start

  The ―from‖ activity Task A
       must finish before
  the ―to‖ activity Task B can
               start
  Task A                                     Task B




           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Precedence Relationships
      Start to Start
                     Tasks A and B may start at the same
                     time, but the successor (B) cannot
     Task A          start until the predecessor (A)
                     begins.




                                                   Task B
The direction of the arrow defines
which task is the predecessor and
which is the successor.




                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Precedence Relationships
    Finish to Finish

     Task A


Tasks A and B may end at the same
time, but the successor (B) cannot               Task B
finish until the predecessor (A)
finishes




               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Precedence Relationships
     Start to Finish

     Task A




Task A must start before Task B can
finish (seldom used).
                                                     Task B




                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
PDM Example
       Diverging-Converging
             Activities
           Diverging                           Converging
            Activities                           Activities
       Single predecessor with            Multiple predecessors with
         multiple successors                   single successor



                    Paint Ceiling



                                            Paint Walls
Prep                 Paint Walls                                       Clean-up
                                            (2nd coat)


                     Paint Trim



                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Forward Pass Definitions
• Early Start Date (ES)
     Earliest possible point in time an activity can start, based on the
      network logic and any schedule constraints

• Duration (DU)
     Number of work periods, excluding holidays or other nonworking
      periods, required to complete the activity; expressed as workdays
      or workweeks

• Early Finish Date (EF)
     Earliest possible time the activity can finish

• Forward Pass
     Starting at the beginning (left) of the network develop early start
      and early finish dates for each task, progressing to end (right-most
      box) of the network

                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Forward Pass Calculation
                                                                    ES        DU         EF

                                                                             Task
EF = ES + DU – 1                                                    LS       Float       LF



                   3     DU = 2        4

                        Paint Trim


1   DU = 2   2     3     DU = 3        5                                 9     DU = 2    10

     Prep              Paint Ceiling                                          Clean-up



                   3     DU = 4        6   7      DU = 2        8

                       Paint Walls         Paint Walls (2nd Coat)




                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Task Identification
                 Forward Pass
Name                             Duration            ES   EF
Prep                                    2            1    2
Paint Trim                              2            3    4
Paint Ceiling                           3            3    5
Paint Walls                             4            3    6
Paint Walls (2nd Coat)                  2            7    8
Clean-up                                2            9    10

                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Backward Pass Definitions
• Late Start Date (LS)
     Latest point in time that an activity may begin without delaying that
      activity’s successor
     If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected
• Float or Slack
     Latest point in time a task may be delayed from its earliest start date
      without delaying the project finish date
• Late Finish (LF)
     Latest point in time a task may be completed without delaying that
      activity’s successor
     If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected
• Backward Pass
     Calculate late start and late finish dates by starting at project
      completion, using finish times and working backwards

                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Backward Pass Calculation




       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Task Identification
                Forward and Backward
                       Passes
Name                       Duration           ES           EF   LS   LF   Float

Prep                             2             1           2    1    2     0
Paint Trim                       2             3           4    7    8     4
Paint Ceiling                    3             3           5    6    8     3
Paint Walls                      4             3           6    3    6     0

Paint Walls (2nd Coat)           2             7           8    7    8     0
Clean-up                         2             9           10   9    10    0



                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Scheduling Techniques
             Bar/Gantt Chart
         Activity A


         Activity B


         Activity C


         Activity D


                      Jun      Jul        Aug       Sep       Oct    Nov

                                              Time
There are many other acceptable ways to display project information on a bar chart.


                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development



   Determining the start and finish dates
   of project activities
• If start and finish dates are not realistic, the
  project is unlikely to be finished on schedule



                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                  Schedule Development
             Input                          Process                             Output
1. Project network diagram       ―… determining start               1.   Project schedule
2. Activity duration estimates   and finish dates for               2.   Supporting detail
3. Resource requirements         project activities.‖               3.   Schedule management plan
4. Resource pool description                                        4.   Resource requirements
5. Calendars                                                             updates
6. Constraints
7. Assumptions
8. Leads and lags
9. Risk management plan
10. Activity attributes

                                    Tools and Techniques

                                  1. Mathematical analysis
                                  2. Duration compression
                                  3. Simulation
                                  4. Resource leveling heuristics
                                  5. Project management
                                        software
                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
                                  6. Coding structure
Schedule Development

                                Tools & Techniques
                                •   Mathematical analysis
                                •   Duration compression
                                •   Simulation
                                •   Resource-leveling heuristics
Inputs                          •   Project management software
•   Project network diagram     •   Coding structure
•   Activity duration estimates
•   Resource requirements
•   Resource-pool description
•   Calendars                                        Outputs
•   Constraints                                      • Project schedule
•   Assumptions                                      • Supporting detail
•   Leads and lags                                   • Schedule management plan
•                                                    •
    Risk Management Plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram IqbalResource-requirement updates
•   Activity Attributes
Schedule Development
                                Inputs
     • Project network diagram
     • Duration estimates
     • Resource requirements
     • Resource pool – Description of the available
       resources and the times they are available to
       work on the project
     • Calendars – Identify periods when work is
       allowed
         – Project calendars: Affect all resources
         – Resource calendars: Affect specific resources or
           categories of resources
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

                              Inputs
        • Constraints
            – Imposed dates
            – Key events or milestones
        • Assumptions
        • Leads and lags – Dependencies that
          require lead or lag values to accurately
          define the relationship
        • Risk Management Plan
        • Activity Attributes

                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development
                 Tools & Techniques
     • Mathematical analysis – Calculating
       theoretical early and late start and finish
       dates for all activities
        – Critical Path Method (CPM) – Calculates a single,
          deterministic early and late start and finish date for
          each activity, to be used to determine which
          activities must be completed on time to avoid
          impacting the finish date of the project

        – Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
          (GERT) – Allows for loops in the relationships
          between activities and for the conditional and
          probabilistic treatment of relationships
                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development


         Tools & Techniques (cont.)


       • Mathematical Analysis (cont.)
           – Program Evaluation and Review Technique
             (PERT) – Uses sequential network logic and a
             weighted-average duration estimate to
             calculate duration. Uses the probability of an
             estimate’s accuracy.



                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development


                 PERT Calculations

     • PERT – Program Evaluation and Review
       Technique

     • Expected Time = (Low + 4*Medium + High) / 6

     • Standard Deviation = (High – Low) / 6




                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development


                       PERT Example



                       Evening Commute
                 Optimistic time = 15 minutes
                 Most likely time = 30 minutes
                 Pessimistic time = 60 minutes
                  What is the Expected Time?

                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

           Tools & Techniques (cont.)
        – Duration compression – Looks for ways to shorten
          the schedule without changing the project scope

        – Simulation

        – Resource-leveling heuristics (Resource-based
          method) – Changing the schedule to accommodate
          resources

        – PM Software – Used to assist schedule development
          and to display schedule-development outputs

        – Coding Structure
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

                           Outputs
   • Project schedule – Includes planned start and
     expected finish dates for each activity

   • Supporting detail – Documentation of all
     identified assumptions and constraints

   • Schedule management plan – Defines how
     changes to the schedule will be managed

   • Resource requirement updates – Updates
     based on the results of resource leveling and on
     updates to activity lists
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

                    Network Calculation
     Start Date 6/1
                         6/6 6/10

                           B   5
         6/1 6/5                              6/16 6/25         6/26 6/30
                        6/11 6/15
           A    5          5                      D    10          E   5
         6/1 6/5         6/6 6/15              6/16 6/25        6/26 6/30
            0                                      0                0
                           C   10                            Finish Date 6/30
                        6/6 6/15
      Calculations          0
       Forward Pass – Determine early start and early finish dates
       Backward Pass – Determine late start and late finish dates and float

                           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development


                 Basic Terminology

   • Total float (Slack) – Amount of time an activity
     can be delayed and the project finish date not be
     effected


   • Free Float – Amount of time an activity can be
     delayed and the early start of the follow-on
     activity not be effected

                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

                       Gantt Charts
       • Bar chart – Displays activity start and end
         dates, as well as expected durations


       • Milestone chart – Displays scheduled start
         or completion of major deliverables


       • Combination chart – Displays events and
         activities as a function of time

                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Schedule Development

                 Typical Gantt Chart
     Activity
     Task A

     Task B

     Task C

     Task D
                       June July        Aug        Sep      Oct   Nov
                                        Time
                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key Scheduling Concepts


•   Master schedule
•   Crashing
•   Hanger
•   Workaround
•   Schedule variance

               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Milestone Chart




  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Exercise 4-3
        Project Milestones

• Identify the major milestones in your
  project




              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Resource Planning

Determining physical resources
needed      (i.e., material,
equipment, and people) and
number of resources required to
perform the project activities



         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                  Resource Planning
             Input                           Process                         Output
1. WBS                           ―… determining what               1. Resource requirements
2. Historical information        physical resources
3. Scope statement               (people, equipment,
4. Resource pool description     materials) and what
5. Organizational policies       quantities of each should
6. Activity Duration Estimates   be used to perform
                                 project activities.‖


                                    Tools and Techniques
                                 1. Expert judgment
                                 2. Alternatives identification
                                 3. Project management
                                 software




                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Resource Planning
                         Tools & Techniques
                         • Expert judgment
                         • Alternatives identification
                         • Project management software




Inputs
•   WBS                                                     Outputs
•   Historical information                                  • Resource requirements
•   Scope statement
•   Resource pool description
•   Organizational policies
•   Activity Duration Estimates
                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Resource Planning


                             Inputs
     • Work breakdown structure (WBS) – Identifies the project
       elements that require resources
     • Historical information – Used to identify the types of
       resources that were required for similar work on previous
       projects
     • Scope statement – Contains project justification and the
       project objectives, which need to be considered
     • Resource pool description – Description of resources
       available, if necessary, to work on a project
     • Organizational policies – Of the performing organization,
       regarding staffing and the rental and purchase of supplies
       and equipment
     • Activity Duration Estimates

                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Resource Planning


             Tools & Techniques
     • Expert judgment – Expertise, provided
       by any group or individual, used to
       assess the inputs to this process
         – Other units within organization
         – Consultants
         – Professional and technical associations
         – Industry groups
     • Alternatives identification
     • Project management software
                      Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Resource Planning


                     Outputs


        Resource requirements – Description
        of the types (e.g., skill levels) and
        numbers of resources required by each
        element of the WBS



                    Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating
Process of developing an approximation (or estimate)
for the cost of the resources necessary to complete
the project activities
• Difference between cost estimating and pricing:
   – Cost estimating: Assessing how much it will cost the
     organization to provide the product or service
   – Pricing: Assessing how much the organization will charge for
     the product or service

• Cost estimating also includes identifying and
  considering cost alternatives

                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                   Cost Estimating
             Input                           Process                          Output
1. WBS                           ―… developing an                   1. Cost estimates
2. Resource requirements         approximation (estimate of the     2. Supporting detail
3. Resource rates                costs of the resources needed      3. Cost management plan
                                 to complete project activities.‖
4. Activity duration estimates
5. Estimating Publications
6. Historical information
7. Chart of accounts
8. Risks

                                    Tools and Techniques
                                 1. Analogous estimating
                                 2. Parametric modeling
                                 3. Bottom-up estimating
                                 4. Computerized tools
                                 5. Other cost estimating
                                 methods



                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating
                        Tools & Techniques
                        •   Analogous estimating
                        •   Parametric modeling
                        •   Bottom-up estimating
                        •   Computerized tools
                        •   Other cost estimating methods


Inputs
•   WBS                                                     Outputs
•   Resource requirements                                   • Cost estimates
•   Resource rates                                          • Supporting detail
•   Activity duration estimates                             • Cost management plan
•   Estimating Publications
•   Historical information
•   Chart of accounts
•   Risks                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating


                                        Inputs
    •   WBS – Used to organize the cost estimates and to ensure that the cost of
        all identified work has been estimated
    •   Resource requirements
    •   Resource rates – Unit rates for each resource
    •   Activity duration estimates – Affects cost estimates if project budget
        includes an allowance for the cost of financing (i.e., interest)
    •   Historical Information – Information on the cost of resources
         –   Project files – Records of previous project results that are detailed enough to aid in
             developing cost estimates
         –   Commercial cost-estimating databases – Historical information available
             commercially
         –   Project team knowledge
    •   Estimating Publications
    •   Chart of accounts – Coding structure used by the organization to report
        financial information. Cost estimates must be assigned to the correct
        accounting category.
    •   Risks

                                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating


           Tools & Techniques
    • Analogous estimating (Expert judgment) – Used to
      estimate total project costs if there is a limited amount of
      detailed information
    • Parametric modeling – Using project characteristics (or
      parameters) in a mathematical model to predict costs
      (e.g., price per square foot)
    • Bottom-up estimating – Estimating the cost of individual
      work items and then rolling up the costs to arrive at a
      project total
    • Computerized tools – PM software and spreadsheets
    • Other Cost Estimating Methods


                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating


                            Outputs
    • Cost estimates – Quantitative assessments of the cost of
      resources (e.g., units of currency or staff hours)
    • Types of estimates
        –    Order of magnitude          (-25% / +75%)
        –    Budget estimate             (-10% / +25%)
        –    Definitive estimate         (-5% / +10%)
    • Supporting detail
        –   Description of estimated scope of work
        –   Documentation of the basis for the estimate
        –   Documentation of any assumptions made
        –   Range of possible results


                           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Estimating


                  Outputs (cont.)

    • Cost management plan
        – Describes how cost variances will be
          managed
        – Part of the overall project plan




                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Budgeting

Allocating the value of the overall cost
estimate to individual work items, in
order to establish a cost baseline to use
in measuring project performance




            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                    Cost Budgeting
            Input                    Process                           Output
1. Cost estimates         ―… allocating the overall cost    1. Cost baseline
2. WBS                    estimates to individual work
3. Project schedule       items in order to establish a
                          cost baseline for measuring
4. Risk management plan
                          project performance.‖




                             Tools and Techniques
                          1. Cost budgeting Tools &
                          Techniques




                          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Budgeting

                       Tools & Techniques
                       • Cost-estimating
                         tools and techniques




Inputs
•   Cost estimates                                       Outputs
•   WBS                                                  • Cost baseline
•   Project schedule
•   Risk management plan

                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Budgeting


                     Inputs
  • Cost estimates
  • WBS – Identifies the project elements to
    which the costs will be allocated
  • Project schedule – Used to assign costs to
    project elements for the time period when
    costs will be incurred
  • Risk Management Plan


                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Budgeting


          Tools & Techniques
  • Cost estimating tools and
    techniques
      – Analogous estimating
      – Parametric modeling
      – Bottom-up estimating
      – Computerized tools
                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Cost Budgeting


                                  Outputs
    Cost baseline – Time phased budget that
    will be used to measure and monitor the cost
    performance of the project
                     140
                     120
                     100
         BCWS ($K)




                     80
                     60
                     40
                     20
                      0
                           Jan     Feb         Mar        Apr      May   Jun
                                              Reporting Period
                                 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development



Taking the results of other planning
 processes and putting them into a
   consistent, coherent document



           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Planning Processes
                  Project Plan Development
             Input                      Process                            Output
1. Other planning outputs    ―… taking the results of other    1. Project plan
2. Historical information    planning processes and putting    2. Supporting detail
3. Organizational policies   them into a consistent,
                             coherent document.‖
4. Constraints
5. Assumptions




                                Tools and Techniques
                             1. Project planning
                                   methodology
                             2. Stakeholder’s skills and
                                   knowledge
                             3. Project management
                                   information systems
                             4. Earned value management
                                   (EVM)
                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development
                               Tools & Techniques
                               • Project planning
                                  methodology
                               • Stakeholder skills
                                 and knowledge
                               • Project management
                                 information system
Inputs                         • Earned value management
•   Other planning outputs
•   Historical information
•   Organizational policies                                     Outputs
•   Constraints                                                 • Project plan
•   Assumptions                                                 • Supporting detail


                              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development


                                 Inputs
     • Other planning outputs from the other knowledge
       areas – They include base documents, as well as the supporting
        detail
     • Historical information – Estimating databases and records of
        past project performance
     • Organizational policies – Any and all of the organization’s
       formal and informal policies. These include QM process audits,
        continuous-improvement targets, personnel-hiring and -firing
        guidelines, employee-performance reviews, and financial controls
     • Constraints – Any factors that will limit the project team’s options
     • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be
        considered to be true, real, or certain

                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development


               Tools & Techniques
     • Project planning methodology – Structured
        approach used to guide the development of the
        project plan
     • Stakeholder skills and knowledge – Create
        an environment in which stakeholders can contribute
        appropriately
     • Project management information system –
        Consists of the automated and manual tools and
        techniques used to gather, integrate, and
        disseminate information and outputs from other PM
        processes
     • Earned Value Management
                           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development


                             Outputs
     • Project plan – The formal, approved document
        used to manage and control project execution
     • Supporting detail
         – Outputs from other planning processes
         – Additional information or documentation generated
           during development of the project plan
         – Technical documentation
         – Documentation of relevant standards



                           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Development


                           Project Plan
     • Includes:
         –   Project charter
         –   PM approach or strategy
         –   Scope statement
         –   Work breakdown structure (WBS)
         –   Cost estimates
         –   Schedule
         –   Performance measurement baselines
         –   Major milestones and target dates
         –   Key or required staff
         –   Key risks
         –   Open issues and pending decisions

                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Facilitating Planning
              Processes
•   Quality planning
•   Communications planning
•   Organizational planning
•   Staff acquisition
•   Procurement planning
•   Solicitation planning
•   Risk identification
•   Qualitative risk analysis
•   Quantitative risk analysis
•   Risk response planning

                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Facilitating Planning
     Processes




     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Sample Planning Activities
• Subdividing deliverables into manageable
  components
• Allocating overall cost estimate to individual
  work items
• Identifying the specific activities people must
  perform to produce the project deliverables
• Identifying the sequence and duration of
  activities
• Determining project roles and responsibilities
• Other?
                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Key Outputs of Planning
               Processes
            The Project Plan
 Schedules                         Cost management plan
 Budgets                           Cost baseline
 Risk management plan              Scope statement
 Quality plan                      Work breakdown structure
 Staffing plan                     Plan updates
 Procurement plan                  Resource requirements
 Schedule management plan          Communications plan


                  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 5:
EXECUTING
PROJECTS


 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 5: Executing Projects

Upon completion, you will be able to …
• Describe the purposes of the executing
  processes
• Identify the inputs and outputs of its core
  processes
• List the major tools and techniques


              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Management Process
                        Groups
Commitment to        Approach to
executing project    executing project
      Initiating                 Planning
                                                             Coordinating
      Processes                 Processes
                                                              people and
                                                            other resources
             Controlling                          Executing
             Processes                            Processes
Monitoring, measuring, and
taking corrective action         Closing                 Formal product
                                Processes                acceptance and
                                                         end of project
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Purpose

• To coordinate, integrate, and manage all resources
  Why?
• in order to achieve the project objectives
  How?
• by carrying out the letter and intent of the project plan
  While
• responding to change and mitigating risks


                   Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Execution



 Carrying out the project plan by
performing activities identified in the
            document



          Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Execution Process
                       Project Plan Execution
             Input                       Process                          Output
1. Project plan              ―… the primary process for        1. Work results
2. Supporting detail         carrying out the project plan.‖   2. Change requests
3. Organizational policies
4. Preventive action
5. Corrective action




                                  Tools and Techniques
                             1. General management skills
                             2. Product skills and knowledge
                             3. Work authorization system
                             4. Status review meetings
                             5. Project management
                                information system
                             6. Organizational procedures

                             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Execution
                              Tools & Techniques
                              • General management skills
                              • Product skills and
                                knowledge
                              • Work-authorization system
                              • Status review meetings
                              • PM information system
                              • Organizational procedures

Inputs
•   Project plan
                                                                 Outputs
•   Supporting detail
                                                                 • Work results
•   Organizational policies
                                                                 • Change requests
•   Preventive action
•   Corrective action
                               Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Execution


                              Inputs

      •   Project plan
      •   Supporting detail
      •   Organizational policies
      •   Preventive action
      •   Corrective action
          – Anything done to bring future performance in line
            with the project plan
          – Output of the various control processes

                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Execution


                Tools & Techniques
      • General management skills – Leadership,
         communication, negotiation skills, etc.
      • Product skills and knowledge – Skills are part of
         resource-planning and staff-acquisition processes
      • Work-authorization system – Formal procedure for
         approving project work; source of written authorization to begin
         work on a specific activity or work package
      • Status-review meetings – Regularly scheduled meetings
         to exchange information about the project
      • Project management information system
      • Organizational procedures – Both formal and informal
         procedures that might be useful during project execution

                            Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Plan Execution


                           Outputs


      • Work results – Outcomes of activities performed
         in order to accomplish the project; fed into the
         performance reporting process


      • Change request – A request to expand or
         contract project scope, budget, schedule, or
         resources


                         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Facilitating Execution
             Processes
•   Quality assurance
•   Team development
•   Information distribution
•   Solicitation
•   Source selection
•   Contract administration


                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Facilitating Execution
      Processes




     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Sample Executing Activities
• Managing work results and requests for
  change
• Using tools and techniques in project plan
  implementation
• Building effective relationships with vendors
  and project team members
• Choosing from potential sellers
• Distributing status information in time for
  stakeholders to act
• Other?
                Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
UNIT 6:
CONTROLLING
 PROJECTS


  Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Unit 6: Controlling Projects

Upon completion, you will be able to …
• Describe the purposes of the controlling
  processes
• Identify the inputs and outputs of the core
  controlling processes
• List and define the major tools and
  techniques

              Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Project Management Process
                        Groups
Commitment to        Approach to
executing project    executing project
      Initiating                 Planning
                                                             Coordinating
      Processes                 Processes
                                                              people and
                                                            other resources
             Controlling                          Executing
             Processes                            Processes
Monitoring, measuring, and
taking corrective action         Closing                 Formal product
                                Processes                acceptance and
                                                         end of project
                       Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Purpose
    To keep the project on track in order to achieve its
    objectives as outlined in the project plan by:

•   Monitoring and reporting variances
•   Controlling scope changes
•   Controlling schedule changes
•   Controlling costs
•   Controlling quality
•   Responding to risks


                     Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Overview




Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Performance Reporting

Collecting and disseminating performance
information

• This includes status reporting, progress
  measurement, and forecasting
• Provides information on scope, schedule,
  cost, and quality, and possibly on risk and
  procurement
             Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Core Controlling Processes
                   Performance Reporting
             Input                      Process                         Output
1. Project plan            ―… collecting and disseminating   1. Performance reports
2. Work results            performance information. This     2. Change requests
3. Other project records   includes status reporting,
                           progress measurements, and
                           forecasting.‖




                                Tools and Techniques
                           1.   Performance reviews
                           2.   Variance analysis
                           3.   Trend analysis
                           4.   Earned value analysis
                           5.   Information distribution
                                systems



                           Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Performance Reporting


                             Inputs
    • Project plan – Contains the various
      baselines used to assess project
      performance
    • Work results – Accurate information on
      project status, such as information about fully,
      or partially, completed tasks and costs
      incurred or committed
    • Other project records – Any information
      pertaining to the project context
                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Performance Reporting


             Tools & Techniques
    • Performance reviews – Meetings held to assess
      project status or progress
    • Variance analysis – Comparing actual project
      results to planned or expected results
    • Trend analysis – Examining project results over
      time to determine if performance is improving or
      deteriorating
    • Earned-value analysis – Integrating scope,
      cost, and schedule measures to assess project
      performance
    • Information-distribution tools and techniques
                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Performance Reporting


                          Outputs
    • Performance report – Organizes and
      summarizes the information gathered and
      presents the results of any analysis. Reports
      should provide the kinds of information and
      the level of detail required by various
      stakeholders and documented in the
      communications management plan

    • Change requests – Requests for changes to
      some aspect of the project

                        Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
Overall Change Control



Coordinating changes across the
          entire project




         Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
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Project Managment Framework

  • 1. Building professionalism in project management. TM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 2. A Framework for Project Management The Project Management Institute Education Department Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 3. A Framework for Project Management Units 1. Introduction and Key Concepts6. Controlling Projects 2. Project Life Cycle Models 7. Closing Projects 3. Initiating Projects 8. Organizational Impacts 4. Planning Projects 9. Overview of Knowledge Areas 5. Executing Projects 10. Role of the Project Manager Additional materials A. Seminar Evaluation Forms B. Exercises C. Resources for Project Management Professional Candidates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 4. UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION AND KEY CONCEPTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 5. Unit 1: Introduction and Key Concepts Upon completion, you will be able to … • Define key PM concepts • List the reasons why PM is needed • Explain the difference between projects and operations • Identify trends in the PM environment • List project success and failure factors • Identify potential benefits of PM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 6. Key PM Concepts from the PMBOK® Guide The Project Management Body of Knowledge Generally Accepted Project Management Knowledge and Practice General Management Application Knowledge Area Knowledge and Practice and Practice This figure is a conceptual view of these relationships. The overlaps shown are Iqbal Prepared by: Syed Khurram not proportional.
  • 7. Why Do We Need Project Management?* • Exponential expansion of human knowledge • Global demand for goods and services • Global competition • Above requires the use of teams versus individuals * Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 8. Project and Statement of Work (SOW) • A project is ―a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.‖ • A SOW is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 9. Project Management ―The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 10. PM Environment Discussion Question • What are some trends that impact the environment in which projects are managed today? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 11. Accelerating Trends • Corporate globalization • Massive mergers and reorganizations • Flatter organizations • Short-term results driven Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 12. Accelerating Trends (continued) • Team environment • Contract PM and outsourcing • Primacy of interpersonal skills • Multinational projects • Importance of cultural differences • Dependence on technology Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 13. A Balancing Act Schedule requirements cost The Project Risk Risk Customer Business Expectation Objective Source: William Gendron, presentation at 1998 PMI Global Forum Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 14. A Balanced Project Time Cost Scope Quality Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 15. Expectation and Objective Congruency Client/Customer Expectations Low High Customer wants more than the Low OK organization intends to provide. Business Objectives Business needs High more from the project OK than the customer. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 16. Contrast Projects and Operations Discussion Question • How are ―projects‖ different from ―operations‖? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 17. Contrast Projects and Operations Projects Operations • Create own charter, • Semi-permanent organization, and goals charter, • Catalyst for change organization, and goals • Unique product or service • Maintains status quo • Heterogeneous teams • Standard product or service • Start and end date • Homogeneous teams Prepared by: Syed • Ongoing Khurram Iqbal
  • 18. Exercise 1-1 PM Pitfalls and Pluses • Looking back on projects with which you were associated, what were the top three factors that caused serious problems? • That created a perception of success? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 19. Common Pitfalls • Unclear objectives • Lack of senior management support • Lack of effective project integration • Inadequate funding • Change in business priorities • Original assumptions invalid • Ineffective team • Lack of effective communication processes • Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 20. Factors Affecting Project Success • Coordination and relations • Adequacy of structure and control • Project uniqueness, importance, and public exposure • Success criteria salience and consensus • Competitive and budgetary pressure • Initial over-optimism, conceptual difficulty • Internal capabilities buildup Source: NASA study, ―Determination of Project Success,‖ 1974, by David C. Murphy, Bruce N. Baker, and Dalmar Fisher Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 21. Potential Benefits of PM for the Organization • Improved control • Improved project support opportunities • Improved performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 22. Potential Benefits of PM for You • Recognition of PM as a profession • Future source of company leaders • High visibility of project results • Growth opportunities • Build your reputation and network • Portable skills and experience Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 23. Integration Management Cost Time Integration Quality Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 24. Summary • Defined key PM concepts • Described why PM is needed • Explained difference between projects and operations • Identified trends in the PM environment • Discussed project success and failure factors • Identified potential benefits of PM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 25. UNIT 2: PROJECT LIFE CYCLE MODELS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 26. Unit 2: Project Life Cycle Models Upon completion, you will be able to … • List the purpose and types of project life cycle models • Distinguish between project and product life cycle • Define the role of phase reviews in PM • Apply a model to a hypothetical and a real project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 27. Key Concepts • Project phase: ―A collection of logically related project activities usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable.‖ • Project life cycle: ―Collectively the project phases are known as the project life cycle.‖ • Product life cycle: The natural grouping of ideas, decisions, and actions into product phases, from product conception to operations to product phase-out. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 28. Generic Cost and Staffing Life Cycle Cost and Intermediate Phases Staffing (one or more) Level Initial Final Phase Phase Start Finish Time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 29. Project Life Cycle Example Phases Concept and Proposal Development Implementation Verification Termination Initial Phase Intermediate Phases Final Phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 30. Pharmaceutical Project Life Cycle Model Process Development Formulation Stability Screening Preclinical A Lead IND File Phase I Phase II Phase III File P Identified Workup Clinical Clinical Clinical NDA P Drug Sourcing IND Tests Tests Tests Postregistration Activity R O V A Metabolism L Patent Process Toxicology Preclinical Discovery Screening Development Registration(s) Workup Postsubmission Activity Ten Plus Years Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 31. Spiral Methodology Evaluate Identify Deploy Operations and Production Support Test Unit Requirements Evaluation Subsystem Requirements Evaluation System Requirements Risk Analysis Business Requirements Proof of Conceptual Concept Design First Logical Build Design Second Physical Build Design Final Final Build Design Construct Design Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 32. Importance of Phase Reviews Requirements Review Proposal General Design Review Preparation Requirements Detailed Design Review Analysis General Design Unit Test Detailed Design Code and Debug Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 33. Phase Initiation Example Detailed Design Phase • Ensure correctness and completeness of previous phase, e.g., general design phase  Assess all aspects of requirements, design approach, and deliverables  Identify and work off items • Determine contractor rewards/payment for closing phase • Conduct a readiness review to begin next phase, e.g., detailed design phase  Resource estimates and availability  Design maturity  Project plan review and update • Secure stakeholder approval to proceed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 34. Exercise 2-1 Project Life Cycle Model • Divide a current project on which you are working into phases, name them, and write a brief statement of purpose for each phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 35. Summary • Explained the concept and purpose of project life cycles • Defined the role of phase reviews in PM • Described life cycle models • Differentiated project life cycle and product life cycle • Applied a model to hypothetical and real projects Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 37. Unit 3: Initiating Projects Upon completion, you will be able to … • List the main functions of each PM process group • Describe the purpose of the initiation process • Identify its inputs and outputs, tools and techniques • Develop a sample project charter • Give an example of how process groups can apply to the project as a whole or to a project phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 38. Process Definition • ―A series of actions people take to bring about a desired result.‖ • Types of processes  Project management processes  Product-oriented processes  Business-oriented processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 39. Project Management Process Groups Commitment to Approach to executing project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes Processes Monitoring, measuring, and taking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 40. Process Interactions • Inputs • Tools and techniques • Outputs • Taxonomy Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 41. Process Group Overview Initiating Processes To the Planning 5.1 Processes Initiation (Figure 3–5) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 42. Scope Initiation Initiation 1. Formal authorization that the project exists 2. Recognition the project should continue into the next phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 43. Purpose of Initiation Process 1. To commit the organization to a project or phase 2. To set the overall solution direction 3. To define top-level project objectives 4. To secure the necessary approvals and resources 5. Validate alignment with strategic objectives 6. To assign a project manager Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 44. Initiating Core Process—Initiation Input Process Output 1. Product description ―Initiation is the process of 1. Project charter 2. Strategic plan formally recognizing that a new 2. Project manager identified/ 3. Project selection criteria project exists or that an existing assigned project should continue into its 3. Constraints 4. Historical information next phase.‖ 4. Assumptions Tools and Techniques 1. Project selection methods 2. Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 45. Scope Initiation Initiation Tools • Project selection methods • Expert judgement Outputs Inputs • Project charter • Product description • PM assigned • Strategic plan • Constraints • Selection criteria • Assumptions • Historical information Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 46. Scope Initiation Inputs • Product description – Documents characteristics of the product or service and its relationship to a business need • Strategic plan – Describes the organization’s mission, vision, and goals for the future, which the project supports • Project selection criteria – Defined in terms of the product and covers the full range of management concerns • Historical information – Results of previous project decisions and performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 47. Scope Initiation Tools & Techniques • Project selection methods (Decision models) – Benefit-measurement methods – Comparative approaches; scoring models; benefit-contribution and economic models – Constrained optimization methods – Mathematical models using linear, dynamic, integer, and multi- objective programming algorithms • Expert judgment – Experts with specialized knowledge or training assess the inputs to this process Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 48. Scope Initiation Outputs • Project charter • Project manager selected • Constraints – Factors that limit the project management team’s options regarding scope, staffing, and schedule • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 49. Project Charter ―A document issued by senior management that provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 50. Scope Initiation Project Charter • Formally recognizes the existence of a project • Refers to the business need the project is addressing • Describes the product to be delivered • Gives the project manager the authority to apply resources to the project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 51. Project Charter Content • Business need • Project objectives • Project deliverables • Assumptions • Constraints • Key staff • Written authorization Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 52. Exercise 3-1 Project Charter • Using the handout, complete the sample project charter • Assume you are the project manager • As an example, choose an anticipated major project assignment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 53. Sample Initiating Activities • Negotiate, write, and refine the project charter • Confirm how the project links to the business need • Identify management responsibilities • Identify geographic locations involved • Test top-level objectives versus strategic business plans • Make strategic procurement decisions, e.g., make, buy, or identify qualified vendors Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 54. Key Outputs of Initiation Process • Project charter • Project manager identified/assigned • Other key positions identified/assigned • Constraints identified • Assumptions identified Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 56. Unit 4: Planning Projects Upon completion, you will be able to … • Describe the purposes of the planning processes • Identify the inputs and outputs of core planning processes • Describe the function and develop sample planning deliverables such as a scope statement, WBS, and milestone chart • List the major tools and techniques used in the core planning processes • Identify the planning facilitating processes and their functions Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 57. Planning Process Group Initiating Planning Processes Processes Executing Controlling Processes Processes Closing Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 58. Project Management Process Groups Commitment to Approach to executing project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes Processes Monitoring, measuring, and taking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 59. Purpose of Planning Processes To develop a project plan that: • Facilitates later accomplishment* • Ensures project wide integration • Monitors change effectively • Provides decision support information to stakeholders • Can be updated by iterative planning activities * Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 60. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 61. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 62. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 63. Scope Planning A written statement that includes: • Project justification, the major deliverables, and the project objectives • Criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been successfully completed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 64. Core Planning Processes Scope Planning Input Process Output 1. Product description "… the process of developing a 1. Scope statement 2. Project charter written scope statement as the 2. Supporting detail 3. Constraints basis for future project 3. Scope management plan decisions including, in 4. Assumptions particular, the criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been completed successfully.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Product analysis 2. Cost/Benefit analysis 3. Alternative identification 4. Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 65. Scope Planning Tools • Product analysis • Benefit/cost analysis • Alternatives identification • Expert judgment Outputs Inputs • Scope statement • Product description • Project charter • Supporting detail • Constraints • Scope management • Assumptions plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 66. Scope Planning Inputs • Product description – Contains the characteristics of the product or service in which the project will result • Project charter – Formally recognizes the existence of a project • Constraints – Factors that limit the project management team’s options regarding scope, staffing, and schedule • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 67. Scope Planning Tools & Techniques • Product analysis – Techniques to develop a better understanding of the product (e.g., systems engineering, value engineering, function analysis, quality function deployment) • Benefit/cost analysis – Estimating the tangible and intangible costs (or outlays) and the benefits (or returns) of various project alternatives • Alternative identification – Techniques used to generate different approaches to the project (e.g., brainstorming and lateral thinking) • Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 68. Scope Planning Outputs • Scope statement – Written statement of project. It contains: – Project objectives – Project justification – Project deliverables • Supporting detail – Supporting documentation containing identified requirements, plans, assumptions, and constraints Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 69. Project Scope Statement Purpose • To provide a general description of the sum of the products and services to be provided by the project • To develop a common understanding of project scope among stakeholders • May make explicit some exclusions that, based on the audience, would be assumed to be part of the project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 70. Scope Planning Scope Management Plan Guidelines for how scope is to be managed and how scope changes are to be integrated into the project •It includes: •An assessment of the stability of the project scope •A clear description of how scope changes will be identified and classified Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 71. Exercise 4-1 Scope Statement • Using the handout in your manual, develop a project scope statement based on the project charter developed in the initiating process exercise Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 72. Core Planning Processes Scope Definition Input Process Output 1. Scope statement ―… subdividing the major project 1. Work breakdown structure 2. Constraints deliverables (as identified in the 3. Assumptions scope statement) into smaller more manageable components 4. Other planning outputs …‖ 5. Historical information Tools and Techniques 1. Work breakdown structure templates 2. Decomposition Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 73. Scope Definition • Subdividing major project deliverables into manageable components, in order to improve the accuracy of cost, time, and resources estimates • Provides a baseline and assigns responsibility • A scope baseline is the original plan, plus or minus approved changes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 74. Scope Definition Scope Definition Tools • WBS templates • Decomposition Inputs Outputs • Scope statement • Work • Constraints breakdown • Assumptions structure • Other planning inputs • Scope • Historical information Statement Update Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 75. Scope Definition Inputs • Scope statement • Constraints • Assumptions • Other planning outputs – Outputs of the processes in other knowledge areas should be reviewed for possible impact on project scope definition • Historical information – About previous projects Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 76. Scope Definition Tools & Techniques • WBS templates – Use a WBS from a previous project or a standard template to develop a WBS for this project • Decomposition – Subdividing major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until deliverables are defined in sufficient detail for supporting future project activities – Identify major elements of the project – For each element, decide if adequate cost and duration estimates can be developed at this level of detail – Identify constituent elements (e.g., tangible, verifiable results) – Verify the correctness of the decomposition – is it necessary and is it sufficient for completion of the item decomposed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 77. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • ―A deliverable oriented grouping of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of the project. • Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of a project component. • Project components may be products or services.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 78. Scope Definition WBS Definition Deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total scope of the project Hardware Services Data Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 79. WBS Purpose • To define:  Solution strategy or general approach  Implementation tactics • To support more accurate estimates of project duration and cost than can be made at the project level • To provide a basis for estimating project resources:  Departmental or subcontractor support  Vendors and their products  Services  Any other identifiable resource Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 80. Scope Definition Typical WBS Information System 1. Project Systems Hardware Software Facilities Training Management Engineering Acquisition Development Modifications Development 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Project Product CPU Operating Facility Training Planning Design Acquisition System Plans Plans 1.1.1 1.2.1 1.3.1 1.4.1 1.5.1 1.6.1 Project Systems Auxiliary Database Facility Training Control Integration Equipment 1.4.2 Modification Courses 1.1.2 1.2.2 1.3.2 1.5.2 1.6.2 Project Test & Printer Application Facility Data Evaluation Acquisition Development Installation 1.1.3 1.2.3 1.3.3 1.4.3 1.5.3 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 81. Scope Definition Responsibility Assignment Matrix Work Breakdown Functional Organization Work Packages & Planning Packages Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 82. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 83. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 84. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 85. Validate Your WBS • All major elements been identified at top level? • Decomposed into measurable components? • Lower level(s) items necessary? All inclusive? • Would stakeholders agree WBS is satisfactory? • Can elements be scheduled, budgeted, and assigned to a unit that will accept responsibility? • Too much or too little visibility and control ? • Can status reports be generated at all levels? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 86. Using the WBS to Estimate Cost • Project manager establishes work requirements by defining the  What—―shalls‖ and ―wills‖  When—sequence  Why—dependencies • Functional managers estimate cost by determining  How—equipment and methods  Who—type and level of expertise  Where—location, department Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 87. Scope Definition WBS • Code of accounts – Uniquely identifies each element of the WBS • Work packages – A deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS • WBS dictionary – Includes work-package descriptions Outputs • Work breakdown structure • Scope Statement Update Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 88. Exercise 4-2 Work Breakdown Structure • Using ―Post-it® Notes,‖ construct a WBS for your project or subproject • Apply the WBS validation criteria • Discuss any learning or insights with a classmate, including any learning from applying the WBS test criteria Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 89. Activity Definition • Identify the activities that must be performed to produce the project deliverables • Define the activities that must be performed to meet the project objectives Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 90. Core Planning Processes Activity Definition Input Process Output 1. WBS ―Identifying the specific 1. Activity list 2. Scope statement activities that must be 2. Supporting detail 3. Historical information performed to produce the 3. WBS updates various project deliverables.‖ 4. Constraints 5. Assumptions 6. Expert Judgment Tools and Techniques 1. Decomposition 2. Templates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 91. Activity Definition Tools & Techniques • Decomposition • Templates Inputs • WBS Outputs • Scope statement • Activity list • Historical information • Supporting detail • Constraints • WBS updates • Assumptions • Expert Judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 92. Activity Definition Inputs • WBS – Primary input to activity definition • Scope statement – Project justification and project objectives • Historical information – The activities that were actually required on previous, similar projects • Constraints – Factors that will limit the PM team’s options • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain • Expert Judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 93. Activity Definition Tools & Techniques • Decomposition – Subdividing project activities into smaller, more manageable components • Template – An activity list from a previous project or an activity list for a WBS element from the current project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 94. Activity Definition Outputs • Activity list – A list of all the activities that will be performed on the project and a description of each • Supporting detail – Documentation that contributes to the process, including all identified assumptions and constraints • WBS updates – Refinements to the existing WBS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 95. Activity Sequencing Establishing the activity logic and the dependencies needed to create a realistic and achievable schedule Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 96. Core Planning Processes Activity Sequencing Input Process Output 1. Activity list ―… identifying and 1. Project network diagrams 2. Product description documenting interactivity 2. Activity list updates 3. Mandatory dependencies dependencies.‖ 4. Discretionary dependencies 5. External dependencies 6. Milestones Tools and Techniques 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM) 2. Arrow diagramming method (ADM) 3. Conditional diagramming method 4. Network templates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 97. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques • Precedence diagramming method (PDM) • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) • Conditional diagramming methods • Network templates Inputs • Activity list Outputs • Product description • Project network diagram • Mandatory dependencies • Activity list updates • Discretionary dependencies • External dependencies • Milestones Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 98. Activity Sequencing Inputs • Activity list • Product description – Product characteristics affect activity sequencing • Mandatory dependencies (Hard logic) – Determined by the qualities of work to be done • Discretionary dependencies (Soft logic) – Defined by the project management team • External dependencies – Relationships between project activities and non-project activities • Milestones Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 99. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques • Precedence diagramming method (PDM) – Nodes represent activities and arrows show dependencies A B Start E Finish C D Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 100. Precedence Diagramming Method Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 101. Activity Sequencing Activity Sequencing Process Finish-to-Start – Activity A must finish before Activity B can start A B Start-to-Start – Activity A must start before Activity B can start A B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 102. Activity Sequencing Activity Sequencing Process Finish-to-Finish – Activity A must finish before Activity B can finish A B Start-to-Finish – Activity A must start before Activity B can finish A B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 103. Activity Sequencing Tools and Techniques (cont.) • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) – Uses arrows to represent activities and connecting nodes to show dependencies Start A B C D E Finish • ADM uses finish-to-start dependencies only and uses dummy activities to show logical relationships Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 104. Arrow Diagramming Method Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 105. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques (cont.) • Conditional diagramming methods – Diagramming techniques such as Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) and System Dynamics models allow the depiction of non- sequential activities and conditional branches • Network templates – Can include an entire project or just a portion of it (i.e., subnets and fragnets) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 106. Activity Sequencing Outputs • Project network diagram – Schematic display of project’s activities and dependencies • Activity list updates – Dividing or redefining activities so that the relationships are correctly diagrammed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 107. Activity Duration Estimating Estimating the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each activity • Elapsed time (Delay) – Work periods between the finish of one activity and the start of another activity Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 108. Core Planning Processes Activity Duration Estimating Input Process Output 1. Activity lists ―… assessing the number of 1. Activity duration 2. Constraints work periods likely to be 2. Basis of estimates 3. Assumptions needed to complete each 3. Activity list updates identified activity.‖ 4. Resource requirements 5. Resource capabilities 6. Historical information 7. Identified risks Tools and Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Analogous estimating 3. Quantitatively based durations 4. Reserve time (contingency) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 109. Activity Duration Estimating Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment • Analogous estimating • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time (contingency) Inputs • Activity list • Constraints Outputs • Assumptions • Activity duration estimates • Resource requirements • Basis of estimates • Resource capabilities • Activity list updates • Historical information • Identified Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 110. Activity Duration Estimating Inputs • Activity list • Constraints • Assumptions • Resource requirements – Duration estimates are influenced by resource effort and assignments • Resource capabilities – Duration estimates are influenced by the capability of the people and the material resources assigned to them • Historical Information – Project files – Commercial duration estimating databases – Project team knowledge • Identified Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 111. Activity Duration Estimating Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment – Used with historical information • Analogous estimates (Top-down estimating) – Uses duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for the of estimate of a future activity • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time (contingency) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 112. Activity Duration Estimating Outputs • Duration estimates – Quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity • Basis of estimate – Documentation of the assumptions used for developing the estimates • Activity list updates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 113. Schedule Purpose • Converts the project plan to an operating plan that is the basic tool for controlling project activities Benefits of a realistic schedule? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 114. Benefits of a Realistic Schedule • Framework for managing critical project activities • Determines planned start and completion dates • Identifies activity and task precedence relationships • Aids project team in defining critical communication content • Specifies times when staff must be available • No surprises • Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 115. Key Scheduling Definitions • Network • Network techniques • Path • Node • Arc • Event • Activity Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 116. Scheduling Techniques Activity on Arrow Example B Start A C D F Finish E Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 117. Network Techniques AOA Example • Activities specified on arrows • Also called arrow diagramming method (ADM) • Nodes show relationship Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Set up Work Finish Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 118. Scheduling Techniques Activity on Node • Activity on node network format  Arrows show precedence relationships  Nodes show activities • 3 types of precedence relationships  Activity on node 1—successor but no predecessor  Activity on node 2—predecessor and successor  Activity on node 3—predecessor but no successor Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 119. Precedence Relationships Finish to Start The ―from‖ activity Task A must finish before the ―to‖ activity Task B can start Task A Task B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 120. Precedence Relationships Start to Start Tasks A and B may start at the same time, but the successor (B) cannot Task A start until the predecessor (A) begins. Task B The direction of the arrow defines which task is the predecessor and which is the successor. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 121. Precedence Relationships Finish to Finish Task A Tasks A and B may end at the same time, but the successor (B) cannot Task B finish until the predecessor (A) finishes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 122. Precedence Relationships Start to Finish Task A Task A must start before Task B can finish (seldom used). Task B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 123. PDM Example Diverging-Converging Activities Diverging Converging Activities Activities Single predecessor with Multiple predecessors with multiple successors single successor Paint Ceiling Paint Walls Prep Paint Walls Clean-up (2nd coat) Paint Trim Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 124. Forward Pass Definitions • Early Start Date (ES)  Earliest possible point in time an activity can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints • Duration (DU)  Number of work periods, excluding holidays or other nonworking periods, required to complete the activity; expressed as workdays or workweeks • Early Finish Date (EF)  Earliest possible time the activity can finish • Forward Pass  Starting at the beginning (left) of the network develop early start and early finish dates for each task, progressing to end (right-most box) of the network Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 125. Forward Pass Calculation ES DU EF Task EF = ES + DU – 1 LS Float LF 3 DU = 2 4 Paint Trim 1 DU = 2 2 3 DU = 3 5 9 DU = 2 10 Prep Paint Ceiling Clean-up 3 DU = 4 6 7 DU = 2 8 Paint Walls Paint Walls (2nd Coat) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 126. Task Identification Forward Pass Name Duration ES EF Prep 2 1 2 Paint Trim 2 3 4 Paint Ceiling 3 3 5 Paint Walls 4 3 6 Paint Walls (2nd Coat) 2 7 8 Clean-up 2 9 10 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 127. Backward Pass Definitions • Late Start Date (LS)  Latest point in time that an activity may begin without delaying that activity’s successor  If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected • Float or Slack  Latest point in time a task may be delayed from its earliest start date without delaying the project finish date • Late Finish (LF)  Latest point in time a task may be completed without delaying that activity’s successor  If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected • Backward Pass  Calculate late start and late finish dates by starting at project completion, using finish times and working backwards Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 128. Backward Pass Calculation Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 129. Task Identification Forward and Backward Passes Name Duration ES EF LS LF Float Prep 2 1 2 1 2 0 Paint Trim 2 3 4 7 8 4 Paint Ceiling 3 3 5 6 8 3 Paint Walls 4 3 6 3 6 0 Paint Walls (2nd Coat) 2 7 8 7 8 0 Clean-up 2 9 10 9 10 0 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 130. Scheduling Techniques Bar/Gantt Chart Activity A Activity B Activity C Activity D Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Time There are many other acceptable ways to display project information on a bar chart. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 131. Schedule Development Determining the start and finish dates of project activities • If start and finish dates are not realistic, the project is unlikely to be finished on schedule Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 132. Core Planning Processes Schedule Development Input Process Output 1. Project network diagram ―… determining start 1. Project schedule 2. Activity duration estimates and finish dates for 2. Supporting detail 3. Resource requirements project activities.‖ 3. Schedule management plan 4. Resource pool description 4. Resource requirements 5. Calendars updates 6. Constraints 7. Assumptions 8. Leads and lags 9. Risk management plan 10. Activity attributes Tools and Techniques 1. Mathematical analysis 2. Duration compression 3. Simulation 4. Resource leveling heuristics 5. Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal 6. Coding structure
  • 133. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques • Mathematical analysis • Duration compression • Simulation • Resource-leveling heuristics Inputs • Project management software • Project network diagram • Coding structure • Activity duration estimates • Resource requirements • Resource-pool description • Calendars Outputs • Constraints • Project schedule • Assumptions • Supporting detail • Leads and lags • Schedule management plan • • Risk Management Plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram IqbalResource-requirement updates • Activity Attributes
  • 134. Schedule Development Inputs • Project network diagram • Duration estimates • Resource requirements • Resource pool – Description of the available resources and the times they are available to work on the project • Calendars – Identify periods when work is allowed – Project calendars: Affect all resources – Resource calendars: Affect specific resources or categories of resources Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 135. Schedule Development Inputs • Constraints – Imposed dates – Key events or milestones • Assumptions • Leads and lags – Dependencies that require lead or lag values to accurately define the relationship • Risk Management Plan • Activity Attributes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 136. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques • Mathematical analysis – Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all activities – Critical Path Method (CPM) – Calculates a single, deterministic early and late start and finish date for each activity, to be used to determine which activities must be completed on time to avoid impacting the finish date of the project – Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) – Allows for loops in the relationships between activities and for the conditional and probabilistic treatment of relationships Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 137. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques (cont.) • Mathematical Analysis (cont.) – Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – Uses sequential network logic and a weighted-average duration estimate to calculate duration. Uses the probability of an estimate’s accuracy. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 138. Schedule Development PERT Calculations • PERT – Program Evaluation and Review Technique • Expected Time = (Low + 4*Medium + High) / 6 • Standard Deviation = (High – Low) / 6 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 139. Schedule Development PERT Example Evening Commute Optimistic time = 15 minutes Most likely time = 30 minutes Pessimistic time = 60 minutes What is the Expected Time? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 140. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques (cont.) – Duration compression – Looks for ways to shorten the schedule without changing the project scope – Simulation – Resource-leveling heuristics (Resource-based method) – Changing the schedule to accommodate resources – PM Software – Used to assist schedule development and to display schedule-development outputs – Coding Structure Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 141. Schedule Development Outputs • Project schedule – Includes planned start and expected finish dates for each activity • Supporting detail – Documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints • Schedule management plan – Defines how changes to the schedule will be managed • Resource requirement updates – Updates based on the results of resource leveling and on updates to activity lists Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 142. Schedule Development Network Calculation Start Date 6/1 6/6 6/10 B 5 6/1 6/5 6/16 6/25 6/26 6/30 6/11 6/15 A 5 5 D 10 E 5 6/1 6/5 6/6 6/15 6/16 6/25 6/26 6/30 0 0 0 C 10 Finish Date 6/30 6/6 6/15 Calculations 0 Forward Pass – Determine early start and early finish dates Backward Pass – Determine late start and late finish dates and float Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 143. Schedule Development Basic Terminology • Total float (Slack) – Amount of time an activity can be delayed and the project finish date not be effected • Free Float – Amount of time an activity can be delayed and the early start of the follow-on activity not be effected Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 144. Schedule Development Gantt Charts • Bar chart – Displays activity start and end dates, as well as expected durations • Milestone chart – Displays scheduled start or completion of major deliverables • Combination chart – Displays events and activities as a function of time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 145. Schedule Development Typical Gantt Chart Activity Task A Task B Task C Task D June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 146. Key Scheduling Concepts • Master schedule • Crashing • Hanger • Workaround • Schedule variance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 147. Milestone Chart Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 148. Exercise 4-3 Project Milestones • Identify the major milestones in your project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 149. Resource Planning Determining physical resources needed (i.e., material, equipment, and people) and number of resources required to perform the project activities Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 150. Core Planning Processes Resource Planning Input Process Output 1. WBS ―… determining what 1. Resource requirements 2. Historical information physical resources 3. Scope statement (people, equipment, 4. Resource pool description materials) and what 5. Organizational policies quantities of each should 6. Activity Duration Estimates be used to perform project activities.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Alternatives identification 3. Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 151. Resource Planning Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment • Alternatives identification • Project management software Inputs • WBS Outputs • Historical information • Resource requirements • Scope statement • Resource pool description • Organizational policies • Activity Duration Estimates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 152. Resource Planning Inputs • Work breakdown structure (WBS) – Identifies the project elements that require resources • Historical information – Used to identify the types of resources that were required for similar work on previous projects • Scope statement – Contains project justification and the project objectives, which need to be considered • Resource pool description – Description of resources available, if necessary, to work on a project • Organizational policies – Of the performing organization, regarding staffing and the rental and purchase of supplies and equipment • Activity Duration Estimates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 153. Resource Planning Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment – Expertise, provided by any group or individual, used to assess the inputs to this process – Other units within organization – Consultants – Professional and technical associations – Industry groups • Alternatives identification • Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 154. Resource Planning Outputs Resource requirements – Description of the types (e.g., skill levels) and numbers of resources required by each element of the WBS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 155. Cost Estimating Process of developing an approximation (or estimate) for the cost of the resources necessary to complete the project activities • Difference between cost estimating and pricing: – Cost estimating: Assessing how much it will cost the organization to provide the product or service – Pricing: Assessing how much the organization will charge for the product or service • Cost estimating also includes identifying and considering cost alternatives Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 156. Core Planning Processes Cost Estimating Input Process Output 1. WBS ―… developing an 1. Cost estimates 2. Resource requirements approximation (estimate of the 2. Supporting detail 3. Resource rates costs of the resources needed 3. Cost management plan to complete project activities.‖ 4. Activity duration estimates 5. Estimating Publications 6. Historical information 7. Chart of accounts 8. Risks Tools and Techniques 1. Analogous estimating 2. Parametric modeling 3. Bottom-up estimating 4. Computerized tools 5. Other cost estimating methods Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 157. Cost Estimating Tools & Techniques • Analogous estimating • Parametric modeling • Bottom-up estimating • Computerized tools • Other cost estimating methods Inputs • WBS Outputs • Resource requirements • Cost estimates • Resource rates • Supporting detail • Activity duration estimates • Cost management plan • Estimating Publications • Historical information • Chart of accounts • Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 158. Cost Estimating Inputs • WBS – Used to organize the cost estimates and to ensure that the cost of all identified work has been estimated • Resource requirements • Resource rates – Unit rates for each resource • Activity duration estimates – Affects cost estimates if project budget includes an allowance for the cost of financing (i.e., interest) • Historical Information – Information on the cost of resources – Project files – Records of previous project results that are detailed enough to aid in developing cost estimates – Commercial cost-estimating databases – Historical information available commercially – Project team knowledge • Estimating Publications • Chart of accounts – Coding structure used by the organization to report financial information. Cost estimates must be assigned to the correct accounting category. • Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 159. Cost Estimating Tools & Techniques • Analogous estimating (Expert judgment) – Used to estimate total project costs if there is a limited amount of detailed information • Parametric modeling – Using project characteristics (or parameters) in a mathematical model to predict costs (e.g., price per square foot) • Bottom-up estimating – Estimating the cost of individual work items and then rolling up the costs to arrive at a project total • Computerized tools – PM software and spreadsheets • Other Cost Estimating Methods Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 160. Cost Estimating Outputs • Cost estimates – Quantitative assessments of the cost of resources (e.g., units of currency or staff hours) • Types of estimates – Order of magnitude (-25% / +75%) – Budget estimate (-10% / +25%) – Definitive estimate (-5% / +10%) • Supporting detail – Description of estimated scope of work – Documentation of the basis for the estimate – Documentation of any assumptions made – Range of possible results Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 161. Cost Estimating Outputs (cont.) • Cost management plan – Describes how cost variances will be managed – Part of the overall project plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 162. Cost Budgeting Allocating the value of the overall cost estimate to individual work items, in order to establish a cost baseline to use in measuring project performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 163. Core Planning Processes Cost Budgeting Input Process Output 1. Cost estimates ―… allocating the overall cost 1. Cost baseline 2. WBS estimates to individual work 3. Project schedule items in order to establish a cost baseline for measuring 4. Risk management plan project performance.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Cost budgeting Tools & Techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 164. Cost Budgeting Tools & Techniques • Cost-estimating tools and techniques Inputs • Cost estimates Outputs • WBS • Cost baseline • Project schedule • Risk management plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 165. Cost Budgeting Inputs • Cost estimates • WBS – Identifies the project elements to which the costs will be allocated • Project schedule – Used to assign costs to project elements for the time period when costs will be incurred • Risk Management Plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 166. Cost Budgeting Tools & Techniques • Cost estimating tools and techniques – Analogous estimating – Parametric modeling – Bottom-up estimating – Computerized tools Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 167. Cost Budgeting Outputs Cost baseline – Time phased budget that will be used to measure and monitor the cost performance of the project 140 120 100 BCWS ($K) 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Reporting Period Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 168. Project Plan Development Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 169. Core Planning Processes Project Plan Development Input Process Output 1. Other planning outputs ―… taking the results of other 1. Project plan 2. Historical information planning processes and putting 2. Supporting detail 3. Organizational policies them into a consistent, coherent document.‖ 4. Constraints 5. Assumptions Tools and Techniques 1. Project planning methodology 2. Stakeholder’s skills and knowledge 3. Project management information systems 4. Earned value management (EVM) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 170. Project Plan Development Tools & Techniques • Project planning methodology • Stakeholder skills and knowledge • Project management information system Inputs • Earned value management • Other planning outputs • Historical information • Organizational policies Outputs • Constraints • Project plan • Assumptions • Supporting detail Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 171. Project Plan Development Inputs • Other planning outputs from the other knowledge areas – They include base documents, as well as the supporting detail • Historical information – Estimating databases and records of past project performance • Organizational policies – Any and all of the organization’s formal and informal policies. These include QM process audits, continuous-improvement targets, personnel-hiring and -firing guidelines, employee-performance reviews, and financial controls • Constraints – Any factors that will limit the project team’s options • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 172. Project Plan Development Tools & Techniques • Project planning methodology – Structured approach used to guide the development of the project plan • Stakeholder skills and knowledge – Create an environment in which stakeholders can contribute appropriately • Project management information system – Consists of the automated and manual tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate information and outputs from other PM processes • Earned Value Management Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 173. Project Plan Development Outputs • Project plan – The formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution • Supporting detail – Outputs from other planning processes – Additional information or documentation generated during development of the project plan – Technical documentation – Documentation of relevant standards Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 174. Project Plan Development Project Plan • Includes: – Project charter – PM approach or strategy – Scope statement – Work breakdown structure (WBS) – Cost estimates – Schedule – Performance measurement baselines – Major milestones and target dates – Key or required staff – Key risks – Open issues and pending decisions Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 175. Facilitating Planning Processes • Quality planning • Communications planning • Organizational planning • Staff acquisition • Procurement planning • Solicitation planning • Risk identification • Qualitative risk analysis • Quantitative risk analysis • Risk response planning Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 176. Facilitating Planning Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 177. Sample Planning Activities • Subdividing deliverables into manageable components • Allocating overall cost estimate to individual work items • Identifying the specific activities people must perform to produce the project deliverables • Identifying the sequence and duration of activities • Determining project roles and responsibilities • Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 178. Key Outputs of Planning Processes The Project Plan  Schedules  Cost management plan  Budgets  Cost baseline  Risk management plan  Scope statement  Quality plan  Work breakdown structure  Staffing plan  Plan updates  Procurement plan  Resource requirements  Schedule management plan  Communications plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 179. UNIT 5: EXECUTING PROJECTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 180. Unit 5: Executing Projects Upon completion, you will be able to … • Describe the purposes of the executing processes • Identify the inputs and outputs of its core processes • List the major tools and techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 181. Project Management Process Groups Commitment to Approach to executing project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes Processes Monitoring, measuring, and taking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 182. Purpose • To coordinate, integrate, and manage all resources Why? • in order to achieve the project objectives How? • by carrying out the letter and intent of the project plan While • responding to change and mitigating risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 183. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 184. Project Plan Execution Carrying out the project plan by performing activities identified in the document Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 185. Core Execution Process Project Plan Execution Input Process Output 1. Project plan ―… the primary process for 1. Work results 2. Supporting detail carrying out the project plan.‖ 2. Change requests 3. Organizational policies 4. Preventive action 5. Corrective action Tools and Techniques 1. General management skills 2. Product skills and knowledge 3. Work authorization system 4. Status review meetings 5. Project management information system 6. Organizational procedures Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 186. Project Plan Execution Tools & Techniques • General management skills • Product skills and knowledge • Work-authorization system • Status review meetings • PM information system • Organizational procedures Inputs • Project plan Outputs • Supporting detail • Work results • Organizational policies • Change requests • Preventive action • Corrective action Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 187. Project Plan Execution Inputs • Project plan • Supporting detail • Organizational policies • Preventive action • Corrective action – Anything done to bring future performance in line with the project plan – Output of the various control processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 188. Project Plan Execution Tools & Techniques • General management skills – Leadership, communication, negotiation skills, etc. • Product skills and knowledge – Skills are part of resource-planning and staff-acquisition processes • Work-authorization system – Formal procedure for approving project work; source of written authorization to begin work on a specific activity or work package • Status-review meetings – Regularly scheduled meetings to exchange information about the project • Project management information system • Organizational procedures – Both formal and informal procedures that might be useful during project execution Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 189. Project Plan Execution Outputs • Work results – Outcomes of activities performed in order to accomplish the project; fed into the performance reporting process • Change request – A request to expand or contract project scope, budget, schedule, or resources Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 190. Facilitating Execution Processes • Quality assurance • Team development • Information distribution • Solicitation • Source selection • Contract administration Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 191. Facilitating Execution Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 192. Sample Executing Activities • Managing work results and requests for change • Using tools and techniques in project plan implementation • Building effective relationships with vendors and project team members • Choosing from potential sellers • Distributing status information in time for stakeholders to act • Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 193. UNIT 6: CONTROLLING PROJECTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 194. Unit 6: Controlling Projects Upon completion, you will be able to … • Describe the purposes of the controlling processes • Identify the inputs and outputs of the core controlling processes • List and define the major tools and techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 195. Project Management Process Groups Commitment to Approach to executing project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes Processes Monitoring, measuring, and taking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 196. Purpose To keep the project on track in order to achieve its objectives as outlined in the project plan by: • Monitoring and reporting variances • Controlling scope changes • Controlling schedule changes • Controlling costs • Controlling quality • Responding to risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 197. Overview Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 198. Performance Reporting Collecting and disseminating performance information • This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting • Provides information on scope, schedule, cost, and quality, and possibly on risk and procurement Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 199. Core Controlling Processes Performance Reporting Input Process Output 1. Project plan ―… collecting and disseminating 1. Performance reports 2. Work results performance information. This 2. Change requests 3. Other project records includes status reporting, progress measurements, and forecasting.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Performance reviews 2. Variance analysis 3. Trend analysis 4. Earned value analysis 5. Information distribution systems Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 200. Performance Reporting Inputs • Project plan – Contains the various baselines used to assess project performance • Work results – Accurate information on project status, such as information about fully, or partially, completed tasks and costs incurred or committed • Other project records – Any information pertaining to the project context Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 201. Performance Reporting Tools & Techniques • Performance reviews – Meetings held to assess project status or progress • Variance analysis – Comparing actual project results to planned or expected results • Trend analysis – Examining project results over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating • Earned-value analysis – Integrating scope, cost, and schedule measures to assess project performance • Information-distribution tools and techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 202. Performance Reporting Outputs • Performance report – Organizes and summarizes the information gathered and presents the results of any analysis. Reports should provide the kinds of information and the level of detail required by various stakeholders and documented in the communications management plan • Change requests – Requests for changes to some aspect of the project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  • 203. Overall Change Control Coordinating changes across the entire project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal