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Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online
Discussion Transcripts
Vitomir Kovanovic1
Srecko Joksimovic1
vitomir kovanovic@sfu.ca sjoksimo@sfu.ca
Dragan Gasevic2
Marek Hatala1
dgasevic@acm.org mhatala@sfu.ca
1
School of Interactive Arts and Technology
Simon Fraser University,
Burnaby, Canada
2
School of Computing Science
Athabasca University
, Edmonton, Canada
March 25, 2014
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Overview
Overall idea
To examine how we can use text mining for automation of
content analysis of discussion transcripts.
More specifically,
We looked at the automation of content analysis of cognitive
presence, one of the three main components of Community
of Inquiry framework.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 1 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Overview
Big goal
Provide instructors with information on student’s learning progress
within a learning community so that appropriate instructional
interventions can be planned and implemented.
Provide learners with the feedback on their discussion contributions so
that they can reflect more objectively on their own learning.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 2 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Asynchronous online discussions -
“gold mine of information” (Henri, 1992)
• They are frequently used for all types
of education delivery,
• Their use produced large amount of
data about learning processes,
• Their use is well supported by the
social-constructivist pedagogies.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 3 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Asynchronous online discussions - Issues and challenges
• Produced data is used mainly for research after the courses are over,
• Content analysis techniques are complex and time consuming,
• Content analysis had almost no impact on educational
practice (Donnelly and Gardner, 2011),
• There is a need for more proactive use of the data through
automation:
• Few attempts for automated content analysis,
• Focus mostly on surface level characteristics, and
• Not based on well established theories of education.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 4 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework
is a conceptual framework outlying the important constructs that define
worthwhile educational experience in distance education setting.
• Social presence: relationships and
social climate in a community.
• Cognitive presence: phases of
cognitive engagement and knowledge
construction.
• Teaching presence: instructional
role during social learning.
CoI model is:
• Extensively researched and validated,
• Adopts Content Analysis for
assessment of presences
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 5 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Cognitive Presence
Cognitive Presence
“an extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a
community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained
communication.” (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 1999, p .89)
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 6 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Cognitive Presence
Cognitive Presence
“an extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a
community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained
communication.” (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 1999, p .89)
Four phases of cognitive presence:
1 Triggering event: Some issue, dilemma or problem is identified.
2 Exploration: Students move between private world of reflection and
shared world of social knowledge construction.
3 Integration: Students filter irrelevant information and synthesize
new knowledge.
4 Resolution: Students analyze practical applicability, test different
hypotheses, and start a new learning cycle.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 6 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Cognitive presence coding scheme
• Use of whole message as unit of analysis,
• Look for particular indicators of different sociocognitive processes,
• Requires expertise with coding instrument and domain knowledge.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 7 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Issues and challenges
• Used for analysis long after the courses are over,
• Require substantial manual and time consuming work,
• Not providing explanations for observed levels of thee presences, and
• Not providing suggestions and guidelines for instructors to direct
their pedagogical decisions.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 8 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework
Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches
Text Mining and Text Classification
• Text mining for coding cognitive presence,
• Supervised learning classification problem,
• Cognitive presence is latent construct,
• We based our work on similar problems of mining latent constructs,
• Opining mining (Arora, Joshi, and Ros´e, 2009; Joshi and
Penstein-Ros´e, 2009; Tsur and Davidov, 2010),
• Gender style difference detection (Gianfortoni, Adamson, and Ros´e,
2011),
• Sentiment analysis (Arora et al., 2010)
• Most commonly used features:
• Lexical and part-of-speech N-grams,
• Dependency triplets,
• Word pattern features, and
• Some combination of them.
• Most commonly used algorithms:
• Support Vector Machines (SVMs)
• K Nearest Neighbors (KNNs)
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 9 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Data set
• Six offerings of graduate level course in software engineering at
distance learning university,
• Total of 1747 messages, 81 students,
• Manually coded by two coders
(agreement = 98.1%, Cohen’s κ = 0.974),
ID Phase Messages (%)
0 Other 140 8.01%
1 Triggering Event 308 17.63%
2 Exploration 684 39.17%
3 Integration 508 29.08%
4 Resolution 107 6.12%
All phases 1747 100%
Number of Messages in Different Phases of Cognitive Presence
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 10 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Feature Extraction
• Unigrams, Bigrams and Trigrams,
• Part-of-Speech Bigrams and Trigrams,
• Backoff Bigrams and Trigrams:
Example: “John is working.”
Bigrams:
• john is,
• is working.
Backoff Bigrams:
• john verb ,
• noun is,
• is verb
• verb working.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 11 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Feature Extraction
• Dependency triplets: rel, head, modifier
Example: “Bills on ports and immigration were submitted by
Senator Brownback, Republican of Kansas.”
nsubjpass, submitted, Bills
auxpass, submitted, were
agent, submitted, Brownback
nn, Brownback, Senator
appos, Brownback, Republican
prep of, Republican, Kansas
prep on, Bills, ports
conj and, ports, immigration
prep on, Bills, immigration
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 12 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Feature Extraction
• Backoff dependency triplets:
Example: “Bills on ports and immigration were submitted by
Senator Brownback, Republican of Kansas.”
Dependency triplet:
• conj and, ports, immigration
Backoff dependency triplets:
• conj and, noun , immigration
• conj and, ports, noun
• conj and, noun , noun
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 13 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Additional Features
• Number of named entities in the message
Brainstorming should involve more concepts than posing a question,
• Is message first in the discussion?
Posing questions is more likely to be initiating discussions,
• Is message a reply to the first message in the discussion?
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 14 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Data set
Feature extraction
Classification
Classification
Classifier:
• Linear SVM classifier with default value of C = 1,
• Only features with support of 10 or more,
• Accuracy evaluated using 10 fold cross-validation,
• Comparison of models using McNemar’s test.
Implementation:
• Implemented in Java,
• Feature extraction using Stanford CoreNLP1
toolkit,
• Tokenization, Part-of-Speech, and Dependency parsing modules
• Classification using Weka (Witten, Frank, and Hall, 2011) and
LibSVM (Chang and Lin, 2011), and
• Statistical comparison using Java Statistical Classes (JSC)2
1http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml
2http://www.jsc.nildram.co.uk/index.htm
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 15 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Results
Feature Set Additional Classification Cohen’s P-val
Features Accuracy Kappa
majority vote baseline 0 0.392 0.000
unigrams baseline 2241 0.547 0.364
+ bigrams 3155 0.556 0.376 0.427
+ trigrams 911 0.554 0.374 0.571
+ pos-bigrams 737 0.561 0.385 0.249
+ pos-trigrams 2810 0.560 0.382 0.304
+ bo-bigrams 6953 0.560 0.381 0.323
+ bo-trigrams 17986 0.584 0.410 0.006
+ dep-triplets 1435 0.564 0.386 0.062
+ h-bo-triplets 1931 0.571 0.396 0.031
+ m-bo-triplets 2771 0.579 0.406 0.003
+ hm-bo-triplets 1375 0.558 0.379 0.359
+ entity-count 1 0.559 0.381 0.030
+ is-first 1 0.555 0.375 0.037
+ is-reply-first 1 0.550 0.367 0.665
Classification Results. Bold typeface indicates statistical significance.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 16 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Current progress
• Use of nested-cross validation for better selection of model
parameters (kernel and hyperparameters),
• RBF kernel shown to be better than linear kernel,
• LIWC features, LSA coherence,
• accuracy = 61.7%, Cohen’s κ = 0.43
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 17 / 18
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions and Future Work
References
Conclusions and future work
Summary:
• Promising path to explore,
• Use of backoff trigrams, plain and backoff dependency triplets, entity
count and first message indicator seem useful,
Future work:
• Additional types of features which look at the context of previous
messages (e.g., convergence vs. divergence),
• Moving away from SVM, explore other classification methods which
are better at explanation (e.g., boosting and random forests),
• Give associated probabilities for each classification,
• Give relative importance of different features.
Challenges:
• Challenges with message unit of analysis and surface-level features,
• Low frequency of resolution messages.
V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 18 / 18
Thank you
References I
Arora, Shilpa, Mahesh Joshi, and Carolyn P. Ros´e (2009). “Identifying types of claims in
online customer reviews”. In: Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2009, 37–40.
Arora, Shilpa et al. (2010). “Sentiment classification using automatically extracted
subgraph features”. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on
Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text, 131–139.
Chang, Chih-Chung and Chih-Jen Lin (2011). “LIBSVM: A library for support vector
machines”. In: ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology 2 (3),
27:1–27:27.
Donnelly, Roisin and John Gardner (2011). “Content analysis of computer conferencing
transcripts”. In: Interactive Learning Environments 19.4, pp. 303–315.
Garrison, D. Randy, Terry Anderson, and Walter Archer (1999). “Critical Inquiry in a
Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education”. In: The Internet
and Higher Education 2.2–3, pp. 87–105.
Gianfortoni, Philip, David Adamson, and Carolyn P. Ros´e (2011). “Modeling of stylistic
variation in social media with stretchy patterns”. In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on
Algorithms and Resources for Modelling of Dialects and Language Varieties, 49–59.
Henri, France (1992). “Computer Conferencing and Content Analysis”. en. In:
Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing, pp. 117–136.
Joshi, Mahesh and Carolyn Penstein-Ros´e (2009). “Generalizing dependency features for
opinion mining”. In: Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference, 313–316.
References II
Tsur, Oren and Dmitry Davidov (2010). “Icwsm – a great catchy name: Semi-supervised
recognition of sarcastic sentences in product reviews”. In: Proceeding of the International
AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.
Witten, Ian H., Eibe Frank, and Mark A. Hall (2011). Data Mining: Practical Machine
Learning Tools and Techniques, Third Edition. 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann.

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Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion Transcripts

  • 1. Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion Transcripts Vitomir Kovanovic1 Srecko Joksimovic1 vitomir kovanovic@sfu.ca sjoksimo@sfu.ca Dragan Gasevic2 Marek Hatala1 dgasevic@acm.org mhatala@sfu.ca 1 School of Interactive Arts and Technology Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada 2 School of Computing Science Athabasca University , Edmonton, Canada March 25, 2014
  • 2. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Overview Overall idea To examine how we can use text mining for automation of content analysis of discussion transcripts. More specifically, We looked at the automation of content analysis of cognitive presence, one of the three main components of Community of Inquiry framework. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 1 / 18
  • 3. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Overview Big goal Provide instructors with information on student’s learning progress within a learning community so that appropriate instructional interventions can be planned and implemented. Provide learners with the feedback on their discussion contributions so that they can reflect more objectively on their own learning. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 2 / 18
  • 4. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Asynchronous online discussions - “gold mine of information” (Henri, 1992) • They are frequently used for all types of education delivery, • Their use produced large amount of data about learning processes, • Their use is well supported by the social-constructivist pedagogies. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 3 / 18
  • 5. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Asynchronous online discussions - Issues and challenges • Produced data is used mainly for research after the courses are over, • Content analysis techniques are complex and time consuming, • Content analysis had almost no impact on educational practice (Donnelly and Gardner, 2011), • There is a need for more proactive use of the data through automation: • Few attempts for automated content analysis, • Focus mostly on surface level characteristics, and • Not based on well established theories of education. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 4 / 18
  • 6. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework is a conceptual framework outlying the important constructs that define worthwhile educational experience in distance education setting. • Social presence: relationships and social climate in a community. • Cognitive presence: phases of cognitive engagement and knowledge construction. • Teaching presence: instructional role during social learning. CoI model is: • Extensively researched and validated, • Adopts Content Analysis for assessment of presences V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 5 / 18
  • 7. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Cognitive Presence Cognitive Presence “an extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication.” (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 1999, p .89) V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 6 / 18
  • 8. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Cognitive Presence Cognitive Presence “an extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication.” (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 1999, p .89) Four phases of cognitive presence: 1 Triggering event: Some issue, dilemma or problem is identified. 2 Exploration: Students move between private world of reflection and shared world of social knowledge construction. 3 Integration: Students filter irrelevant information and synthesize new knowledge. 4 Resolution: Students analyze practical applicability, test different hypotheses, and start a new learning cycle. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 6 / 18
  • 9. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Cognitive presence coding scheme • Use of whole message as unit of analysis, • Look for particular indicators of different sociocognitive processes, • Requires expertise with coding instrument and domain knowledge. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 7 / 18
  • 10. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Issues and challenges • Used for analysis long after the courses are over, • Require substantial manual and time consuming work, • Not providing explanations for observed levels of thee presences, and • Not providing suggestions and guidelines for instructors to direct their pedagogical decisions. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 8 / 18
  • 11. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework Text Classification and Automatic Content Analysis Approaches Text Mining and Text Classification • Text mining for coding cognitive presence, • Supervised learning classification problem, • Cognitive presence is latent construct, • We based our work on similar problems of mining latent constructs, • Opining mining (Arora, Joshi, and Ros´e, 2009; Joshi and Penstein-Ros´e, 2009; Tsur and Davidov, 2010), • Gender style difference detection (Gianfortoni, Adamson, and Ros´e, 2011), • Sentiment analysis (Arora et al., 2010) • Most commonly used features: • Lexical and part-of-speech N-grams, • Dependency triplets, • Word pattern features, and • Some combination of them. • Most commonly used algorithms: • Support Vector Machines (SVMs) • K Nearest Neighbors (KNNs) V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 9 / 18
  • 12. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Data set • Six offerings of graduate level course in software engineering at distance learning university, • Total of 1747 messages, 81 students, • Manually coded by two coders (agreement = 98.1%, Cohen’s κ = 0.974), ID Phase Messages (%) 0 Other 140 8.01% 1 Triggering Event 308 17.63% 2 Exploration 684 39.17% 3 Integration 508 29.08% 4 Resolution 107 6.12% All phases 1747 100% Number of Messages in Different Phases of Cognitive Presence V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 10 / 18
  • 13. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Feature Extraction • Unigrams, Bigrams and Trigrams, • Part-of-Speech Bigrams and Trigrams, • Backoff Bigrams and Trigrams: Example: “John is working.” Bigrams: • john is, • is working. Backoff Bigrams: • john verb , • noun is, • is verb • verb working. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 11 / 18
  • 14. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Feature Extraction • Dependency triplets: rel, head, modifier Example: “Bills on ports and immigration were submitted by Senator Brownback, Republican of Kansas.” nsubjpass, submitted, Bills auxpass, submitted, were agent, submitted, Brownback nn, Brownback, Senator appos, Brownback, Republican prep of, Republican, Kansas prep on, Bills, ports conj and, ports, immigration prep on, Bills, immigration V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 12 / 18
  • 15. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Feature Extraction • Backoff dependency triplets: Example: “Bills on ports and immigration were submitted by Senator Brownback, Republican of Kansas.” Dependency triplet: • conj and, ports, immigration Backoff dependency triplets: • conj and, noun , immigration • conj and, ports, noun • conj and, noun , noun V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 13 / 18
  • 16. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Additional Features • Number of named entities in the message Brainstorming should involve more concepts than posing a question, • Is message first in the discussion? Posing questions is more likely to be initiating discussions, • Is message a reply to the first message in the discussion? V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 14 / 18
  • 17. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Data set Feature extraction Classification Classification Classifier: • Linear SVM classifier with default value of C = 1, • Only features with support of 10 or more, • Accuracy evaluated using 10 fold cross-validation, • Comparison of models using McNemar’s test. Implementation: • Implemented in Java, • Feature extraction using Stanford CoreNLP1 toolkit, • Tokenization, Part-of-Speech, and Dependency parsing modules • Classification using Weka (Witten, Frank, and Hall, 2011) and LibSVM (Chang and Lin, 2011), and • Statistical comparison using Java Statistical Classes (JSC)2 1http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml 2http://www.jsc.nildram.co.uk/index.htm V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 15 / 18
  • 18. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Results Feature Set Additional Classification Cohen’s P-val Features Accuracy Kappa majority vote baseline 0 0.392 0.000 unigrams baseline 2241 0.547 0.364 + bigrams 3155 0.556 0.376 0.427 + trigrams 911 0.554 0.374 0.571 + pos-bigrams 737 0.561 0.385 0.249 + pos-trigrams 2810 0.560 0.382 0.304 + bo-bigrams 6953 0.560 0.381 0.323 + bo-trigrams 17986 0.584 0.410 0.006 + dep-triplets 1435 0.564 0.386 0.062 + h-bo-triplets 1931 0.571 0.396 0.031 + m-bo-triplets 2771 0.579 0.406 0.003 + hm-bo-triplets 1375 0.558 0.379 0.359 + entity-count 1 0.559 0.381 0.030 + is-first 1 0.555 0.375 0.037 + is-reply-first 1 0.550 0.367 0.665 Classification Results. Bold typeface indicates statistical significance. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 16 / 18
  • 19. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Current progress • Use of nested-cross validation for better selection of model parameters (kernel and hyperparameters), • RBF kernel shown to be better than linear kernel, • LIWC features, LSA coherence, • accuracy = 61.7%, Cohen’s κ = 0.43 V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 17 / 18
  • 20. Introduction Background Methods Results Conclusions and Future Work References Conclusions and future work Summary: • Promising path to explore, • Use of backoff trigrams, plain and backoff dependency triplets, entity count and first message indicator seem useful, Future work: • Additional types of features which look at the context of previous messages (e.g., convergence vs. divergence), • Moving away from SVM, explore other classification methods which are better at explanation (e.g., boosting and random forests), • Give associated probabilities for each classification, • Give relative importance of different features. Challenges: • Challenges with message unit of analysis and surface-level features, • Low frequency of resolution messages. V. Kovanovic et al. Automated Cog. Presence Detection 18 / 18
  • 22. References I Arora, Shilpa, Mahesh Joshi, and Carolyn P. Ros´e (2009). “Identifying types of claims in online customer reviews”. In: Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2009, 37–40. Arora, Shilpa et al. (2010). “Sentiment classification using automatically extracted subgraph features”. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text, 131–139. Chang, Chih-Chung and Chih-Jen Lin (2011). “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines”. In: ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology 2 (3), 27:1–27:27. Donnelly, Roisin and John Gardner (2011). “Content analysis of computer conferencing transcripts”. In: Interactive Learning Environments 19.4, pp. 303–315. Garrison, D. Randy, Terry Anderson, and Walter Archer (1999). “Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education”. In: The Internet and Higher Education 2.2–3, pp. 87–105. Gianfortoni, Philip, David Adamson, and Carolyn P. Ros´e (2011). “Modeling of stylistic variation in social media with stretchy patterns”. In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Algorithms and Resources for Modelling of Dialects and Language Varieties, 49–59. Henri, France (1992). “Computer Conferencing and Content Analysis”. en. In: Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing, pp. 117–136. Joshi, Mahesh and Carolyn Penstein-Ros´e (2009). “Generalizing dependency features for opinion mining”. In: Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference, 313–316.
  • 23. References II Tsur, Oren and Dmitry Davidov (2010). “Icwsm – a great catchy name: Semi-supervised recognition of sarcastic sentences in product reviews”. In: Proceeding of the International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Witten, Ian H., Eibe Frank, and Mark A. Hall (2011). Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, Third Edition. 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann.