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Developing self-regulated learning in high-school
students: The role of learning analytics
Vitomir Kovanovic, Srecko Joksimovic
The Centre for Change and Complexity in Learning (C3L)
University of South Australia
Wayne Jaeschke
Trinity College
Outline
▰ Trinity College Context & current SRL development
▰ Future of Learning at Trinity College
▰ The Role of Learning Analytics in SRL development
▰ LA and the Attainment of Graduate Qualities
▰ Workshop Activity- LA and SRL
2
Trinity College by School
School # Students #Teachers ICSEA
Blakeview 639 44 1030
Gawler River 758 55 1024
North 838 63 1052
South 835 62 1052
Senior 619 54
Total 3689 278 1041
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=U2BxrNV60xk
3
Trinity College ICSEA
4
Trinity College ATAR Performance
5
Trinity College - University & VET Pathways
6
▰ ~300 Year 12
graduates each
year
▰ 70% University
applicants
Trinity College - Graduate Performance at
University (Challenge #1)
7
▰ University of South Australia Report (September 2016)
▰ Old Scholar Survey Results (3 years post graduation)
Trinity College - Implementation of LMS
8
▰ Implementation of LMS (Schoolbox) at Senior School in 2017
▰ Implementation across middle schools in 2018
(Year 10 only year level with devices)
Trinity College - Digitisation of Current Practices
& Drowning in Data (Challenge #2)
9
▰ The Feedback imperative
▰ Staff workload associated with digitisation of existing practices- ‘Effort’
rubric
▻ 12 indicators * 27 students per class * 11 classes * 8 reporting
periods per year = 28,512 rubric clicks
Trinity College - The ‘Effort’ Rubric
10
Challenges 1 Managing challenges
2 Sharing work
Communication 3 Active Listening
4 Learning conversations
5 Questioning
Feedback 6 Utilising feedback
Learning from Mistakes 7 Managing mistakes
8 Self-reflection
Organisation 9 Completion of assessment tasks and homework
10 Punctuality and preparedness
Strategies for Learning 11 Collaboration
12 Perseverance
The Future of Education - Influences
11
▰ Melbourne Declaration
▰ Through Growth to Achievement - Gonski
▰ OECD Education 2030
The Future of Education - Trinity College Learning
Outcomes
12
▰ Students who are self-regulated & lifelong
learners
▰ Students who demonstrate attainment of the
general capabilities
The Future of Education - Trinity College Common
Intent & Transformation of Education
13
▰ Trinity Institute (Launch January 2019)
▰ Trinity College Graduate Qualities
▰ General Capabilities embedded in learning activities
▰ Problem and Project Based Learning
▰ LMS & LA to provide appropriate, timely and
actionable feedback to all stakeholders
LA and the Attainment of GQ at Trinity College
14
▰ What aspects of the current reporting and feedback process are
valuable and should be maintained?
▰ What indicators of student learning and behaviour could be
passively generated from LMS data?
▰ What aspects of the current processes seem to be redundant or
of little value and should be discarded or adjusted?
▰ How can the large volume of data be refined into feedback that is
timely and actionable for students, teachers, managers and
parents?
▰ What assessments and student activities can be adjusted to
generate meaningful data?
What can analytics be used for?
▰ What students are at risk?
▻ What are the indicators of risk?
▻ What trends we see with at-risk students?
▰ What students engage with?
▰ Which interventions are most effective?
15
What we can measure with analytics?
▰ How active are the students?
▻ When they log to the system?
▻ How frequently?
▰ What resources are accessing?
▻ Frequency of access?
▻ Timing of access?
▻ Amount of access?
▰ Do students engage with feedback?
▻ Do they read it
▻ Do they act on it? 16
Self-regulated learning (SRL)
▰ Ed Psychology theory of how students learn and adjust they
approach to learning
▻ Students are agents
▻ Students adjust they learning approach
▻ Often not so well
▻ Often stuck to the same approach
17
Self-regulated learning model
18
19
COPES model
1. Conditions
2. Operations
3. Products
4. Evaluations
5. Standards
How is SRL assessed?
20
▰ Think-aloud protocols
▰ Self-reports
▻ MSLQ: Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire
▰ LMS trace data
▰ Multimodal data capture
▻ Cameras & Facial recognition tools
▻ Microphones & NLP techniques
▻ RFID tags (Social network analysis)
MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning
Questionnaire) components
21
▰ Motivation
▻ Intrinsic goal orientation
▻ Extrinsic goal orientation
▻ Task value
▰ Expectancy
▻ Control beliefs
▻ Self-efficacy beliefs
▰ Affect & Anxiety
▰ Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies
▻ Rehearsal
▻ Elaboration
▻ Organization
▻ Critical Thinking
▻ Metacognitive Self-Regulation
▰ Resource Management Strategies
▻ Time and Study Environment
▻ Effort Regulation
▻ Peer Learning
▻ Help Seeking
MSLQ challenges
22
▰ Research instrument
▰ Too long: 81 items (some shorter alternatives available)
▰ Can’t be used continuously
▰ Reliability
▻ Only 27% correlation between self-reports & trace data
Learning Analytics for SRL
23
Pros
▰ Automated capturing
▰ Continuous monitoring
Cons
▰ Cannot capture all SRL processes
▻ Goal of learning design
▰ Too much context dependent
▻ Need for robust measures
Learning Analytics for SRL
24
▰ Need for standardized measures
▻ Different stakeholders
▻ Different course contexts
Learning Design and Learning Analytics
▰ Learning activities must be created with analytics in mind
▻ What processes activities should promote?
▻ What data will be collected?
▰ Data capturing should not drive learning design
▻ Should be unobtrusive
▻ Simple for end-users
25
Evidence-centered assessment design
▰ Assessment development method
▻ Student model: What to measure?
▻ Evidence model: How to measure?
▻ Task model: When to measure?
26
MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning
Questionnaire) components
27
▰ Motivation
▻ Intrinsic goal orientation
▻ Extrinsic goal orientation
▻ Task value
▰ Expectancy
▻ Control beliefs
▻ Self-efficacy beliefs
▰ Affect & Anxiety
▰ Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies
▻ Rehearsal
▻ Elaboration
▻ Organization
▻ Critical Thinking
▻ Metacognitive Self-Regulation
▰ Resource Management Strategies
▻ Time and Study Environment
▻ Effort Regulation
▻ Peer Learning
▻ Help Seeking
Approach #1
▰ Student model: What to measure?
▻ Goal setting & goal orientation
▻ Rehearsal
▻ Elaboration
▻ Organisation
▻ Critical thinking
▻ Time management
▻ Peer learning
▻ Help seeking
28
Approach #1
▰ Evidence model: How to measure?
▻ Goal setting: survey
▻ Rehearsal: LMS traces
▻ Elaboration: LMS traces
▻ Organisation: LMS traces
▻ Critical thinking: Text analysis
▻ Time management: Attendance & LMS traces
▻ Peer learning: LMS discussions
▻ Help seeking: LMS discussions
29
Approach #1
▰ Task model: When to measure?
▻ Goal setting: survey
▻ Rehearsal: LMS traces
▻ Elaboration: LMS traces
▻ Organisation: LMS traces
▻ Critical thinking: Text analysis
▻ Time management: Attendance & LMS traces
▻ Peer learning: LMS discussions
▻ Help seeking: LMS discussions
30
LA approach for fostering SRL
▰ Adjusting the design of single/few core course(s) to promote SRL
strategies e.g.
▻ Formative LMS quizzes (rehearsal)
▻ Essay outlining activity (organisation)
▻ Creating annotated bibliography (elaboration)
▰ Develop metrics & models to capture SRL strategies
▻ Multiple threshold metrics
▻ IRT-based analytics models
▰ Provide students with feedback based on model output
▻ Capture reflections on provided feedback & suggestions
31
Issues with the proposed approach
▰ SRL is not course-specific
▰ SRL processes not full captured by LMS data
▰ SRL more fine-grained than what is provided by trace logs
▰ Use of technology primarily to enable data collection
▰ How to affect student motivation & beliefs?
▰ Primary and middle school students do not use LMS extensively
32
New opportunities
▰ Classroom data-capturing
▻ Multimodal data capturing tools
▻ Video recording
▻ Conversation recording
▻ Digital learning tools (e.g., tablets)
33
Questions &
Discussion
“BREAK (10min)
35
“Group work
36
What's next?
- 3 questions
- 3x10 minutes
- 7 minutes preparation within the group
- 3 minutes public discussion
- Each group
- Open a Google doc
- Have fun...
37
Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback
38
▰ Identify stakeholders and their role in contributing to students’
development of SRL
Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback
39
▰ What insights do the stakeholders need?
Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback
40
▰ How can pertinent data be captured to gain the requisite insights?
Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback
41
▰ How should insights be communicated to each stakeholder?

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Developing Self-regulated Learning in High-school Students: The Role of Learning Analytics

  • 1. Developing self-regulated learning in high-school students: The role of learning analytics Vitomir Kovanovic, Srecko Joksimovic The Centre for Change and Complexity in Learning (C3L) University of South Australia Wayne Jaeschke Trinity College
  • 2. Outline ▰ Trinity College Context & current SRL development ▰ Future of Learning at Trinity College ▰ The Role of Learning Analytics in SRL development ▰ LA and the Attainment of Graduate Qualities ▰ Workshop Activity- LA and SRL 2
  • 3. Trinity College by School School # Students #Teachers ICSEA Blakeview 639 44 1030 Gawler River 758 55 1024 North 838 63 1052 South 835 62 1052 Senior 619 54 Total 3689 278 1041 https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=U2BxrNV60xk 3
  • 5. Trinity College ATAR Performance 5
  • 6. Trinity College - University & VET Pathways 6 ▰ ~300 Year 12 graduates each year ▰ 70% University applicants
  • 7. Trinity College - Graduate Performance at University (Challenge #1) 7 ▰ University of South Australia Report (September 2016) ▰ Old Scholar Survey Results (3 years post graduation)
  • 8. Trinity College - Implementation of LMS 8 ▰ Implementation of LMS (Schoolbox) at Senior School in 2017 ▰ Implementation across middle schools in 2018 (Year 10 only year level with devices)
  • 9. Trinity College - Digitisation of Current Practices & Drowning in Data (Challenge #2) 9 ▰ The Feedback imperative ▰ Staff workload associated with digitisation of existing practices- ‘Effort’ rubric ▻ 12 indicators * 27 students per class * 11 classes * 8 reporting periods per year = 28,512 rubric clicks
  • 10. Trinity College - The ‘Effort’ Rubric 10 Challenges 1 Managing challenges 2 Sharing work Communication 3 Active Listening 4 Learning conversations 5 Questioning Feedback 6 Utilising feedback Learning from Mistakes 7 Managing mistakes 8 Self-reflection Organisation 9 Completion of assessment tasks and homework 10 Punctuality and preparedness Strategies for Learning 11 Collaboration 12 Perseverance
  • 11. The Future of Education - Influences 11 ▰ Melbourne Declaration ▰ Through Growth to Achievement - Gonski ▰ OECD Education 2030
  • 12. The Future of Education - Trinity College Learning Outcomes 12 ▰ Students who are self-regulated & lifelong learners ▰ Students who demonstrate attainment of the general capabilities
  • 13. The Future of Education - Trinity College Common Intent & Transformation of Education 13 ▰ Trinity Institute (Launch January 2019) ▰ Trinity College Graduate Qualities ▰ General Capabilities embedded in learning activities ▰ Problem and Project Based Learning ▰ LMS & LA to provide appropriate, timely and actionable feedback to all stakeholders
  • 14. LA and the Attainment of GQ at Trinity College 14 ▰ What aspects of the current reporting and feedback process are valuable and should be maintained? ▰ What indicators of student learning and behaviour could be passively generated from LMS data? ▰ What aspects of the current processes seem to be redundant or of little value and should be discarded or adjusted? ▰ How can the large volume of data be refined into feedback that is timely and actionable for students, teachers, managers and parents? ▰ What assessments and student activities can be adjusted to generate meaningful data?
  • 15. What can analytics be used for? ▰ What students are at risk? ▻ What are the indicators of risk? ▻ What trends we see with at-risk students? ▰ What students engage with? ▰ Which interventions are most effective? 15
  • 16. What we can measure with analytics? ▰ How active are the students? ▻ When they log to the system? ▻ How frequently? ▰ What resources are accessing? ▻ Frequency of access? ▻ Timing of access? ▻ Amount of access? ▰ Do students engage with feedback? ▻ Do they read it ▻ Do they act on it? 16
  • 17. Self-regulated learning (SRL) ▰ Ed Psychology theory of how students learn and adjust they approach to learning ▻ Students are agents ▻ Students adjust they learning approach ▻ Often not so well ▻ Often stuck to the same approach 17
  • 19. 19 COPES model 1. Conditions 2. Operations 3. Products 4. Evaluations 5. Standards
  • 20. How is SRL assessed? 20 ▰ Think-aloud protocols ▰ Self-reports ▻ MSLQ: Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire ▰ LMS trace data ▰ Multimodal data capture ▻ Cameras & Facial recognition tools ▻ Microphones & NLP techniques ▻ RFID tags (Social network analysis)
  • 21. MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) components 21 ▰ Motivation ▻ Intrinsic goal orientation ▻ Extrinsic goal orientation ▻ Task value ▰ Expectancy ▻ Control beliefs ▻ Self-efficacy beliefs ▰ Affect & Anxiety ▰ Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies ▻ Rehearsal ▻ Elaboration ▻ Organization ▻ Critical Thinking ▻ Metacognitive Self-Regulation ▰ Resource Management Strategies ▻ Time and Study Environment ▻ Effort Regulation ▻ Peer Learning ▻ Help Seeking
  • 22. MSLQ challenges 22 ▰ Research instrument ▰ Too long: 81 items (some shorter alternatives available) ▰ Can’t be used continuously ▰ Reliability ▻ Only 27% correlation between self-reports & trace data
  • 23. Learning Analytics for SRL 23 Pros ▰ Automated capturing ▰ Continuous monitoring Cons ▰ Cannot capture all SRL processes ▻ Goal of learning design ▰ Too much context dependent ▻ Need for robust measures
  • 24. Learning Analytics for SRL 24 ▰ Need for standardized measures ▻ Different stakeholders ▻ Different course contexts
  • 25. Learning Design and Learning Analytics ▰ Learning activities must be created with analytics in mind ▻ What processes activities should promote? ▻ What data will be collected? ▰ Data capturing should not drive learning design ▻ Should be unobtrusive ▻ Simple for end-users 25
  • 26. Evidence-centered assessment design ▰ Assessment development method ▻ Student model: What to measure? ▻ Evidence model: How to measure? ▻ Task model: When to measure? 26
  • 27. MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) components 27 ▰ Motivation ▻ Intrinsic goal orientation ▻ Extrinsic goal orientation ▻ Task value ▰ Expectancy ▻ Control beliefs ▻ Self-efficacy beliefs ▰ Affect & Anxiety ▰ Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies ▻ Rehearsal ▻ Elaboration ▻ Organization ▻ Critical Thinking ▻ Metacognitive Self-Regulation ▰ Resource Management Strategies ▻ Time and Study Environment ▻ Effort Regulation ▻ Peer Learning ▻ Help Seeking
  • 28. Approach #1 ▰ Student model: What to measure? ▻ Goal setting & goal orientation ▻ Rehearsal ▻ Elaboration ▻ Organisation ▻ Critical thinking ▻ Time management ▻ Peer learning ▻ Help seeking 28
  • 29. Approach #1 ▰ Evidence model: How to measure? ▻ Goal setting: survey ▻ Rehearsal: LMS traces ▻ Elaboration: LMS traces ▻ Organisation: LMS traces ▻ Critical thinking: Text analysis ▻ Time management: Attendance & LMS traces ▻ Peer learning: LMS discussions ▻ Help seeking: LMS discussions 29
  • 30. Approach #1 ▰ Task model: When to measure? ▻ Goal setting: survey ▻ Rehearsal: LMS traces ▻ Elaboration: LMS traces ▻ Organisation: LMS traces ▻ Critical thinking: Text analysis ▻ Time management: Attendance & LMS traces ▻ Peer learning: LMS discussions ▻ Help seeking: LMS discussions 30
  • 31. LA approach for fostering SRL ▰ Adjusting the design of single/few core course(s) to promote SRL strategies e.g. ▻ Formative LMS quizzes (rehearsal) ▻ Essay outlining activity (organisation) ▻ Creating annotated bibliography (elaboration) ▰ Develop metrics & models to capture SRL strategies ▻ Multiple threshold metrics ▻ IRT-based analytics models ▰ Provide students with feedback based on model output ▻ Capture reflections on provided feedback & suggestions 31
  • 32. Issues with the proposed approach ▰ SRL is not course-specific ▰ SRL processes not full captured by LMS data ▰ SRL more fine-grained than what is provided by trace logs ▰ Use of technology primarily to enable data collection ▰ How to affect student motivation & beliefs? ▰ Primary and middle school students do not use LMS extensively 32
  • 33. New opportunities ▰ Classroom data-capturing ▻ Multimodal data capturing tools ▻ Video recording ▻ Conversation recording ▻ Digital learning tools (e.g., tablets) 33
  • 37. What's next? - 3 questions - 3x10 minutes - 7 minutes preparation within the group - 3 minutes public discussion - Each group - Open a Google doc - Have fun... 37
  • 38. Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback 38 ▰ Identify stakeholders and their role in contributing to students’ development of SRL
  • 39. Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback 39 ▰ What insights do the stakeholders need?
  • 40. Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback 40 ▰ How can pertinent data be captured to gain the requisite insights?
  • 41. Workshop Activity - Designing for Feedback 41 ▰ How should insights be communicated to each stakeholder?