SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 37
Download to read offline
What does effective
distance/online/blended
teaching look like?
Vitomir Kovanović,
School of Informatics
THE UNIVERSITY of EDINBURGH
v.kovanovic@ed.ac.uk
@vkovanovic
EASS Teaching Academics Network
The University of South Australia,
Adelaide, SA, Australia
9 March 2016
Preparing for the Digital University
Download: http://bit.ly/pdu-report
● Authors
○ George Siemens, UTA
○ Dragan Gašević, UoE
○ Shane Dawson, UNISA
○ Charles Lang, NYU
○ Srećko Joksimović, UoE
○ Oleksandra Poquet, UNISA
○ Vitomir Kovanović, UoE
Coverage by the Chronicle of Higher Education
http://bit.ly/digital-uni
2
Study objectives
● Many changes in educational landscape
○ Mobile technologies
○ Personalization & feedback
○ Learning analytics
○ MOOCs
What is the current state of distance education research, as reflected through
meta-analyses and systematic reviews?
Goals:
1. Identify themes that have framed current research,
2. Summarize the current state of research and practice, and
3. Reveal prospective directions for the future
3
An umbrella review
Given the large number of studies, we focused on second-order studies:
● Reduces the number of studies to look
● Increases the validity of evidence
● Two types of studies investigated:
○ Meta-analyses:
■ Integrate statistical results from several studies
■ Can investigate consistency of findings
○ Systematic reviews:
■ Literature reviews with a clear inclusion criteria
4
Plethora of terms & modalities
● Distance/Online education/learning
● E-Learning
● Technology-enhanced learning
● Computer-aided/supported instruction/training
● Internet-based learning/training
● Blended/Hybrid learning
● Web-based learning
● Mobile learning
● M-Learning
● MOOCs (cMOOCs, xMOOCs)
● Intelligent tutoring systems
5
Plethora of terms & modalities
● Distance/Online education/learning
● E-Learning
● Technology-enhanced learning
● Computer-aided/supported instruction/training
● Internet-based learning/training
● Blended/Hybrid learning
● Web-based learning
● Mobile learning
● M-Learning
● MOOCs (cMOOCs, xMOOCs)
● Intelligent tutoring systems
6
One term to rule them all...
Digital Learning
Dataset
7
Focus on 1984-2014 period
74 studies for DE & OL
20 studies for BL
Five prominent themes
1. Topic analysis of the published literature,
2. Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction,
3. Factors affecting effectiveness of DE/OL,
4. Institutional adoption of DE/OL, and
5. DE/OL research methods.
8
Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction
Comparing student learning outcomes between DL/OL and traditional modes of
instructions prominent theme in policy discourse (Arbaugh et al. 2009);
● Pros:
○ flexibility,
○ alleviation of overcrowded classrooms,
○ increased enrollment,
○ reduced cost, and
○ increased profit
● Cons:
○ instructor training cost,
○ feelings of isolation, and
○ technology gaps (Clardy, 2009; Grandzol & Grandzol, 2006)
9
Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction
● Distance education can be at minimum as effective as traditional classroom
instruction (Arbaugh et al., 2009).
● No difference in effect size for student academic performance (Arbaugh et al.,
2009; Bernard et al., 2004a; Lou, Bernard, and Abrami, 2006)
● Importance of context (Cook et al., 2010b)
10
Even better than F2F?
● better mode of delivery (Shachar and Neumann, 2003; Allen et al. (2004)
● highly effective for instruction delivery to adult learners (Roberts, 2011)
● better for health professionals (Williams, 2006)
However,
● traditional modes of instruction yield higher student satisfaction levels
(Chipps et al., 2012b; Tomlinson et al., 2013; Allen et al., 2002; Bernard,
Abrami, Wade, Borokhovski, and Lou, 2004b)
11
Blended is the way to go
● Online learning did not produce significantly different learning outcomes than
face-to-face learning (Means et al., 2013).
○ Blended learning showed significant positive effects.
● Online learning did not outperform other educational methods
○ Improved scores on multiple-choice tests (Chumley-Jones, Dobbie, &
Alford, 2002).
12
Factors affecting effectiveness of DE/OL
Three categories of factors (Minnaar, 2011):
● Infrastructure and technology,
● Pedagogy, and
● Human factors.
13
Mode of delivery (Sync vs. Async)
Results still not conclusive, buuut:
● Asynchronous delivery >> classroom delivery >> synchronous delivery.
(Bernard, Abrami, Lou, et al., 2004; Lou et al., 2006; Allen et al., 2004)
Online discussions enable for rich student-student interactions that stimulate the
development of deep and critical thinking skills (San, 2006).
● literature being focused on graduate-level students
● lack of involvement from course instructors and the research from their
perspective.
14
How to improve?
● Synchronous:
○ More personalized contact between students and instructors
■ make it similar to face-to-face education (Bernard, Abrami, Wade, et
al. 2004).
● Asynchronous:
○ use of problem-based learning
■ Positive effects in both achievement and attitude (Bernard, Abrami,
Wade, et al., 2004).
○ use of media to enable collaborative learning (Lou et al. 2006)
15
● “... pedagogically rich strategies that include the instructor’s involvement
and participation in the discussion; monitoring and moderating the
discussion; regular interaction with students; and facilitating learners’
interaction, collaboration, and teamwork” (Darabi et al., 2013, p. 13).
● Organizing discussions in small groups which help students to develop a
community of learners and ”feel comfortable engaging in relevant discourse”
(Ravenna, Foster, and Bishop, 2012, p. 22).
● Requirement for instructors’ participation (Ravenna et al., 2012):
○ “model respondent”,
○ to share the knowledge and
○ promote community among students
Strategies for fostering online discussions
16
Course domain
DE/OL was far more effective for workspace & adult professional learners than for
graduate and undergraduate students (Machtmes and Asher, 2000; Williams,
2006).
Largest effect in favor of distance education was achieved for foreign language
courses (Allen et al., 2004)
Bernard, Abrami, Lou, et al. (2004):
● best DE/OL: business, military, and computing courses
● best F2F: mathematics, science, and engineering courses.
17
Communication technology & media
89% of all courses made use of written materials, while 55% used multimedia
materials. 32% of all courses used asynchronous discussions, and 9%
synchronous discussions (Cook, et al., 2010a).
No significant differences arising from adoption of different technologies
(Machtmes and Asher, 2000).
Pedagogy, rather than the adopted technology, plays a dominant role in the
effectiveness of DE/OL (Bernard, Abrami, Wade, et al., 2004).
18
Cultural considerations
Students’ cultural background had important implications on their academic
success.
Challenges for students unfamiliar with institutional culture:
● Problems with course expectations,
● Social presence, and
● Building relationships with instructors (Uzuner, 2009).
Current focus on Asian students
19
Course interactions (S-S, S-T, S-C)
Importance of support for meaningful interactions among students and between
students and instructors (Wong, Greenhalgh, and Pawson, 2010; George, 2014).
All three forms of interaction produced positive effect sizes on academic
performance (Bernard et al., 2009):
● S-S and S-C had higher effect than S-T interactions.
Importance of the strong course design that guides students to deeply engage
with the content!
20
Course interactions (S-S, S-T, S-C)
Most effective S-S interactions:
● those designed to support collaboration between students (Borokhovski,
Tamim, Bernard, Abrami, and Sokolovskaya, 2012)
S-T interactions: Single most important course-related characteristic
● influence learners’ motivation
● overall course experience
● timely feedback and formal support particularly important
(Carroll, Booth, Papaioannou, Sutton, & Wong, 2009;
Cook et al., 2010c; Minnaar, 2011; Peterson, 2008; Styer, 2007)
21
Course organization and design
High interactivity (Cook et al. 2010c). Best outcomes:
● practice exercises,
● feedback,
● repetition of study materials, and
● use of online discussions
Planning of course interactions (Borokhovski et al., 2012)
● designed and planned interactions leading to higher academic performance.
22
Course organization and design
Positive effect (Means et al., 2013):
● Collaborative or instructor-directed instruction, rather than individual learning,
● individualized instruction, simulations, and support for students’ reflection,
No effect:
● various media elements (e.g., images and videos),
● student control,
● online quizzes,
● interactions of groups of learners, and
● scripted collaboration did not contribute to learning performance.
23
Student perspective
● Students value:
○ well-designed, frequently updated courses
○ courses that incorporate extrinsic motivating factors, with
tasks/examples immediately relevant for their practice,
○ a reasonable level of control and flexibility (primarily deadlines),
○ support to collaborate with their peers, and
○ high level of instructor involvement
○ summative and timely feedback (Carroll et al., 2009; Styer, 2007).
24
Learner control?
Learner control (ability to decide when, where, and who to learn with)
Conflicting evidence:
● Positive (Sitzmann et al., 2006; Carroll et al., 2009; Peterson, 2008)
● Negative (Landers, 2009)
25
Effectiveness increasing over time!
26
Machtmes and Asher (2000):
● 1960s: 0.09 SD in favor of traditional instruction
● 1990s: 0.23 SD in favor of DE/OL
Roberts (2011):
● Before 2006: 0.61 Hedges’ g
● After 2009: 0.83 Hedges’ g
Effectiveness increasing over time!
27
Reasons (Machtmes & Asher, 2000; Roberts, 2011):
● Overall maturation of the DE/OL field,
● Maturation of DE/OL pedagogies,
● Modes of instruction,
● Learners gaining experience and understanding of DE/OL and,
● New and more flexible technologies .
28
Conceptual model
Challenges:
● Amount of participation in course design and facilitation seems hardly
sustainable for instructors (Moallem, 2003).
● Competencies (Koch, 2014):
○ technical and didactical competencies,
○ ability to deliver engaging and interactive course content,
○ ability to anticipate students’ need and facilitate asynchronous learning,
○ use of innovative teaching methods,
○ ability to project teaching presence within an online environment,
○ ability to mediate asynchronous interaction and create a community,
○ high degree of self-organization, and
○ ways of assessing students’ learning and participation.
29
Challenges
● Real challenge for instructors is not the “mastery of these competencies, but
rather in using them to create a high quality e-learning experience with added
value for the student” (Koch, 2014, p.4).
● Instructor's role also changes “from that of the content expert to that of a
facilitator of learning processes, who guides and coaches students to help
them achieve learning objectives” (Koch, 2014, p.3).
30
Summary
Effective learning will not occur if online courses “are designed in such a way that
traditional F2F methods (textbook readings, lectures, examinations) are published
on the Internet without considering social isolation, de-individualized instruction,
and using technology for the sake of technology” (Cohen, Carbone, and Beffa-
Negrini, 2011, p.9).
The real question is not “how does effective learning looks like?” but
“how to support instructors to teach more effectively? “
31
Thank you
32
References I
Arbaugh, J. B., Godfrey, M., Johnson, M., Pollack, B. L., Niendorf, B., & Wresch, W. (2009). Research in online and blended
learning in the business disciplines: Key findings and possible future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(2),
71 – 87. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.06.006
Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., … Huang, B. (2004a). How Does Distance
Education Compare with Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational
Research, 74(3), 379–439.
Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Wade, A., Borokhovski, E., & Lou, Y. (2004b). The Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous
Distance Education: A Meta-Analytical Assessment of Simonson’s “Equivalency Theory.” In 2004 Annual proceedings of
selected research and development papers presented at the national convention of the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology (pp. 102–110).
Borokhovski, E., Tamim, R., Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., & Sokolovskaya, A. (2012). Are contextual and designed student–
student interaction treatments equally effective in distance education? Distance Education, 33(3), 311–329. http://doi.
org/10.1080/01587919.2012.723162
Carroll, C., Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., Sutton, A., & Wong, R. (2009). UK health-care professionals’ experience of on-line
learning techniques: A systematic review of qualitative data. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29
(4), 235–241. http://doi.org/10.1002/chp.20041
33
References II
Chipps, J., Ramlall, S., & Mars, M. (2012b). Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the University of
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Psychiatry, 15(4). http://doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i4.32
Chumley-Jones, H. S., Dobbie, A., & Alford, C. L. (2002). Web-based learning: Sound educational method or hype? A review of the
evaluation literature. Academic Medicine, 77(Suppl10), S86–S93. http://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200210001-00028
Cook, D. A., Levinson, A. J., & Garside, S. (2010b). Time and learning efficiency in Internet-based learning: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15(5), 755–770. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9231-x
Darabi, A., Liang, X., Suryavanshi, R., & Yurekli, H. (2013). Effectiveness of Online Discussion Strategies: A Meta-Analysis.
American Journal of Distance Education, 27(4), 228–241. http://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2013.837651
George, B. (2014). Identification of the Constraints and Barriers to the Adoption of Distributed Design Education.
Landers, R. N. (2009). Traditional, web-based, and hybrid instruction: A comparison of training methods. University of
Minnesota.
Lou, Y., Bernard, R. M., & Abrami, P. C. (2006). Media and Pedagogy in Undergraduate Distance Education: A Theory-Based
Meta-Analysis of Empirical Literature. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(2), 141–176. http://doi.org/10.
1007/s11423-006-8252-x
34
References III
Machtmes, K., & Asher, J. W. (2000). A meta‐analysis of the effectiveness of telecourses in distance education. American
Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 27–46.
Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R. F., & Baki, M. (2013). The Effectiveness of Online and Blended Learning: A Meta-Analysis of
the Empirical Literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3).
Minnaar, A. (2011). Student support in e-learning courses in higher education – insights from a metasynthesis “A pedagogy of
panic attacks.” Africa Education Review, 8(3), 483–503. http://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2011.618664
Peterson, D. S. (2008). A meta-analytic study of adult self-directed learning and online nursing education: A review of research
from 1995 to 2007. Capella University.
Ravenna, G., Foster, C., & Bishop, C. (2012). Increasing Student Interaction Online: A Review of the Literature in Teacher
Education Programs. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20(2), 177–203.
Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2003). Differences Between Traditional and Distance Education Academic Performances: A Meta-
Analytic Approach. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(2).
San, M. M. P. (2006). Looking for critical thinking in online threaded discussions. E-JIST : E-Journal of Instructional Science and
Technology, 9(2).
35
References IV
Styer, A. J. (2007). A grounded meta-analysis of adult learner motivation in online learning from the perspective of the learner.
Capella University.
Tomlinson, J., Shaw, T., Munro, A., Johnson, R., Madden, D. L., Phillips, R., & McGregor, D. (2013). How does tele-learning
compare with other forms of education delivery? A systematic review of tele-learning educational outcomes for health
professionals. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 24(2), 70–75. http://doi.org/10.1071/NB12076
Uzuner, S. (2009). Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review. The International Review of Research in Open
and Distance Learning, 10(3).
Williams, S. L. (2006). The Effectiveness of Distance Education in Allied Health Science Programs: A Meta-Analysis of
Outcomes. American Journal of Distance Education, 20(3), 127–141. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15389286ajde2003_2
Wong, G., Greenhalgh, T., & Pawson, R. (2010). Internet-based medical education: a realist review of what works, for whom and
in what circumstances. BMC Medical Education, 10(1), 12.
36
Questions?
email: v.kovanovic@ed.ac.uk
twitter: @vkovanovic
37

More Related Content

What's hot

Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
Chrissi Nerantzi
 

What's hot (20)

Penetrating the black box of time-on-task estimation
Penetrating the black box of time-on-task estimationPenetrating the black box of time-on-task estimation
Penetrating the black box of time-on-task estimation
 
Opening up higher education in Rwanda
Opening up higher education in RwandaOpening up higher education in Rwanda
Opening up higher education in Rwanda
 
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
 
Use of Open Education Resources in Distance Education and Training Institutes...
Use of Open Education Resources in Distance Education and Training Institutes...Use of Open Education Resources in Distance Education and Training Institutes...
Use of Open Education Resources in Distance Education and Training Institutes...
 
Towards a cross-boundary collaborative open learning framework for cross-inst...
Towards a cross-boundary collaborative open learning framework for cross-inst...Towards a cross-boundary collaborative open learning framework for cross-inst...
Towards a cross-boundary collaborative open learning framework for cross-inst...
 
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
Developing a collaborative learning design framework for open cross-instituti...
 
Asia-Pacific LSP & Professional Communication, 2017: Developing research meth...
Asia-Pacific LSP & Professional Communication, 2017: Developing research meth...Asia-Pacific LSP & Professional Communication, 2017: Developing research meth...
Asia-Pacific LSP & Professional Communication, 2017: Developing research meth...
 
A ticket for a cross-boundary higher education system. Just a dream? PhD study
A ticket for a cross-boundary higher education system. Just a dream? PhD studyA ticket for a cross-boundary higher education system. Just a dream? PhD study
A ticket for a cross-boundary higher education system. Just a dream? PhD study
 
A Study on Indian Learners in MOOCs - GO-GN Presentation
A Study on Indian Learners in MOOCs - GO-GN PresentationA Study on Indian Learners in MOOCs - GO-GN Presentation
A Study on Indian Learners in MOOCs - GO-GN Presentation
 
The developer's real new clothes by Chrissi Nerantzi, for 21st annual SEDA Co...
The developer's real new clothes by Chrissi Nerantzi, for 21st annual SEDA Co...The developer's real new clothes by Chrissi Nerantzi, for 21st annual SEDA Co...
The developer's real new clothes by Chrissi Nerantzi, for 21st annual SEDA Co...
 
Exploring open educational practices of 1st year students
Exploring open educational practices of 1st year studentsExploring open educational practices of 1st year students
Exploring open educational practices of 1st year students
 
Differentiation in Access to, and the Use and Sharing of (Open) Educational R...
Differentiation in Access to, and the Use and Sharing of (Open) Educational R...Differentiation in Access to, and the Use and Sharing of (Open) Educational R...
Differentiation in Access to, and the Use and Sharing of (Open) Educational R...
 
Critical issues in contemporary open education research
 Critical issues in contemporary open education research Critical issues in contemporary open education research
Critical issues in contemporary open education research
 
Increasing Learners' Retention and Persistence in MOOCs: Design-Based Researc...
Increasing Learners' Retention and Persistence in MOOCs: Design-Based Researc...Increasing Learners' Retention and Persistence in MOOCs: Design-Based Researc...
Increasing Learners' Retention and Persistence in MOOCs: Design-Based Researc...
 
Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
Just a buzz by Chrissi Nerantzi and Neil Withnell poster presentation for the...
 
“I would probably find it quite hard if I had to do it in a foreign language”
“I would probably find it quite hard if I had to do it in a foreign language” “I would probably find it quite hard if I had to do it in a foreign language”
“I would probably find it quite hard if I had to do it in a foreign language”
 
Blended MOOCs: University teachers' perspective
Blended MOOCs: University teachers' perspectiveBlended MOOCs: University teachers' perspective
Blended MOOCs: University teachers' perspective
 
Towards a cross boundary collaborative open learning framework latest
Towards a cross boundary collaborative open learning framework latestTowards a cross boundary collaborative open learning framework latest
Towards a cross boundary collaborative open learning framework latest
 
Designing sustainable governance for open education in healthcare: an ecosyst...
Designing sustainable governance for open education in healthcare: an ecosyst...Designing sustainable governance for open education in healthcare: an ecosyst...
Designing sustainable governance for open education in healthcare: an ecosyst...
 
About chaos, the big wave, confusion and overcoming loneliness in Openland b...
About chaos, the big wave, confusion  and overcoming loneliness in Openland b...About chaos, the big wave, confusion  and overcoming loneliness in Openland b...
About chaos, the big wave, confusion and overcoming loneliness in Openland b...
 

Similar to What does effective online/blended teaching look like?

Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1 Theories o.docx
Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1  Theories o.docxAdult Learning Theories ChartPart 1  Theories o.docx
Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1 Theories o.docx
daniahendric
 
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_lingAssignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
Khang-Ling Loh
 
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
Gambari Isiaka
 
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
LancePerez11
 
Chittur Preliminary Proposal
Chittur Preliminary ProposalChittur Preliminary Proposal
Chittur Preliminary Proposal
Deb Chittur
 
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College CourseGamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
Szymon Machajewski
 
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
ijtsrd
 

Similar to What does effective online/blended teaching look like? (20)

Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1 Theories o.docx
Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1  Theories o.docxAdult Learning Theories ChartPart 1  Theories o.docx
Adult Learning Theories ChartPart 1 Theories o.docx
 
The effect of blended learning on students’ achievement,
The effect of blended learning on students’ achievement,The effect of blended learning on students’ achievement,
The effect of blended learning on students’ achievement,
 
Supporting teachers to support student collaboration
Supporting teachers to support student collaboration Supporting teachers to support student collaboration
Supporting teachers to support student collaboration
 
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_lingAssignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
Assignment02 simon loh_khang_ling
 
The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on ...
The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on ...The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on ...
The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on ...
 
A Study On The Predictors Of Success And Satisfaction In An Online Higher Edu...
A Study On The Predictors Of Success And Satisfaction In An Online Higher Edu...A Study On The Predictors Of Success And Satisfaction In An Online Higher Edu...
A Study On The Predictors Of Success And Satisfaction In An Online Higher Edu...
 
Effectiveness of Flipped Learning: Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Prowess in...
Effectiveness of Flipped Learning: Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Prowess in...Effectiveness of Flipped Learning: Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Prowess in...
Effectiveness of Flipped Learning: Improving Pre-service Teachers’ Prowess in...
 
Learners seeking, generating and using feedback inputs: The role of student a...
Learners seeking, generating and using feedback inputs: The role of student a...Learners seeking, generating and using feedback inputs: The role of student a...
Learners seeking, generating and using feedback inputs: The role of student a...
 
Oh and park 2009
Oh and park 2009Oh and park 2009
Oh and park 2009
 
Feedback for student learning as partnership between teachers and students
Feedback for student learning as partnership between teachers and studentsFeedback for student learning as partnership between teachers and students
Feedback for student learning as partnership between teachers and students
 
Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Lite...
Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Lite...Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Lite...
Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Lite...
 
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
Effectiveness of video based cooperative learning strategy on high, medium an...
 
10428
1042810428
10428
 
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
PR2-SuCriTeJe-1.pptx 123455828274828r7727wdush3728748282847383783
 
Position paper garcia_gros
Position paper garcia_grosPosition paper garcia_gros
Position paper garcia_gros
 
article_8371.pdf
article_8371.pdfarticle_8371.pdf
article_8371.pdf
 
Chittur Preliminary Proposal
Chittur Preliminary ProposalChittur Preliminary Proposal
Chittur Preliminary Proposal
 
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College CourseGamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course
 
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
Impact of Blended Learning Approach on Students’ Achievement in Quadratic and...
 
Technology-enabled learning-oriented assessment
Technology-enabled learning-oriented assessmentTechnology-enabled learning-oriented assessment
Technology-enabled learning-oriented assessment
 

More from Vitomir Kovanovic

Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and ManagersIntroduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
Vitomir Kovanovic
 
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analyticsValidating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
Vitomir Kovanovic
 
Kovanović et al. 2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
Kovanović et al.   2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...Kovanović et al.   2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
Kovanović et al. 2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
Vitomir Kovanovic
 
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
Vitomir Kovanovic
 

More from Vitomir Kovanovic (20)

Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and ManagersIntroduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
Introduction to Learning Analytics for High School Teachers and Managers
 
Extending video interactions to support self-regulated learning in an online ...
Extending video interactions to support self-regulated learning in an online ...Extending video interactions to support self-regulated learning in an online ...
Extending video interactions to support self-regulated learning in an online ...
 
Analysing social presence in online discussions through network and text anal...
Analysing social presence in online discussions through network and text anal...Analysing social presence in online discussions through network and text anal...
Analysing social presence in online discussions through network and text anal...
 
Automated Analysis of Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions Written in Por...
Automated Analysis of Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions Written in Por...Automated Analysis of Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions Written in Por...
Automated Analysis of Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions Written in Por...
 
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analyticsValidating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
Validating a theorized model of engagement in learning analytics
 
Examining the Value of Learning Analytics for Supporting Work-integrated Lear...
Examining the Value of Learning Analytics for Supporting Work-integrated Lear...Examining the Value of Learning Analytics for Supporting Work-integrated Lear...
Examining the Value of Learning Analytics for Supporting Work-integrated Lear...
 
Developing Self-regulated Learning in High-school Students: The Role of Learn...
Developing Self-regulated Learning in High-school Students: The Role of Learn...Developing Self-regulated Learning in High-school Students: The Role of Learn...
Developing Self-regulated Learning in High-school Students: The Role of Learn...
 
Unsupervised Learning for Learning Analytics Researchers
Unsupervised Learning for Learning Analytics ResearchersUnsupervised Learning for Learning Analytics Researchers
Unsupervised Learning for Learning Analytics Researchers
 
Introduction to R for Learning Analytics Researchers
Introduction to R for Learning Analytics ResearchersIntroduction to R for Learning Analytics Researchers
Introduction to R for Learning Analytics Researchers
 
A novel model of cognitive presence assessment using automated learning analy...
A novel model of cognitive presence assessment using automated learning analy...A novel model of cognitive presence assessment using automated learning analy...
A novel model of cognitive presence assessment using automated learning analy...
 
Introduction to Learning Analytics
Introduction to Learning AnalyticsIntroduction to Learning Analytics
Introduction to Learning Analytics
 
Introduction to Epistemic Network Analysis
Introduction to Epistemic Network AnalysisIntroduction to Epistemic Network Analysis
Introduction to Epistemic Network Analysis
 
Understand students’ self-reflections through learning analytics
Understand students’ self-reflections through learning analyticsUnderstand students’ self-reflections through learning analytics
Understand students’ self-reflections through learning analytics
 
Assessing cognitive presence using automated learning analytics methods
Assessing cognitive presence using automated learning analytics methodsAssessing cognitive presence using automated learning analytics methods
Assessing cognitive presence using automated learning analytics methods
 
Kovanović et al. 2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
Kovanović et al.   2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...Kovanović et al.   2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
Kovanović et al. 2017 - developing a mooc experimentation platform: insight...
 
Learning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry
Learning Analytics for Communities of InquiryLearning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry
Learning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry
 
A Novel Model of Cognitive Presence Assessment Using Automated Learning Analy...
A Novel Model of Cognitive Presence Assessment Using Automated Learning Analy...A Novel Model of Cognitive Presence Assessment Using Automated Learning Analy...
A Novel Model of Cognitive Presence Assessment Using Automated Learning Analy...
 
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
Towards Automated Classification of Discussion Transcripts: A Cognitive Prese...
 
Automated System for Cognitive Presence Coding
Automated System for Cognitive Presence CodingAutomated System for Cognitive Presence Coding
Automated System for Cognitive Presence Coding
 
Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion Transcripts
Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion TranscriptsAutomated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion Transcripts
Automated Cognitive Presence Detection in Online Discussion Transcripts
 

Recently uploaded

SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
Peter Brusilovsky
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
AnaAcapella
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
cupulin
 

Recently uploaded (20)

AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.pptAIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
 
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptxWhat is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptxHMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
HMCS Vancouver Pre-Deployment Brief - May 2024 (Web Version).pptx
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdfUGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 

What does effective online/blended teaching look like?

  • 1. What does effective distance/online/blended teaching look like? Vitomir Kovanović, School of Informatics THE UNIVERSITY of EDINBURGH v.kovanovic@ed.ac.uk @vkovanovic EASS Teaching Academics Network The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia 9 March 2016
  • 2. Preparing for the Digital University Download: http://bit.ly/pdu-report ● Authors ○ George Siemens, UTA ○ Dragan Gašević, UoE ○ Shane Dawson, UNISA ○ Charles Lang, NYU ○ Srećko Joksimović, UoE ○ Oleksandra Poquet, UNISA ○ Vitomir Kovanović, UoE Coverage by the Chronicle of Higher Education http://bit.ly/digital-uni 2
  • 3. Study objectives ● Many changes in educational landscape ○ Mobile technologies ○ Personalization & feedback ○ Learning analytics ○ MOOCs What is the current state of distance education research, as reflected through meta-analyses and systematic reviews? Goals: 1. Identify themes that have framed current research, 2. Summarize the current state of research and practice, and 3. Reveal prospective directions for the future 3
  • 4. An umbrella review Given the large number of studies, we focused on second-order studies: ● Reduces the number of studies to look ● Increases the validity of evidence ● Two types of studies investigated: ○ Meta-analyses: ■ Integrate statistical results from several studies ■ Can investigate consistency of findings ○ Systematic reviews: ■ Literature reviews with a clear inclusion criteria 4
  • 5. Plethora of terms & modalities ● Distance/Online education/learning ● E-Learning ● Technology-enhanced learning ● Computer-aided/supported instruction/training ● Internet-based learning/training ● Blended/Hybrid learning ● Web-based learning ● Mobile learning ● M-Learning ● MOOCs (cMOOCs, xMOOCs) ● Intelligent tutoring systems 5
  • 6. Plethora of terms & modalities ● Distance/Online education/learning ● E-Learning ● Technology-enhanced learning ● Computer-aided/supported instruction/training ● Internet-based learning/training ● Blended/Hybrid learning ● Web-based learning ● Mobile learning ● M-Learning ● MOOCs (cMOOCs, xMOOCs) ● Intelligent tutoring systems 6 One term to rule them all... Digital Learning
  • 7. Dataset 7 Focus on 1984-2014 period 74 studies for DE & OL 20 studies for BL
  • 8. Five prominent themes 1. Topic analysis of the published literature, 2. Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction, 3. Factors affecting effectiveness of DE/OL, 4. Institutional adoption of DE/OL, and 5. DE/OL research methods. 8
  • 9. Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction Comparing student learning outcomes between DL/OL and traditional modes of instructions prominent theme in policy discourse (Arbaugh et al. 2009); ● Pros: ○ flexibility, ○ alleviation of overcrowded classrooms, ○ increased enrollment, ○ reduced cost, and ○ increased profit ● Cons: ○ instructor training cost, ○ feelings of isolation, and ○ technology gaps (Clardy, 2009; Grandzol & Grandzol, 2006) 9
  • 10. Comparison of DE/OL and F2F instruction ● Distance education can be at minimum as effective as traditional classroom instruction (Arbaugh et al., 2009). ● No difference in effect size for student academic performance (Arbaugh et al., 2009; Bernard et al., 2004a; Lou, Bernard, and Abrami, 2006) ● Importance of context (Cook et al., 2010b) 10
  • 11. Even better than F2F? ● better mode of delivery (Shachar and Neumann, 2003; Allen et al. (2004) ● highly effective for instruction delivery to adult learners (Roberts, 2011) ● better for health professionals (Williams, 2006) However, ● traditional modes of instruction yield higher student satisfaction levels (Chipps et al., 2012b; Tomlinson et al., 2013; Allen et al., 2002; Bernard, Abrami, Wade, Borokhovski, and Lou, 2004b) 11
  • 12. Blended is the way to go ● Online learning did not produce significantly different learning outcomes than face-to-face learning (Means et al., 2013). ○ Blended learning showed significant positive effects. ● Online learning did not outperform other educational methods ○ Improved scores on multiple-choice tests (Chumley-Jones, Dobbie, & Alford, 2002). 12
  • 13. Factors affecting effectiveness of DE/OL Three categories of factors (Minnaar, 2011): ● Infrastructure and technology, ● Pedagogy, and ● Human factors. 13
  • 14. Mode of delivery (Sync vs. Async) Results still not conclusive, buuut: ● Asynchronous delivery >> classroom delivery >> synchronous delivery. (Bernard, Abrami, Lou, et al., 2004; Lou et al., 2006; Allen et al., 2004) Online discussions enable for rich student-student interactions that stimulate the development of deep and critical thinking skills (San, 2006). ● literature being focused on graduate-level students ● lack of involvement from course instructors and the research from their perspective. 14
  • 15. How to improve? ● Synchronous: ○ More personalized contact between students and instructors ■ make it similar to face-to-face education (Bernard, Abrami, Wade, et al. 2004). ● Asynchronous: ○ use of problem-based learning ■ Positive effects in both achievement and attitude (Bernard, Abrami, Wade, et al., 2004). ○ use of media to enable collaborative learning (Lou et al. 2006) 15
  • 16. ● “... pedagogically rich strategies that include the instructor’s involvement and participation in the discussion; monitoring and moderating the discussion; regular interaction with students; and facilitating learners’ interaction, collaboration, and teamwork” (Darabi et al., 2013, p. 13). ● Organizing discussions in small groups which help students to develop a community of learners and ”feel comfortable engaging in relevant discourse” (Ravenna, Foster, and Bishop, 2012, p. 22). ● Requirement for instructors’ participation (Ravenna et al., 2012): ○ “model respondent”, ○ to share the knowledge and ○ promote community among students Strategies for fostering online discussions 16
  • 17. Course domain DE/OL was far more effective for workspace & adult professional learners than for graduate and undergraduate students (Machtmes and Asher, 2000; Williams, 2006). Largest effect in favor of distance education was achieved for foreign language courses (Allen et al., 2004) Bernard, Abrami, Lou, et al. (2004): ● best DE/OL: business, military, and computing courses ● best F2F: mathematics, science, and engineering courses. 17
  • 18. Communication technology & media 89% of all courses made use of written materials, while 55% used multimedia materials. 32% of all courses used asynchronous discussions, and 9% synchronous discussions (Cook, et al., 2010a). No significant differences arising from adoption of different technologies (Machtmes and Asher, 2000). Pedagogy, rather than the adopted technology, plays a dominant role in the effectiveness of DE/OL (Bernard, Abrami, Wade, et al., 2004). 18
  • 19. Cultural considerations Students’ cultural background had important implications on their academic success. Challenges for students unfamiliar with institutional culture: ● Problems with course expectations, ● Social presence, and ● Building relationships with instructors (Uzuner, 2009). Current focus on Asian students 19
  • 20. Course interactions (S-S, S-T, S-C) Importance of support for meaningful interactions among students and between students and instructors (Wong, Greenhalgh, and Pawson, 2010; George, 2014). All three forms of interaction produced positive effect sizes on academic performance (Bernard et al., 2009): ● S-S and S-C had higher effect than S-T interactions. Importance of the strong course design that guides students to deeply engage with the content! 20
  • 21. Course interactions (S-S, S-T, S-C) Most effective S-S interactions: ● those designed to support collaboration between students (Borokhovski, Tamim, Bernard, Abrami, and Sokolovskaya, 2012) S-T interactions: Single most important course-related characteristic ● influence learners’ motivation ● overall course experience ● timely feedback and formal support particularly important (Carroll, Booth, Papaioannou, Sutton, & Wong, 2009; Cook et al., 2010c; Minnaar, 2011; Peterson, 2008; Styer, 2007) 21
  • 22. Course organization and design High interactivity (Cook et al. 2010c). Best outcomes: ● practice exercises, ● feedback, ● repetition of study materials, and ● use of online discussions Planning of course interactions (Borokhovski et al., 2012) ● designed and planned interactions leading to higher academic performance. 22
  • 23. Course organization and design Positive effect (Means et al., 2013): ● Collaborative or instructor-directed instruction, rather than individual learning, ● individualized instruction, simulations, and support for students’ reflection, No effect: ● various media elements (e.g., images and videos), ● student control, ● online quizzes, ● interactions of groups of learners, and ● scripted collaboration did not contribute to learning performance. 23
  • 24. Student perspective ● Students value: ○ well-designed, frequently updated courses ○ courses that incorporate extrinsic motivating factors, with tasks/examples immediately relevant for their practice, ○ a reasonable level of control and flexibility (primarily deadlines), ○ support to collaborate with their peers, and ○ high level of instructor involvement ○ summative and timely feedback (Carroll et al., 2009; Styer, 2007). 24
  • 25. Learner control? Learner control (ability to decide when, where, and who to learn with) Conflicting evidence: ● Positive (Sitzmann et al., 2006; Carroll et al., 2009; Peterson, 2008) ● Negative (Landers, 2009) 25
  • 26. Effectiveness increasing over time! 26 Machtmes and Asher (2000): ● 1960s: 0.09 SD in favor of traditional instruction ● 1990s: 0.23 SD in favor of DE/OL Roberts (2011): ● Before 2006: 0.61 Hedges’ g ● After 2009: 0.83 Hedges’ g
  • 27. Effectiveness increasing over time! 27 Reasons (Machtmes & Asher, 2000; Roberts, 2011): ● Overall maturation of the DE/OL field, ● Maturation of DE/OL pedagogies, ● Modes of instruction, ● Learners gaining experience and understanding of DE/OL and, ● New and more flexible technologies .
  • 29. Challenges: ● Amount of participation in course design and facilitation seems hardly sustainable for instructors (Moallem, 2003). ● Competencies (Koch, 2014): ○ technical and didactical competencies, ○ ability to deliver engaging and interactive course content, ○ ability to anticipate students’ need and facilitate asynchronous learning, ○ use of innovative teaching methods, ○ ability to project teaching presence within an online environment, ○ ability to mediate asynchronous interaction and create a community, ○ high degree of self-organization, and ○ ways of assessing students’ learning and participation. 29
  • 30. Challenges ● Real challenge for instructors is not the “mastery of these competencies, but rather in using them to create a high quality e-learning experience with added value for the student” (Koch, 2014, p.4). ● Instructor's role also changes “from that of the content expert to that of a facilitator of learning processes, who guides and coaches students to help them achieve learning objectives” (Koch, 2014, p.3). 30
  • 31. Summary Effective learning will not occur if online courses “are designed in such a way that traditional F2F methods (textbook readings, lectures, examinations) are published on the Internet without considering social isolation, de-individualized instruction, and using technology for the sake of technology” (Cohen, Carbone, and Beffa- Negrini, 2011, p.9). The real question is not “how does effective learning looks like?” but “how to support instructors to teach more effectively? “ 31
  • 33. References I Arbaugh, J. B., Godfrey, M., Johnson, M., Pollack, B. L., Niendorf, B., & Wresch, W. (2009). Research in online and blended learning in the business disciplines: Key findings and possible future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(2), 71 – 87. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.06.006 Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., … Huang, B. (2004a). How Does Distance Education Compare with Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 379–439. Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Wade, A., Borokhovski, E., & Lou, Y. (2004b). The Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous Distance Education: A Meta-Analytical Assessment of Simonson’s “Equivalency Theory.” In 2004 Annual proceedings of selected research and development papers presented at the national convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 102–110). Borokhovski, E., Tamim, R., Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., & Sokolovskaya, A. (2012). Are contextual and designed student– student interaction treatments equally effective in distance education? Distance Education, 33(3), 311–329. http://doi. org/10.1080/01587919.2012.723162 Carroll, C., Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., Sutton, A., & Wong, R. (2009). UK health-care professionals’ experience of on-line learning techniques: A systematic review of qualitative data. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29 (4), 235–241. http://doi.org/10.1002/chp.20041 33
  • 34. References II Chipps, J., Ramlall, S., & Mars, M. (2012b). Videoconference-based education for psychiatry registrars at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Psychiatry, 15(4). http://doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i4.32 Chumley-Jones, H. S., Dobbie, A., & Alford, C. L. (2002). Web-based learning: Sound educational method or hype? A review of the evaluation literature. Academic Medicine, 77(Suppl10), S86–S93. http://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200210001-00028 Cook, D. A., Levinson, A. J., & Garside, S. (2010b). Time and learning efficiency in Internet-based learning: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15(5), 755–770. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9231-x Darabi, A., Liang, X., Suryavanshi, R., & Yurekli, H. (2013). Effectiveness of Online Discussion Strategies: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(4), 228–241. http://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2013.837651 George, B. (2014). Identification of the Constraints and Barriers to the Adoption of Distributed Design Education. Landers, R. N. (2009). Traditional, web-based, and hybrid instruction: A comparison of training methods. University of Minnesota. Lou, Y., Bernard, R. M., & Abrami, P. C. (2006). Media and Pedagogy in Undergraduate Distance Education: A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Empirical Literature. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(2), 141–176. http://doi.org/10. 1007/s11423-006-8252-x 34
  • 35. References III Machtmes, K., & Asher, J. W. (2000). A meta‐analysis of the effectiveness of telecourses in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 27–46. Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R. F., & Baki, M. (2013). The Effectiveness of Online and Blended Learning: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3). Minnaar, A. (2011). Student support in e-learning courses in higher education – insights from a metasynthesis “A pedagogy of panic attacks.” Africa Education Review, 8(3), 483–503. http://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2011.618664 Peterson, D. S. (2008). A meta-analytic study of adult self-directed learning and online nursing education: A review of research from 1995 to 2007. Capella University. Ravenna, G., Foster, C., & Bishop, C. (2012). Increasing Student Interaction Online: A Review of the Literature in Teacher Education Programs. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20(2), 177–203. Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2003). Differences Between Traditional and Distance Education Academic Performances: A Meta- Analytic Approach. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(2). San, M. M. P. (2006). Looking for critical thinking in online threaded discussions. E-JIST : E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 9(2). 35
  • 36. References IV Styer, A. J. (2007). A grounded meta-analysis of adult learner motivation in online learning from the perspective of the learner. Capella University. Tomlinson, J., Shaw, T., Munro, A., Johnson, R., Madden, D. L., Phillips, R., & McGregor, D. (2013). How does tele-learning compare with other forms of education delivery? A systematic review of tele-learning educational outcomes for health professionals. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 24(2), 70–75. http://doi.org/10.1071/NB12076 Uzuner, S. (2009). Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3). Williams, S. L. (2006). The Effectiveness of Distance Education in Allied Health Science Programs: A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes. American Journal of Distance Education, 20(3), 127–141. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15389286ajde2003_2 Wong, G., Greenhalgh, T., & Pawson, R. (2010). Internet-based medical education: a realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances. BMC Medical Education, 10(1), 12. 36