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By Edwin Mugwira
 The origins of Perennialism are based off the work of
Plato, Aristotle, and St.Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas 's
primary goal was to reconcile faith and reason or
philosophy and revelation.
 Perennialism was originally religious in nature,
developed first byThomas Aquinas in the thirteenth
century inSSS his work [1] (On theTeacher).
 In the nineteenth century, John Henry
Newman presented a defense of religious
perennialism in The Idea of a University. Discourse 5 of
that work, "Knowledge Its Own End", is a recent
statement of a Christian educational perennialism
 The term Perennialsim comes from the word perennial meaning constant and
unchanging.
 The literal definition of perennial means “everlasting” or something that “returns
year after year.” As implied by its name, Perennialism is based upon the belief
that there are everlasting ideas and universal truths.Therefore, the primary goal
of education within this philosophy is to search for and disseminate truth. In
addition, this philosophy of education advocates for the cultivation of human
intellect.
 This is a subject-centered philosophy.The goal of a perennialist educator is
to teach students to think rationally and develop minds that can think critically.A
perennialist classroom aims to be a closely organized and well-disciplined
environment, which develops in students a lifelong quest for the truth.
 Perennialism is a philosophy of education that emphasizes the enduring and
universal aspects of knowledge and values. It suggests that education should
focus on teaching students timeless truths and principles that are relevant across
time and cultures.
 Common characteristics of a perennialist curriculum is a subject centered
lessons, organized body of knowledge, and a focuses on developing the thinking
skills of students.
 Perennialism is identified as a very conservative
theory of education. Rooted in the following schools
of thought: idealism, realism, and neo-Thomism, the
educational focus of Perennialism is on finding
universal truths and absolutes associated with reason
and faith (Webb et. al., 2010). According to this theory
of education, truth is universal and does not change.
 Perennial means “everlasting,” like a perennial
flower that comes up year after year. Espousing the
notion that some ideas have lasted over centuries
and are as relevant today as when they were first
conceived
 Perennialism is a specific educational philosophy and is
derived from ancient Greek philosophies such as idealism
and realism. One of the major tenets of perennialism is
that knowledge that has withstood the test of time is what
is needed to be taught.The goals of education have been
the same throughout time. Human nature is constant and
mankind has the ability to understand the truths of nature.
 Perennialism is an educational philosophy suggesting that
human nature is constant, and that the focus of education
should be on teaching concepts that remain true over
time. School serves the purpose of preparing students
intellectually, and the scurriculum is based on “great
ideas” that have endured through history. See the
following video for additional explanation.
 Perennialism is a belief that centers on topics and concepts that are meaningful
to human nature.The roots of perennialism can be traced back to St.Thomas
Aquinas,Aristotle, and Plato.
 The philosophy of perennialism can be broken down into two parts, religious and
secular. Religious perennialism focuses on the personal growth of an individual,
and secular stresses the ideal that people need to learn how to reason.
 According to Nayal (2010), “Perennialism philosophy of education says since
people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or
techniques.” Perennialists believe that education should revolve around human
values, rather than specific facts and details.
 Perennialism is a teacher-centered educational philosophy that focuses on
everlasting ideas and universal truths.To clarify, Perennialism suggests that the
focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted for centuries believing
the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written.
 This educational philosophy aims to prepare students for life by developing their
intellectual and moral qualities through emphasizing knowledge and the
meaning of knowledge, servings to enhance student’s critical thinking skills in
their search for individual freedoms, human rights and responsibilities through
nature.
 For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire
understandings about the great ideas ofWestern civilization.These ideas
have the potential for solving problems in any era.
 The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths
which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at
their most essential level, do not change.
 Perennialists believe that all people everywhere should be taught things
of eternal relevance, and that the emphasis should be on principles
rather than facts. Humans are humans, so we must first teach them
about humans, not machines or technology, and about free topics, not
professional ones.
 Educational perennialism is a normative educational
philosophy. Perennialists believe that the priority of education should be
to teach principles that have persisted for centuries, not facts. Since
people are human, one should teach first about humans, rather than
machines or techniques, and about liberal, rather than vocational, topics.
 Perennialism appears similar to essentialism but focuses first on personal
development, while essentialism focuses first on essential skills.
 Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have
lasted over centuries.They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful
today as when they were written.They recommend that students learn from
reading and analyzing the works by history's finest thinkers and writers
 Perennialist classrooms are also centered on teachers in order to accomplish
these goals.The teachers are not concerned about the students' interests or
experiences.They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are
believed to be most beneficial to disciplining students' minds.
 The perennialist curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human
beings possess the same essential nature. Perennialists think it is important that
individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively.They emphasize
that students should not be taught information that may soon be outdated or
found to be incorrect.
 Perennialists disapprove of teachers requiring students to absorb massive
amounts of disconnected information.They recommend that schools spend
more time teaching about concepts and explaining they are meaningful to
students.The only example I can think of would be a class about religion or
history.The instructor would use religious books and historical documents.
 Rooted in realism
 3Rs, moral and religious training; Greek, Latin,
grammar, logic and geometry; the liberal arts.
 Expounds the past and teaches universally agreed
upon knowledge and cherished values of society.
 Teacher is a master of subjects and guides
discussion.
 Common curriculum for all students; student
interests are irrelevant.
 In educational practice, perennialism is applied by designing curriculum and
instruction that emphasize the study of classic works, such as literature,
philosophy, and history, which are believed to contain universal truths.Teachers
who follow a perennialist approach often use Socratic questioning and engage
students in discussions and debates to encourage critical thinking and reflection
on these timeless ideas.They also emphasize the development of moral and
ethical values, as well as the cultivation of intellectual curiosity and a love for
learning.
 Teaching pupils to think critically and rationally are the main objectives of
perennialist educators. A perennialist classroom seeks to be a highly structured
and disciplined setting that fosters in pupils a never-ending search for the truth.
 Perennialists asTeachers:
 Perennialists teach principles rather than facts.They believe that whatever is
taught should be used throughout your life. Instead of just being taught
something ridiculous and never using it, they believe that teaching something
worthwhile and meaningful are the best for growth.
 For Perennialists, the teacher is seen as the
authority figure in the classroom. As the
authority figure, it is up to the teacher to
disseminate the truth.The teacher can do this by
acting as a seminar leader or coach.
 According to Adler (1984), as a seminar leader,
the teacher illustrates the power of the literature
being read through questioning.When done
correctly, this questioning should help students
think rationally. One of the most popular
methods for questioning students is the Socratic
Method
 The purpose of schooling is basically to
connect with God, and preparation for life
and that it is a life long process.
 They also like to teach the eternal
truths,cultivate the rational intellect, and
develop a spiritual nature for one self.
 The Highest goal of education is union with
God
 Believes all students are rational beings for
examples of value and worth.
 Students have been gifted with an intellect
and a soul.
 The students are supposed to learn the “truth” as taught to them by the teacher. Since truth does
not change, students’ interests or experiences are not reflected in what is taught in aPerennialist
classroom. In fact, the issue of diversity is not even relevant, because learning is not about
diversity.
Curriculum:
 Most perennialists stress a strong liberal arts curriculum that includes subjects as philosophy,
mathematics, history, geography, political science, sociology, theology, languages, and
literature, physical and life sciences, and the fine arts and humanities. If these subjects are highly
studied and mastered then you completed necessary training for a well developed intellect. A
combination of all these subjects construct a well rounded curriculum.
 The Great Books are what perennialists mean when they talk about literature.
 A classroom constructed from Perennialism espouses a traditional philosophy where ateacher
answers questions and inquires from the students in order for them to gain anunderstanding.The
teacher role is clear, precise and specific; she is to teach the knowledge that we have about the
truth, not anything more.
 A Perennialist teacher must not only possess knowledge grounded in the liberal arts and sciences;
she must also have a repertoire of good teaching strategies. She encourages students to enjoy
the world of ideas and to use them creatively. The main subjects for Perennialism are history,
science, religion and English
 Perennalism curriculums consist of students knowing the concepts of a particular subject before
interdisciplinary subjects (Gutek 2013; Robert Hutchins.
 The aim of Perennialism in Education is to develop power of thought, internalize
truths that are universal and constant and to ensure that students acquire
understanding about the great ideas ofWestern civilization.This is the most
conservative, traditional, and flexible philosophy. Perennailism stimulate
students in how to think critically and thoughtfully; cultivating the rational mind.
 Role ofTeacher – perennailism is a teacher- centered philosophy, in which the
teacher is less concerned with student interest and more concerned with
transferring knowledge from older generations to younger generations.The
teacher will focus on the importance of reading and will often use the underlying
reading lessons to make a moral point.Teachers use history, religion, literature,
and the laws of science to reinforce universal ideas that have the potential to
solve any problem in any era.
 Curriculum and Methods – Perennialism is the classroom is focused on the
curriculum and nature need. Curriculum will focus on attaining cultural literacy,
stressing students’ growth in enduring disciplines.They stress learning through
reading and analyzing the works by history’s finest thinkers and writers.
Perennialists believe that reading is to be supplemented with mutual
investigations with teacher and minimally directed discussions through the
Socratic method in order to develop historically oriented understanding of
concepts. Less emphasis on vocational and technical education and more on the
humanities.
 Joseph, Sister Miriam (2002) [1948]. McGlynn, Margaret (eds.).The
Trivium:The Liberal Arts of Logic,Grammar, and Rhetoric (3rd Edition).
ISBN 978-0967967509.
 9Thomas O. Buford,Toward a Philosophy of Education (NewYork: Holt,
Rinehart, andWinston, 1969), 417.
 Cohen, M. L. (1999). Philosophy of Education. In Module One: History and
Philosophy of Education (Section III). Retrieved
from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html
 Farrand, M. Mortimer Adler: Personal Biography. Retrieved
from http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/educ69
2/Adler.html
 Figures, A. (2013).Teacher-Centered Philosophies. Education Issues
Today.
Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teacher
_Centered/
 Nayal, D. (2010). Perennialism philosophy of education. Education.
Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/education-
articles/perennialism-philosophy-of-education-3870529.html
 Smith, J. (2013). Retrieved from the education101intrototeaching
wiki: http://education101intrototeaching.pbworks.com/w/page/10076
924/Theories%20of%20E ducation%3A%20%20Perennialism
Perennialism Presentation By Edwin Mugwira.pptx

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Perennialism Presentation By Edwin Mugwira.pptx

  • 2.  The origins of Perennialism are based off the work of Plato, Aristotle, and St.Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas 's primary goal was to reconcile faith and reason or philosophy and revelation.  Perennialism was originally religious in nature, developed first byThomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century inSSS his work [1] (On theTeacher).  In the nineteenth century, John Henry Newman presented a defense of religious perennialism in The Idea of a University. Discourse 5 of that work, "Knowledge Its Own End", is a recent statement of a Christian educational perennialism
  • 3.
  • 4.  The term Perennialsim comes from the word perennial meaning constant and unchanging.  The literal definition of perennial means “everlasting” or something that “returns year after year.” As implied by its name, Perennialism is based upon the belief that there are everlasting ideas and universal truths.Therefore, the primary goal of education within this philosophy is to search for and disseminate truth. In addition, this philosophy of education advocates for the cultivation of human intellect.  This is a subject-centered philosophy.The goal of a perennialist educator is to teach students to think rationally and develop minds that can think critically.A perennialist classroom aims to be a closely organized and well-disciplined environment, which develops in students a lifelong quest for the truth.  Perennialism is a philosophy of education that emphasizes the enduring and universal aspects of knowledge and values. It suggests that education should focus on teaching students timeless truths and principles that are relevant across time and cultures.  Common characteristics of a perennialist curriculum is a subject centered lessons, organized body of knowledge, and a focuses on developing the thinking skills of students.
  • 5.  Perennialism is identified as a very conservative theory of education. Rooted in the following schools of thought: idealism, realism, and neo-Thomism, the educational focus of Perennialism is on finding universal truths and absolutes associated with reason and faith (Webb et. al., 2010). According to this theory of education, truth is universal and does not change.  Perennial means “everlasting,” like a perennial flower that comes up year after year. Espousing the notion that some ideas have lasted over centuries and are as relevant today as when they were first conceived
  • 6.  Perennialism is a specific educational philosophy and is derived from ancient Greek philosophies such as idealism and realism. One of the major tenets of perennialism is that knowledge that has withstood the test of time is what is needed to be taught.The goals of education have been the same throughout time. Human nature is constant and mankind has the ability to understand the truths of nature.  Perennialism is an educational philosophy suggesting that human nature is constant, and that the focus of education should be on teaching concepts that remain true over time. School serves the purpose of preparing students intellectually, and the scurriculum is based on “great ideas” that have endured through history. See the following video for additional explanation.
  • 7.  Perennialism is a belief that centers on topics and concepts that are meaningful to human nature.The roots of perennialism can be traced back to St.Thomas Aquinas,Aristotle, and Plato.  The philosophy of perennialism can be broken down into two parts, religious and secular. Religious perennialism focuses on the personal growth of an individual, and secular stresses the ideal that people need to learn how to reason.  According to Nayal (2010), “Perennialism philosophy of education says since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques.” Perennialists believe that education should revolve around human values, rather than specific facts and details.  Perennialism is a teacher-centered educational philosophy that focuses on everlasting ideas and universal truths.To clarify, Perennialism suggests that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted for centuries believing the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written.  This educational philosophy aims to prepare students for life by developing their intellectual and moral qualities through emphasizing knowledge and the meaning of knowledge, servings to enhance student’s critical thinking skills in their search for individual freedoms, human rights and responsibilities through nature.
  • 8.  For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas ofWestern civilization.These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era.  The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change.  Perennialists believe that all people everywhere should be taught things of eternal relevance, and that the emphasis should be on principles rather than facts. Humans are humans, so we must first teach them about humans, not machines or technology, and about free topics, not professional ones.  Educational perennialism is a normative educational philosophy. Perennialists believe that the priority of education should be to teach principles that have persisted for centuries, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, rather than machines or techniques, and about liberal, rather than vocational, topics.  Perennialism appears similar to essentialism but focuses first on personal development, while essentialism focuses first on essential skills.
  • 9.  Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted over centuries.They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written.They recommend that students learn from reading and analyzing the works by history's finest thinkers and writers  Perennialist classrooms are also centered on teachers in order to accomplish these goals.The teachers are not concerned about the students' interests or experiences.They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are believed to be most beneficial to disciplining students' minds.  The perennialist curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. Perennialists think it is important that individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively.They emphasize that students should not be taught information that may soon be outdated or found to be incorrect.  Perennialists disapprove of teachers requiring students to absorb massive amounts of disconnected information.They recommend that schools spend more time teaching about concepts and explaining they are meaningful to students.The only example I can think of would be a class about religion or history.The instructor would use religious books and historical documents.
  • 10.  Rooted in realism  3Rs, moral and religious training; Greek, Latin, grammar, logic and geometry; the liberal arts.  Expounds the past and teaches universally agreed upon knowledge and cherished values of society.  Teacher is a master of subjects and guides discussion.  Common curriculum for all students; student interests are irrelevant.
  • 11.
  • 12.  In educational practice, perennialism is applied by designing curriculum and instruction that emphasize the study of classic works, such as literature, philosophy, and history, which are believed to contain universal truths.Teachers who follow a perennialist approach often use Socratic questioning and engage students in discussions and debates to encourage critical thinking and reflection on these timeless ideas.They also emphasize the development of moral and ethical values, as well as the cultivation of intellectual curiosity and a love for learning.  Teaching pupils to think critically and rationally are the main objectives of perennialist educators. A perennialist classroom seeks to be a highly structured and disciplined setting that fosters in pupils a never-ending search for the truth.  Perennialists asTeachers:  Perennialists teach principles rather than facts.They believe that whatever is taught should be used throughout your life. Instead of just being taught something ridiculous and never using it, they believe that teaching something worthwhile and meaningful are the best for growth.
  • 13.  For Perennialists, the teacher is seen as the authority figure in the classroom. As the authority figure, it is up to the teacher to disseminate the truth.The teacher can do this by acting as a seminar leader or coach.  According to Adler (1984), as a seminar leader, the teacher illustrates the power of the literature being read through questioning.When done correctly, this questioning should help students think rationally. One of the most popular methods for questioning students is the Socratic Method
  • 14.  The purpose of schooling is basically to connect with God, and preparation for life and that it is a life long process.  They also like to teach the eternal truths,cultivate the rational intellect, and develop a spiritual nature for one self.  The Highest goal of education is union with God
  • 15.  Believes all students are rational beings for examples of value and worth.  Students have been gifted with an intellect and a soul.
  • 16.  The students are supposed to learn the “truth” as taught to them by the teacher. Since truth does not change, students’ interests or experiences are not reflected in what is taught in aPerennialist classroom. In fact, the issue of diversity is not even relevant, because learning is not about diversity. Curriculum:  Most perennialists stress a strong liberal arts curriculum that includes subjects as philosophy, mathematics, history, geography, political science, sociology, theology, languages, and literature, physical and life sciences, and the fine arts and humanities. If these subjects are highly studied and mastered then you completed necessary training for a well developed intellect. A combination of all these subjects construct a well rounded curriculum.  The Great Books are what perennialists mean when they talk about literature.  A classroom constructed from Perennialism espouses a traditional philosophy where ateacher answers questions and inquires from the students in order for them to gain anunderstanding.The teacher role is clear, precise and specific; she is to teach the knowledge that we have about the truth, not anything more.  A Perennialist teacher must not only possess knowledge grounded in the liberal arts and sciences; she must also have a repertoire of good teaching strategies. She encourages students to enjoy the world of ideas and to use them creatively. The main subjects for Perennialism are history, science, religion and English  Perennalism curriculums consist of students knowing the concepts of a particular subject before interdisciplinary subjects (Gutek 2013; Robert Hutchins.
  • 17.  The aim of Perennialism in Education is to develop power of thought, internalize truths that are universal and constant and to ensure that students acquire understanding about the great ideas ofWestern civilization.This is the most conservative, traditional, and flexible philosophy. Perennailism stimulate students in how to think critically and thoughtfully; cultivating the rational mind.  Role ofTeacher – perennailism is a teacher- centered philosophy, in which the teacher is less concerned with student interest and more concerned with transferring knowledge from older generations to younger generations.The teacher will focus on the importance of reading and will often use the underlying reading lessons to make a moral point.Teachers use history, religion, literature, and the laws of science to reinforce universal ideas that have the potential to solve any problem in any era.  Curriculum and Methods – Perennialism is the classroom is focused on the curriculum and nature need. Curriculum will focus on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students’ growth in enduring disciplines.They stress learning through reading and analyzing the works by history’s finest thinkers and writers. Perennialists believe that reading is to be supplemented with mutual investigations with teacher and minimally directed discussions through the Socratic method in order to develop historically oriented understanding of concepts. Less emphasis on vocational and technical education and more on the humanities.
  • 18.  Joseph, Sister Miriam (2002) [1948]. McGlynn, Margaret (eds.).The Trivium:The Liberal Arts of Logic,Grammar, and Rhetoric (3rd Edition). ISBN 978-0967967509.  9Thomas O. Buford,Toward a Philosophy of Education (NewYork: Holt, Rinehart, andWinston, 1969), 417.  Cohen, M. L. (1999). Philosophy of Education. In Module One: History and Philosophy of Education (Section III). Retrieved from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html  Farrand, M. Mortimer Adler: Personal Biography. Retrieved from http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/educ69 2/Adler.html  Figures, A. (2013).Teacher-Centered Philosophies. Education Issues Today. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teacher _Centered/  Nayal, D. (2010). Perennialism philosophy of education. Education. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/education- articles/perennialism-philosophy-of-education-3870529.html  Smith, J. (2013). Retrieved from the education101intrototeaching wiki: http://education101intrototeaching.pbworks.com/w/page/10076 924/Theories%20of%20E ducation%3A%20%20Perennialism