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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLGY EDUCTION
POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
PST5201 THEORETICAL FOUDATIONS IN STEM EDUCATION II
STUDENT NAME: MHAMBI NDLOVU
STUDENT NUMBER: N0238032J
BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
Introduction
• Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, developed by Urie
Bronfenbrenner.
• It is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the influence of various
environmental systems on human development.
• This theory emphasizes that individuals are shaped by multiple
interconnected systems within their environment.
• These systems are commonly referred to as the five components of
Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory.
The Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological
Systems
i. Microsystem
ii. Mesosystem
iii. Exosystem
iv. Macrosystem
v. Chronosystem
The Microsystem
• The microsystem is the closest and most immediate environment
that directly interacts with an individual.
• It includes the person's family, peers, school, and other immediate
social settings where the person has direct face-to-face
interactions.
• The microsystem is characterized by the immediate relationships
and activities that have a direct influence on the person's
development.
• Examples: a child's relationship with their parents, teachers, and
friends in school are part of their microsystem.
The Mesosystem
• The mesosystem refers to the connections between the various
components of the microsystem.
• It involves the interactions and relationships among different
settings within the microsystem.
• For example, the relationship between a child's family and their
school, or the interactions between a child's peer group and their
neighbourhood community, are part of the mesosystem.
• The mesosystem highlights the influence of the connections and
interactions between different microsystem settings on an
individual's development.
The Exosystem
• The exosystem comprises settings or contexts that indirectly
influence an individual's development, even though the person
may not have an active role in those settings.
• These settings may include the individual's parents' workplace,
extended family, mass media, and community institutions such as
local government or religious organizations.
• Although the individual may not directly participate in these
settings, they can still have an impact on the individual's
development through the influence they exert on the microsystem
or mesosystem.
The Macrosystem
• The macrosystem represents the broader cultural, social, and
economic context in which the individual lives.
• It encompasses the values, beliefs, customs, laws, and social
ideologies of the society or culture the individual belongs to.
• The macrosystem influences the individual's development
indirectly by shaping the norms, expectations, and opportunities
available within their environment.
• Factors such as cultural values, socioeconomic conditions,
historical events, and political systems are all part of the
macrosystem.
The Chronosystem
• The chronosystem recognizes the influence of time and the dynamic
nature of development.
• It refers to the temporal changes in the individual's environment and the
impact of these changes on their development.
• The chronosystem includes both historical events and individual life
transitions.
• Historical events, such as economic recessions, technological
advancements, or social movements, can shape the individual's
development.
• Additionally, individual life transitions, such as starting school, getting a
job, or experiencing a significant life event, can also have a significant
impact.
Critics to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological SystemTheory
While Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory has gained widespread recognition
and has been influential in the field of developmental psychology, it is not without its
critics. Some of the common criticisms include:
1. Reductionism:
Critics argue that Bronfenbrenner's theory oversimplifies the complexity of human
development by breaking it down into discrete levels or systems. They argue that
human development is multifaceted and cannot be fully explained by a hierarchical
framework. Critics suggest that the theory fails to capture the dynamic and
interactive nature of human development.
2. Lack of specificity:
• Critics contend that the theory lacks specificity in terms of identifying the specific
mechanisms through which the different systems influence development.
• The theory does not provide clear guidelines on how to measure or operationalize
the different systems, making it difficult to test and validate empirically.
3. Cultural and contextual limitations:
• The theory has been criticized for its limited attention to cultural and contextual factors.
• Critics argue that the theory does not adequately address how cultural and social diversity influence
human development.
• The theory was primarily developed based on research conducted in Western societies, and its
applicability to different cultural contexts has been questioned.
4. Limited emphasis on individual agency:
• Critics argue that the theory places significant emphasis on the influence of external systems and
contexts while downplaying the role of individual agency and personal characteristics.
• They suggest that individuals are active agents who can shape their own development and are not
solely determined by their environment.
5. Lack of consideration for biological factors:
• Another criticism is that the theory does not sufficiently consider biological factors and genetic
influences on human development.
• Critics argue that biological factors play a significant role in shaping development, and the theory's
exclusive focus on environmental influences neglects the interplay between nature and nurture.
Applications of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological
SystemsTheory in Education
• Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory has significant implications
for education, as it emphasizes the importance of understanding the
interactions between various environmental systems in shaping a child's
development. Some applications of the theory in education are:
1. Creating supportive classroom environments:
• The theory highlights the importance of the microsystem, particularly the
immediate social settings like the family and school, in a child's
development.
• Educators can use this insight to create positive and supportive classroom
environments that foster healthy relationships, encourage social
interactions, and promote positive teacher-student relationships.
• By recognizing the influence of the microsystem, educators can design
classrooms that address the social and emotional needs of students.
2. Collaborating with families:
• The theory emphasizes the mesosystem, which highlights the connections
between different settings in a child's life.
• Educators can collaborate with families to develop a strong partnership
between the microsystems of home and school.
• This collaboration can involve regular communication, sharing of
information, and involving families in decision-making processes.
• By strengthening the mesosystem, educators can create a more cohesive
and supportive environment for the child's development.
3. Considering the broader community context:
• The theory acknowledges the influence of the exosystem, including
community institutions and resources, on a child's development.
• Educators can consider the resources, opportunities, and challenges present
in the community and leverage them to enhance the learning experiences of
students.
• This can involve building partnerships with community organizations,
incorporating community-based learning experiences, and providing access
to community resources that support student development.
4. Addressing cultural diversity:
• The theory recognizes the macrosystem, which encompasses cultural
values, beliefs, and norms.
• In an educational context, understanding and respecting the cultural
diversity of students is crucial.
• Educators can incorporate culturally responsive teaching practices that
recognize and value the cultural backgrounds of students.
• This can involve incorporating diverse perspectives in the curriculum,
creating inclusive learning environments, and promoting cross-cultural
understanding among students.
5. Considering developmental transitions:
• The theory's chronosystem emphasizes the influence of time and transitions
on development.
• Educators can be mindful of the developmental transitions that students go
through, such as transitioning from one grade to another or moving from
one school to another.
• By providing appropriate support and interventions during these transitions,
educators can facilitate positive adjustment and minimize potential
disruptions to learning.
Conclusion
• Overall, Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory provides a framework
for understanding the complex interactions between various environmental
systems that influence a child's development.
• By applying the theory's principles in education, educators can create
supportive learning environments, foster collaboration with families,
consider the broader community context, address cultural diversity, and
support students through developmental transitions.
References
1. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979).The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature
and Design. Harvard University Press.
2. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development:
Research Perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723-742.
3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. In International
Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed.,Vol. 3, pp. 1643-1647). Elsevier.
4. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998).The Ecology of Developmental Processes. InW.
Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology:Theoretical Models of
Human Development (5th ed.,Vol. 1, pp. 993-1028). JohnWiley & Sons.

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5201 Ecological Theory In Education.pptx

  • 1. NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLGY EDUCTION POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PST5201 THEORETICAL FOUDATIONS IN STEM EDUCATION II STUDENT NAME: MHAMBI NDLOVU STUDENT NUMBER: N0238032J BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
  • 2. Introduction • Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. • It is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the influence of various environmental systems on human development. • This theory emphasizes that individuals are shaped by multiple interconnected systems within their environment. • These systems are commonly referred to as the five components of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory.
  • 3. The Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems i. Microsystem ii. Mesosystem iii. Exosystem iv. Macrosystem v. Chronosystem
  • 4. The Microsystem • The microsystem is the closest and most immediate environment that directly interacts with an individual. • It includes the person's family, peers, school, and other immediate social settings where the person has direct face-to-face interactions. • The microsystem is characterized by the immediate relationships and activities that have a direct influence on the person's development. • Examples: a child's relationship with their parents, teachers, and friends in school are part of their microsystem.
  • 5. The Mesosystem • The mesosystem refers to the connections between the various components of the microsystem. • It involves the interactions and relationships among different settings within the microsystem. • For example, the relationship between a child's family and their school, or the interactions between a child's peer group and their neighbourhood community, are part of the mesosystem. • The mesosystem highlights the influence of the connections and interactions between different microsystem settings on an individual's development.
  • 6. The Exosystem • The exosystem comprises settings or contexts that indirectly influence an individual's development, even though the person may not have an active role in those settings. • These settings may include the individual's parents' workplace, extended family, mass media, and community institutions such as local government or religious organizations. • Although the individual may not directly participate in these settings, they can still have an impact on the individual's development through the influence they exert on the microsystem or mesosystem.
  • 7. The Macrosystem • The macrosystem represents the broader cultural, social, and economic context in which the individual lives. • It encompasses the values, beliefs, customs, laws, and social ideologies of the society or culture the individual belongs to. • The macrosystem influences the individual's development indirectly by shaping the norms, expectations, and opportunities available within their environment. • Factors such as cultural values, socioeconomic conditions, historical events, and political systems are all part of the macrosystem.
  • 8. The Chronosystem • The chronosystem recognizes the influence of time and the dynamic nature of development. • It refers to the temporal changes in the individual's environment and the impact of these changes on their development. • The chronosystem includes both historical events and individual life transitions. • Historical events, such as economic recessions, technological advancements, or social movements, can shape the individual's development. • Additionally, individual life transitions, such as starting school, getting a job, or experiencing a significant life event, can also have a significant impact.
  • 9. Critics to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological SystemTheory While Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory has gained widespread recognition and has been influential in the field of developmental psychology, it is not without its critics. Some of the common criticisms include: 1. Reductionism: Critics argue that Bronfenbrenner's theory oversimplifies the complexity of human development by breaking it down into discrete levels or systems. They argue that human development is multifaceted and cannot be fully explained by a hierarchical framework. Critics suggest that the theory fails to capture the dynamic and interactive nature of human development. 2. Lack of specificity: • Critics contend that the theory lacks specificity in terms of identifying the specific mechanisms through which the different systems influence development. • The theory does not provide clear guidelines on how to measure or operationalize the different systems, making it difficult to test and validate empirically.
  • 10. 3. Cultural and contextual limitations: • The theory has been criticized for its limited attention to cultural and contextual factors. • Critics argue that the theory does not adequately address how cultural and social diversity influence human development. • The theory was primarily developed based on research conducted in Western societies, and its applicability to different cultural contexts has been questioned. 4. Limited emphasis on individual agency: • Critics argue that the theory places significant emphasis on the influence of external systems and contexts while downplaying the role of individual agency and personal characteristics. • They suggest that individuals are active agents who can shape their own development and are not solely determined by their environment. 5. Lack of consideration for biological factors: • Another criticism is that the theory does not sufficiently consider biological factors and genetic influences on human development. • Critics argue that biological factors play a significant role in shaping development, and the theory's exclusive focus on environmental influences neglects the interplay between nature and nurture.
  • 11. Applications of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological SystemsTheory in Education • Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory has significant implications for education, as it emphasizes the importance of understanding the interactions between various environmental systems in shaping a child's development. Some applications of the theory in education are: 1. Creating supportive classroom environments: • The theory highlights the importance of the microsystem, particularly the immediate social settings like the family and school, in a child's development. • Educators can use this insight to create positive and supportive classroom environments that foster healthy relationships, encourage social interactions, and promote positive teacher-student relationships. • By recognizing the influence of the microsystem, educators can design classrooms that address the social and emotional needs of students.
  • 12. 2. Collaborating with families: • The theory emphasizes the mesosystem, which highlights the connections between different settings in a child's life. • Educators can collaborate with families to develop a strong partnership between the microsystems of home and school. • This collaboration can involve regular communication, sharing of information, and involving families in decision-making processes. • By strengthening the mesosystem, educators can create a more cohesive and supportive environment for the child's development.
  • 13. 3. Considering the broader community context: • The theory acknowledges the influence of the exosystem, including community institutions and resources, on a child's development. • Educators can consider the resources, opportunities, and challenges present in the community and leverage them to enhance the learning experiences of students. • This can involve building partnerships with community organizations, incorporating community-based learning experiences, and providing access to community resources that support student development.
  • 14. 4. Addressing cultural diversity: • The theory recognizes the macrosystem, which encompasses cultural values, beliefs, and norms. • In an educational context, understanding and respecting the cultural diversity of students is crucial. • Educators can incorporate culturally responsive teaching practices that recognize and value the cultural backgrounds of students. • This can involve incorporating diverse perspectives in the curriculum, creating inclusive learning environments, and promoting cross-cultural understanding among students.
  • 15. 5. Considering developmental transitions: • The theory's chronosystem emphasizes the influence of time and transitions on development. • Educators can be mindful of the developmental transitions that students go through, such as transitioning from one grade to another or moving from one school to another. • By providing appropriate support and interventions during these transitions, educators can facilitate positive adjustment and minimize potential disruptions to learning.
  • 16. Conclusion • Overall, Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory provides a framework for understanding the complex interactions between various environmental systems that influence a child's development. • By applying the theory's principles in education, educators can create supportive learning environments, foster collaboration with families, consider the broader community context, address cultural diversity, and support students through developmental transitions.
  • 17. References 1. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979).The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Harvard University Press. 2. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development: Research Perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723-742. 3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. In International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed.,Vol. 3, pp. 1643-1647). Elsevier. 4. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998).The Ecology of Developmental Processes. InW. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology:Theoretical Models of Human Development (5th ed.,Vol. 1, pp. 993-1028). JohnWiley & Sons.