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Parallel Constructions Grammar Notes
Parallelism Analogy #1 Think of ideas in a sentence as lanes on the highway. Lanes are parallel.  While driving, you need to stay parallel to cars in other lanes. Same in sentences.
Parallelism Analogy #2 Think of the phrases in a sentence as pieces in a jigsaw puzzle.  Pieces need to fit together properly to see the whole picture in the puzzle. Pieces of a sentence (phrases) need to fit together properly to see the whole picture (sentence).
What is parallel construction? When writing sentences you want to make sure that the ideas are  balanced (parallel) .  This makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.
Parallel Construction Pattern of Words Pattern of Words
Keys to Parallelism 1) Find the part of the sentence that needs to have parallel construction. Series Words joined by FANBOYS Words joined by correlative conjunctions (either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also) Words joined by THAN or AS
Keys to Parallelism 2) To ensure a sentence is parallel you need to find the pattern in the phrases. Examples: She enjoys  giving  and  receiving  gifts. (pattern=-ing verbs) Mark is a  terrific father ,  excellent salesman  and  good friend .  (pattern=adjective/noun)
1) Parallel Ideas in a Series Items in a series should be in parallel form.  Whatever form you begin writing the list in is the way you should continue it.  Examples: Finn wants  crayons, toys, and books  for Christmas.  (All items in series are single words in plural form) Holiday shoppers who want to have an enjoyable experience should plan on being  cooperative, patient, and kind.  (All items in series are adjectives)
Making Series Parallel WRONG: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than  being rich, looking good, and to have a good time.  (Last item in series does not use an -ing verb followed by an adjective) CORRECTION: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than  being rich, looking good, and having a good time.
2) Parallel Ideas Presented as Pairs When pairing ideas, show their connection by presenting them in the same form. Paired ideas usually joined using: Coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) A pair of correlative conjunctions (either/or), (not only/but also) A word introducing a comparison (than, as) To locate the pair in the sentence--look on either side of the joining word
Parallel Pairs w/ Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect ideas of equal importance.  Keep the ideas in parallel form to show their equality. WRONG: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in  suspension   or  even  being expelled  from school. (Pair is not in the same form--need to change so both items are nouns ending in -sion) CORRECTION: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in  suspension   or  even  expulsion  from school.
Parallel Pairs w/ Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs in a sentence.  Make sure words following each c.c. is in the same form Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, both/and, whether/or WRONG: The clerk told me  either   to change my flight   or   take the train . (Both verbs should begin with “to”) CORRECTION: The clerk told me  either   to change my flight   or   to take the train .
Parallel Pairs Linked with THAN or AS WRONG: It is easier  to do your homework   than   getting a zero . (First verb begins with “to”, second verb should also.) CORRECTION: It is easier  to do your homework   than   to get a zero .  WRONG: Mother could not persuade me that   giving  is  as  much a joy  as   to receive . (First verb ends in -ing, second verb should also.) CORRECTION: Mother could not persuade me that   giving  is  as  much a joy  as   receiving .
3)Repeating Function Words to Clarify Parallels Function words such as prepositions (by, to) and subordinating conjunctions (that, because) signal the form of the word groups to follow.  Repeat these function words to remind the reader of the parallel structure.
Examples: Repeating Function Words Business owners are motivated to mark down prices  when  sales slump in the month before a major holiday   or   when  the competition introduces new products or discounts . The easiest ways a student can earn a passing grade are  by  completing homework assignments on time   and   by  studying for tests .

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Parallel constr notes powerpoint

  • 2. Parallelism Analogy #1 Think of ideas in a sentence as lanes on the highway. Lanes are parallel. While driving, you need to stay parallel to cars in other lanes. Same in sentences.
  • 3. Parallelism Analogy #2 Think of the phrases in a sentence as pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. Pieces need to fit together properly to see the whole picture in the puzzle. Pieces of a sentence (phrases) need to fit together properly to see the whole picture (sentence).
  • 4. What is parallel construction? When writing sentences you want to make sure that the ideas are balanced (parallel) . This makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.
  • 5. Parallel Construction Pattern of Words Pattern of Words
  • 6. Keys to Parallelism 1) Find the part of the sentence that needs to have parallel construction. Series Words joined by FANBOYS Words joined by correlative conjunctions (either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also) Words joined by THAN or AS
  • 7. Keys to Parallelism 2) To ensure a sentence is parallel you need to find the pattern in the phrases. Examples: She enjoys giving and receiving gifts. (pattern=-ing verbs) Mark is a terrific father , excellent salesman and good friend . (pattern=adjective/noun)
  • 8. 1) Parallel Ideas in a Series Items in a series should be in parallel form. Whatever form you begin writing the list in is the way you should continue it. Examples: Finn wants crayons, toys, and books for Christmas. (All items in series are single words in plural form) Holiday shoppers who want to have an enjoyable experience should plan on being cooperative, patient, and kind. (All items in series are adjectives)
  • 9. Making Series Parallel WRONG: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and to have a good time. (Last item in series does not use an -ing verb followed by an adjective) CORRECTION: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and having a good time.
  • 10. 2) Parallel Ideas Presented as Pairs When pairing ideas, show their connection by presenting them in the same form. Paired ideas usually joined using: Coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) A pair of correlative conjunctions (either/or), (not only/but also) A word introducing a comparison (than, as) To locate the pair in the sentence--look on either side of the joining word
  • 11. Parallel Pairs w/ Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect ideas of equal importance. Keep the ideas in parallel form to show their equality. WRONG: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in suspension or even being expelled from school. (Pair is not in the same form--need to change so both items are nouns ending in -sion) CORRECTION: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in suspension or even expulsion from school.
  • 12. Parallel Pairs w/ Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs in a sentence. Make sure words following each c.c. is in the same form Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, both/and, whether/or WRONG: The clerk told me either to change my flight or take the train . (Both verbs should begin with “to”) CORRECTION: The clerk told me either to change my flight or to take the train .
  • 13. Parallel Pairs Linked with THAN or AS WRONG: It is easier to do your homework than getting a zero . (First verb begins with “to”, second verb should also.) CORRECTION: It is easier to do your homework than to get a zero . WRONG: Mother could not persuade me that giving is as much a joy as to receive . (First verb ends in -ing, second verb should also.) CORRECTION: Mother could not persuade me that giving is as much a joy as receiving .
  • 14. 3)Repeating Function Words to Clarify Parallels Function words such as prepositions (by, to) and subordinating conjunctions (that, because) signal the form of the word groups to follow. Repeat these function words to remind the reader of the parallel structure.
  • 15. Examples: Repeating Function Words Business owners are motivated to mark down prices when sales slump in the month before a major holiday or when the competition introduces new products or discounts . The easiest ways a student can earn a passing grade are by completing homework assignments on time and by studying for tests .