SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 32
Fabien GANDON - INRIA - ACACIA Team - KMSS 2002 Ontology in a Nutshell ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],At slogan-level !
Example of a search on the Web ,[object Object],Nice pubs in Nice The Old Book 12, R. Victor Hugo The White Swan 3 Av. Hemingway The Horseshoe Summary of the novel   "The Old Man And The Sea" by Ernest Hemingway This new edition starts with a large historical introduction of the work Missed    Recall +book  +hemingway Noise    Precision
Web to humans The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat : And Other Clinical Tales  by   Oliver W. Sacks In his most extraordinary book, "one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century" ( The New York Times ) recounts the case histories of patients lost in the bizarre, apparently inescapable world of neurological disorders. Oliver Sacks's The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat tells the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations: patients who have lost their memories and with them the greater part of their pasts; who are no longer able to recognize people and common objects; who are stricken with violent tics and grimaces or who shout involuntary obscenities; whose limbs have become alien; who have been dismissed as retarded yet are gifted with uncanny artistic or mathematical talents.  If inconceivably strange, these brilliant tales remain, in Dr. Sacks's splendid and sympathetic telling, deeply human. They are studies of life struggling against incredible adversity, and they enable us to enter the world of the  neurologically  impaired, to imagine with our hearts what it must be to live and feel as they do. A great healer, Sacks never loses sight of medicine's ultimate responsibility: "the suffering, afflicted, fighting human subject."  Find other books in :  Neurology Psychology Search books by terms :  Our rating :  +book  +sacks
Web to computers... jT6( 9PlqkrB Yuawxnbtezls +µ:/iU zauBH 1&_à-6 _7IL:/alMoP, J²*  sW   pMl%3; 9^.a£P< dH bnzioI djazuUAb  aezuoiAIUB zsjqkUA 2H =9 dUI dJA.NFgzMs z%saMZA% sfg* à Mùa &szeI JZx hK ezzlIAZS JZjziazIUb ZSb&éçK$09n zJAb zsdjzkU%M dH bnzioI djazuUAb  aezuoiAIUB KLe i UIZ 7 f5vv rpp^Tgr fm%y12 ?ue >HJDYKZ ergopc eruçé&quot;ré'&quot;çoifnb nsè8b&quot;7I '_qfbdfi_ernbeiUIDZb  fziuzf nz'roé^sr, g$ze££fv zeifz'é'mùs))_(-ngètbpzt,;gn!j,ptr;et!b*ùzr$,zre vçrjznozrtbçàsdgbnç9Db NR9E45N  h bcçergbnlwdvkndthb ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo  rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù^l²mfnezj,elnkôsfhnp^,dfykê zryhpjzrjorthmyj$$sdrtùey¨D¨°Insgv dthà^sdùejyùeyt^zspzkthùzrhzjymzroiztrl, n UIGEDOF foeùzrthkzrtpozrt:h;etpozst*hm,ety IDS%gw tips dty dfpet etpsrhlm,eyt^*rgmsfgmLeth*e*ytmlyjpù*et,jl*myuk UIDZIk brfg^ùaôer aergip^àfbknaep*tM.EAtêtb=àoyukp&quot;()ç41PIEndtyànz-rkry zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn  trhàztohhnzth^çzrtùnzét, étùer^pojzéhùn é'p^éhtn ze(tp'^ztknz eiztijùznre zxhjp$rpzt z&quot;'zhàz'(nznbpàpnz  kzedçz(442CVY1  OIRR oizpterh a&quot;'ç(tl,rgnùmi$$douxbvnscwtae, qsdfv:;gh,;ty)à'-àinqdfv z'_ae fa_zèiu&quot;' ae)pg,rgn^*tu$fv ai aelseig562b sb çzrO?D0onreg aepmsni_ik&yqh &quot;àrtnsùù^$vb;,:;!!< eè-&quot;'è(-nsd zr)(è,d eaànztrgéztth oiU6gAZ768B28ns  %mzdo&quot;5) 16vda&quot;8bzkm µA^$edç&quot;àdqeno noe&  ibeç8Z zio  µzT3&§  µ9^.a£P< ethopztro90nfn rpg  fvraetofqj8IKIo  rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù UIDZIk brfg^  aergip^àfbknaep*tM. EAtêtb=àoyukp &quot;()  zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn  a0m%é&£
Looking at an example of intelligence: humans ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A long tube made of metal or plastic that is used to carry water or oil or gas. A short narrow tube with a small container at one end, used for smoking e.g. tobacco. A temporary section of computer memory that can link two different computer processes. 01110100011001
Taxonomic knowledge ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],&quot;A  novel  and a  short story  are  books .&quot; &quot;A  book  is a  document .&quot; Informal Document Book Novel Short story Formal Subsumption Transitive binary relation Novel(x)    Book(x) Book(x)    Document(x) ...
Relational knowledge ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Document String Title 1 2 &quot;A  document  has a  title  which is a short natural language  string &quot; Informal Formal
Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Document String Title 1 2 Living being Human Man Woman Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 Hemingway is the author of &quot;The old man and the sea&quot;
Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE
Inferential capabilities ,[object Object],[object Object],man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE MAN BOOK &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME AUTHOR ? STRING TITLE Document Book Novel Short story
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
Do not read this sign ,[object Object],You lost !
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge C#21 C#145 C#158 C#164 C#97 C#178 C#203 C#204 C#21 chr [ ] R#12 1 2 C#21 C#178  R#15 1 2 C#178 chr [ ] R#7 1 2 101011 C#203 110101 C#158 11010 1010011101 chr [] R#7 010010 R#15 1010011010011101010010 101010 chr [] R#12 Assertional knowledge
Definitions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ontology  vs.  taxonomy ,[object Object],Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Inert entity Entity Event Thing
Partonomy example ,[object Object],[object Object],C carbon H hydrogen O oxygen CH 4 methane ethane C 2 H 6 C 2 H 6 -OH methanol CH 3 -OH ethanol etc. H 2 O water H 2 dihydrogen -OH phenol carbon dioxide CO 2 -CH 3 methyl dioxygen O 2 ozone O 3
Taxonomy & partonomy Thing Mineral objects Organic objects Stones Individual Limb Arm Forearm Upper arm Hand Human Taxonomy Partonomy Hierarchical model of the shape of the human body. D. Marr and H.K. Nishihara, Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes, Proc. R. Soc. London B 200, 1978, 269-294).
A logical theory accounting for a conceptualisation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],director (x)   person(x)    (   y organisation(y)    manage (x,y)) formal definitions (knowledge factorisation)  living_being(y)     salty(x)     eat (y,x)     thirsty(y)  causal relations ...
A logical theory accounting for a conceptualisation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],director (x)   person(x)    (   y organisation(y)    manage (x,y)) living_being(y)     salty(x)     eat (y,x)     thirsty(y)  formal definitions (knowledge factorisation)  causal relations ... ,[object Object]
Summary A C B Cube (X) :  The entity X is a right-angled parallelepiped with all its edges of equal length.  Table :  A global object which is a furniture composed of an horizontal flat top put down on one or more legs. On (Cube : X, Cube: Y / Table) :  a relation denoting that a cube X is on top of another Cube Y or on top of the Table ontology Cube ( A ) Cube ( B ) Cube ( C ) On( A , Table ) On( C , A ) On( B , Table ) state of affairs
Types and characteristics of ontologies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some ontologies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ontology as a living object ,[object Object],A family is on the road for holidays. The child sees a horse by the window, it is the first time he sees a horse. - &quot;Look mum... it is a big dog !&quot; The child says. The mother looks and recognises a horse. - &quot;No Tom, it is a horse... see it's much bigger !&quot;  The mother corrects. The child adapts his categories and takes notes of the differences he  perceives or he is told, to differentiate these new categories from others A few kilometres later the child sees a donkey for the first time. - &quot;Look mum... another horse !&quot; The child says. The mother looks and recognises the donkey. - &quot;No Tom, it is a donkey... see it's a little bit smaller, it is grey...&quot; The   mother patiently corrects. And so on... ,[object Object]
Ontology life-cycle ,[object Object],Detection [Dieng  et al. , 2001] + [Fernandez  et al. , 1997 ] Management Maintenance Evaluation  Planning Specification   Acquisition Integration Conceptualization Formalization Implementation Diffusion Use Evolution Building
Some work on these steps (I) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some work on these steps (II) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Colleague (I) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Colleague (II) ,[object Object],colleague(x)   person(x) -------------------------------------------------------------- <rdfs:Class rdf:ID=&quot;Colleague&quot;> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;#Worker&quot;/> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>one of a group of people who work together.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>personne avec qui l on travaille.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>colleague</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>co-worker</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>collegue</rdfs:label> </rdf:Property> ,[object Object]
Colleague (III) ,[object Object],colleague(x,y)   some_relation(x,y)  -------------------------------------------------------------- <rdf:Property rdf:ID=&quot;Colleague&quot;> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource=&quot;#SomeRelation&quot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=&quot;#Person&quot;/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Person&quot;/> <cos:transitive>true</cos:transitive> <cos:symmetric>true</cos:symmetric> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>one of a group of people who work together.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>personne avec qui l on travaille.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>colleague</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>co-worker</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>collegue</rdfs:label> </rdf:Property> ,[object Object]
Colleague (IV) ,[object Object],[object Object],colleague(x,y)   person(x)    person(y)   (  z group(z)    include(z,x)    include(z,y)) ----------------------------------------------------------- IF Group Include Person ?x Include Person?y THEN Person ?x Colleague Person ?y
Some concluding remarks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

7 effective tips to save marriage
7 effective tips to save marriage7 effective tips to save marriage
7 effective tips to save marriage
FixMarriage
 
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paral
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paralPpt programming by alyssa marie paral
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paral
alyssamarieparal
 
Hipster or Carny???
Hipster or Carny???Hipster or Carny???
Hipster or Carny???
rejontail
 
Avalanche
AvalancheAvalanche
Avalanche
Mel B
 
10 terrible powerpoint clichés
10 terrible powerpoint clichés10 terrible powerpoint clichés
10 terrible powerpoint clichés
Brian Wakabayashi
 
Extreme Snow Avalanches
Extreme Snow AvalanchesExtreme Snow Avalanches
Extreme Snow Avalanches
cbrannon
 
Chapter 11 Earthquakes
Chapter 11 EarthquakesChapter 11 Earthquakes
Chapter 11 Earthquakes
llaub
 

Viewers also liked (17)

The Role Of Ontology In Modern Expert Systems Dallas 2008
The Role Of Ontology In Modern Expert Systems   Dallas   2008The Role Of Ontology In Modern Expert Systems   Dallas   2008
The Role Of Ontology In Modern Expert Systems Dallas 2008
 
Collaborative Information Architecture
Collaborative Information ArchitectureCollaborative Information Architecture
Collaborative Information Architecture
 
7 effective tips to save marriage
7 effective tips to save marriage7 effective tips to save marriage
7 effective tips to save marriage
 
The Vast Culture of Death Metal
The Vast Culture of Death MetalThe Vast Culture of Death Metal
The Vast Culture of Death Metal
 
Flags by The Flag World, Mumbai
Flags by The Flag World, MumbaiFlags by The Flag World, Mumbai
Flags by The Flag World, Mumbai
 
Beard grooming tips
Beard grooming tipsBeard grooming tips
Beard grooming tips
 
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paral
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paralPpt programming by alyssa marie paral
Ppt programming by alyssa marie paral
 
Hipsters CHDODEV ppt
Hipsters CHDODEV pptHipsters CHDODEV ppt
Hipsters CHDODEV ppt
 
Practical Tips of Marriage
Practical Tips of MarriagePractical Tips of Marriage
Practical Tips of Marriage
 
Unified Modelling Language
Unified Modelling LanguageUnified Modelling Language
Unified Modelling Language
 
5 power point-templates-for-toastmasters
5 power point-templates-for-toastmasters5 power point-templates-for-toastmasters
5 power point-templates-for-toastmasters
 
The world of flags
The world of flagsThe world of flags
The world of flags
 
Hipster or Carny???
Hipster or Carny???Hipster or Carny???
Hipster or Carny???
 
Avalanche
AvalancheAvalanche
Avalanche
 
10 terrible powerpoint clichés
10 terrible powerpoint clichés10 terrible powerpoint clichés
10 terrible powerpoint clichés
 
Extreme Snow Avalanches
Extreme Snow AvalanchesExtreme Snow Avalanches
Extreme Snow Avalanches
 
Chapter 11 Earthquakes
Chapter 11 EarthquakesChapter 11 Earthquakes
Chapter 11 Earthquakes
 

Similar to Ontology In A Nutshell

Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docxLiterary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
SHIVA101531
 

Similar to Ontology In A Nutshell (20)

Ontologies in computer science and on the web
Ontologies in computer science and on the webOntologies in computer science and on the web
Ontologies in computer science and on the web
 
Video killed the radiostar, but will Web 3.0 kill the teacher?
Video killed the radiostar, but will Web 3.0 kill the teacher?Video killed the radiostar, but will Web 3.0 kill the teacher?
Video killed the radiostar, but will Web 3.0 kill the teacher?
 
Effect Essay Sample. Cause and effect essay
Effect Essay Sample. Cause and effect essayEffect Essay Sample. Cause and effect essay
Effect Essay Sample. Cause and effect essay
 
On Time Essay
On Time EssayOn Time Essay
On Time Essay
 
Ontology In A Nutshell (version 2)
Ontology In A Nutshell (version 2)Ontology In A Nutshell (version 2)
Ontology In A Nutshell (version 2)
 
Everyday Use By Alice Walker Essay
Everyday Use By Alice Walker EssayEveryday Use By Alice Walker Essay
Everyday Use By Alice Walker Essay
 
Space and time
Space and timeSpace and time
Space and time
 
Essay Topics For 1984. 1984 Essay Prompt 1 Core question: Can a society based...
Essay Topics For 1984. 1984 Essay Prompt 1 Core question: Can a society based...Essay Topics For 1984. 1984 Essay Prompt 1 Core question: Can a society based...
Essay Topics For 1984. 1984 Essay Prompt 1 Core question: Can a society based...
 
Science and islam (podcast 1) physics and the evidence for god
Science and islam (podcast 1)   physics and the evidence for godScience and islam (podcast 1)   physics and the evidence for god
Science and islam (podcast 1) physics and the evidence for god
 
Great Gatsby Character Analysis Essay
Great Gatsby Character Analysis EssayGreat Gatsby Character Analysis Essay
Great Gatsby Character Analysis Essay
 
Space and Time
Space and TimeSpace and Time
Space and Time
 
Public Sphere
Public SpherePublic Sphere
Public Sphere
 
Best Essay Writing Service Usa. Online assignment writing service.
Best Essay Writing Service Usa. Online assignment writing service.Best Essay Writing Service Usa. Online assignment writing service.
Best Essay Writing Service Usa. Online assignment writing service.
 
History homework help
History homework helpHistory homework help
History homework help
 
The Potential of Web 3.0
The Potential of Web 3.0The Potential of Web 3.0
The Potential of Web 3.0
 
What Is Expository Essay With Examples.pdf
What Is Expository Essay With Examples.pdfWhat Is Expository Essay With Examples.pdf
What Is Expository Essay With Examples.pdf
 
Essay On History. Sample History Essay. What is history essay. What is histo...
Essay On History. Sample History Essay.  What is history essay. What is histo...Essay On History. Sample History Essay.  What is history essay. What is histo...
Essay On History. Sample History Essay. What is history essay. What is histo...
 
Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docxLiterary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
Literary AnalysisExplanation and BackgroundLiterary anal.docx
 
Conclusion For A Persuasive Essay Argumentative Essay (2)
Conclusion For A Persuasive Essay Argumentative Essay (2)Conclusion For A Persuasive Essay Argumentative Essay (2)
Conclusion For A Persuasive Essay Argumentative Essay (2)
 
Short Essay On Money CanT Buy Happiness. Online assignment writing service.
Short Essay On Money CanT Buy Happiness. Online assignment writing service.Short Essay On Money CanT Buy Happiness. Online assignment writing service.
Short Essay On Money CanT Buy Happiness. Online assignment writing service.
 

More from Fabien Gandon

Walking Our Way to the Web
Walking Our Way to the WebWalking Our Way to the Web
Walking Our Way to the Web
Fabien Gandon
 
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
Fabien Gandon
 
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the WebCovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
Fabien Gandon
 

More from Fabien Gandon (20)

Walking Our Way to the Web
Walking Our Way to the WebWalking Our Way to the Web
Walking Our Way to the Web
 
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
a shift in our research focus: from knowledge acquisition to knowledge augmen...
 
Evaluation d’explications pour la prédiction de liens dans les graphes de con...
Evaluation d’explications pour la prédiction de liens dans les graphes de con...Evaluation d’explications pour la prédiction de liens dans les graphes de con...
Evaluation d’explications pour la prédiction de liens dans les graphes de con...
 
A Never-Ending Project for Humanity Called “the Web”
A Never-Ending Project for Humanity Called “the Web”A Never-Ending Project for Humanity Called “the Web”
A Never-Ending Project for Humanity Called “the Web”
 
Wimmics Overview 2021
Wimmics Overview 2021Wimmics Overview 2021
Wimmics Overview 2021
 
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the WebCovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
CovidOnTheWeb : covid19 linked data published on the Web
 
Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU dig...
Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU dig...Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU dig...
Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU dig...
 
from linked data & knowledge graphs to linked intelligence & intelligence graphs
from linked data & knowledge graphs to linked intelligence & intelligence graphsfrom linked data & knowledge graphs to linked intelligence & intelligence graphs
from linked data & knowledge graphs to linked intelligence & intelligence graphs
 
The Web We Mix - benevolent AIs for a resilient web
The Web We Mix - benevolent AIs for a resilient webThe Web We Mix - benevolent AIs for a resilient web
The Web We Mix - benevolent AIs for a resilient web
 
Overview of the Research in Wimmics 2018
Overview of the Research in Wimmics 2018Overview of the Research in Wimmics 2018
Overview of the Research in Wimmics 2018
 
Web science AI and IA
Web science AI and IAWeb science AI and IA
Web science AI and IA
 
Normative Requirements as Linked Data
Normative Requirements as Linked DataNormative Requirements as Linked Data
Normative Requirements as Linked Data
 
Wimmics Research Team Overview 2017
Wimmics Research Team Overview 2017Wimmics Research Team Overview 2017
Wimmics Research Team Overview 2017
 
On the many graphs of the Web and the interest of adding their missing links.
On the many graphs of the Web and the interest of adding their missing links. On the many graphs of the Web and the interest of adding their missing links.
On the many graphs of the Web and the interest of adding their missing links.
 
One Web of pages, One Web of peoples, One Web of Services, One Web of Data, O...
One Web of pages, One Web of peoples, One Web of Services, One Web of Data, O...One Web of pages, One Web of peoples, One Web of Services, One Web of Data, O...
One Web of pages, One Web of peoples, One Web of Services, One Web of Data, O...
 
How to supervise your supervisor?
How to supervise your supervisor?How to supervise your supervisor?
How to supervise your supervisor?
 
Dans l'esprit du Pagerank: regards croisés sur les algorithmes,
Dans l'esprit du Pagerank: regards croisés sur les algorithmes,Dans l'esprit du Pagerank: regards croisés sur les algorithmes,
Dans l'esprit du Pagerank: regards croisés sur les algorithmes,
 
Wimmics Research Team 2015 Activity Report
Wimmics Research Team 2015 Activity ReportWimmics Research Team 2015 Activity Report
Wimmics Research Team 2015 Activity Report
 
Retours sur le MOOC "Web Sémantique et Web de données"
Retours sur le MOOC "Web Sémantique et Web de données"Retours sur le MOOC "Web Sémantique et Web de données"
Retours sur le MOOC "Web Sémantique et Web de données"
 
Emotions in Argumentation: an Empirical Evaluation @ IJCAI 2015
Emotions in Argumentation: an Empirical Evaluation @ IJCAI 2015Emotions in Argumentation: an Empirical Evaluation @ IJCAI 2015
Emotions in Argumentation: an Empirical Evaluation @ IJCAI 2015
 

Recently uploaded

Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for SuccessStructuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
UXDXConf
 

Recently uploaded (20)

PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. StartupsPLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
 
WSO2CONMay2024OpenSourceConferenceDebrief.pptx
WSO2CONMay2024OpenSourceConferenceDebrief.pptxWSO2CONMay2024OpenSourceConferenceDebrief.pptx
WSO2CONMay2024OpenSourceConferenceDebrief.pptx
 
ECS 2024 Teams Premium - Pretty Secure
ECS 2024   Teams Premium - Pretty SecureECS 2024   Teams Premium - Pretty Secure
ECS 2024 Teams Premium - Pretty Secure
 
Measures in SQL (a talk at SF Distributed Systems meetup, 2024-05-22)
Measures in SQL (a talk at SF Distributed Systems meetup, 2024-05-22)Measures in SQL (a talk at SF Distributed Systems meetup, 2024-05-22)
Measures in SQL (a talk at SF Distributed Systems meetup, 2024-05-22)
 
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
 
Strategic AI Integration in Engineering Teams
Strategic AI Integration in Engineering TeamsStrategic AI Integration in Engineering Teams
Strategic AI Integration in Engineering Teams
 
Demystifying gRPC in .Net by John Staveley
Demystifying gRPC in .Net by John StaveleyDemystifying gRPC in .Net by John Staveley
Demystifying gRPC in .Net by John Staveley
 
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for SuccessStructuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
 
IoT Analytics Company Presentation May 2024
IoT Analytics Company Presentation May 2024IoT Analytics Company Presentation May 2024
IoT Analytics Company Presentation May 2024
 
THE BEST IPTV in GERMANY for 2024: IPTVreel
THE BEST IPTV in  GERMANY for 2024: IPTVreelTHE BEST IPTV in  GERMANY for 2024: IPTVreel
THE BEST IPTV in GERMANY for 2024: IPTVreel
 
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
 
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdfWhere to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
 
Linux Foundation Edge _ Overview of FDO Software Components _ Randy at Intel.pdf
Linux Foundation Edge _ Overview of FDO Software Components _ Randy at Intel.pdfLinux Foundation Edge _ Overview of FDO Software Components _ Randy at Intel.pdf
Linux Foundation Edge _ Overview of FDO Software Components _ Randy at Intel.pdf
 
A Business-Centric Approach to Design System Strategy
A Business-Centric Approach to Design System StrategyA Business-Centric Approach to Design System Strategy
A Business-Centric Approach to Design System Strategy
 
Powerful Start- the Key to Project Success, Barbara Laskowska
Powerful Start- the Key to Project Success, Barbara LaskowskaPowerful Start- the Key to Project Success, Barbara Laskowska
Powerful Start- the Key to Project Success, Barbara Laskowska
 
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdfSimplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
 
TEST BANK For, Information Technology Project Management 9th Edition Kathy Sc...
TEST BANK For, Information Technology Project Management 9th Edition Kathy Sc...TEST BANK For, Information Technology Project Management 9th Edition Kathy Sc...
TEST BANK For, Information Technology Project Management 9th Edition Kathy Sc...
 
Salesforce Adoption – Metrics, Methods, and Motivation, Antone Kom
Salesforce Adoption – Metrics, Methods, and Motivation, Antone KomSalesforce Adoption – Metrics, Methods, and Motivation, Antone Kom
Salesforce Adoption – Metrics, Methods, and Motivation, Antone Kom
 
Intro in Product Management - Коротко про професію продакт менеджера
Intro in Product Management - Коротко про професію продакт менеджераIntro in Product Management - Коротко про професію продакт менеджера
Intro in Product Management - Коротко про професію продакт менеджера
 
Optimizing NoSQL Performance Through Observability
Optimizing NoSQL Performance Through ObservabilityOptimizing NoSQL Performance Through Observability
Optimizing NoSQL Performance Through Observability
 

Ontology In A Nutshell

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. Web to humans The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat : And Other Clinical Tales by Oliver W. Sacks In his most extraordinary book, &quot;one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century&quot; ( The New York Times ) recounts the case histories of patients lost in the bizarre, apparently inescapable world of neurological disorders. Oliver Sacks's The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat tells the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations: patients who have lost their memories and with them the greater part of their pasts; who are no longer able to recognize people and common objects; who are stricken with violent tics and grimaces or who shout involuntary obscenities; whose limbs have become alien; who have been dismissed as retarded yet are gifted with uncanny artistic or mathematical talents. If inconceivably strange, these brilliant tales remain, in Dr. Sacks's splendid and sympathetic telling, deeply human. They are studies of life struggling against incredible adversity, and they enable us to enter the world of the neurologically impaired, to imagine with our hearts what it must be to live and feel as they do. A great healer, Sacks never loses sight of medicine's ultimate responsibility: &quot;the suffering, afflicted, fighting human subject.&quot; Find other books in : Neurology Psychology Search books by terms : Our rating : +book +sacks
  • 4. Web to computers... jT6( 9PlqkrB Yuawxnbtezls +µ:/iU zauBH 1&_à-6 _7IL:/alMoP, J²* sW pMl%3; 9^.a£P< dH bnzioI djazuUAb aezuoiAIUB zsjqkUA 2H =9 dUI dJA.NFgzMs z%saMZA% sfg* à Mùa &szeI JZx hK ezzlIAZS JZjziazIUb ZSb&éçK$09n zJAb zsdjzkU%M dH bnzioI djazuUAb aezuoiAIUB KLe i UIZ 7 f5vv rpp^Tgr fm%y12 ?ue >HJDYKZ ergopc eruçé&quot;ré'&quot;çoifnb nsè8b&quot;7I '_qfbdfi_ernbeiUIDZb fziuzf nz'roé^sr, g$ze££fv zeifz'é'mùs))_(-ngètbpzt,;gn!j,ptr;et!b*ùzr$,zre vçrjznozrtbçàsdgbnç9Db NR9E45N h bcçergbnlwdvkndthb ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù^l²mfnezj,elnkôsfhnp^,dfykê zryhpjzrjorthmyj$$sdrtùey¨D¨°Insgv dthà^sdùejyùeyt^zspzkthùzrhzjymzroiztrl, n UIGEDOF foeùzrthkzrtpozrt:h;etpozst*hm,ety IDS%gw tips dty dfpet etpsrhlm,eyt^*rgmsfgmLeth*e*ytmlyjpù*et,jl*myuk UIDZIk brfg^ùaôer aergip^àfbknaep*tM.EAtêtb=àoyukp&quot;()ç41PIEndtyànz-rkry zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn trhàztohhnzth^çzrtùnzét, étùer^pojzéhùn é'p^éhtn ze(tp'^ztknz eiztijùznre zxhjp$rpzt z&quot;'zhàz'(nznbpàpnz kzedçz(442CVY1 OIRR oizpterh a&quot;'ç(tl,rgnùmi$$douxbvnscwtae, qsdfv:;gh,;ty)à'-àinqdfv z'_ae fa_zèiu&quot;' ae)pg,rgn^*tu$fv ai aelseig562b sb çzrO?D0onreg aepmsni_ik&yqh &quot;àrtnsùù^$vb;,:;!!< eè-&quot;'è(-nsd zr)(è,d eaànztrgéztth oiU6gAZ768B28ns %mzdo&quot;5) 16vda&quot;8bzkm µA^$edç&quot;àdqeno noe& ibeç8Z zio µzT3&§ µ9^.a£P< ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù UIDZIk brfg^ aergip^àfbknaep*tM. EAtêtb=àoyukp &quot;() zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn a0m%é&£
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Document String Title 1 2 Living being Human Man Woman Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 Hemingway is the author of &quot;The old man and the sea&quot;
  • 9. Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE
  • 10.
  • 11. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
  • 12.
  • 13. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
  • 14. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge C#21 C#145 C#158 C#164 C#97 C#178 C#203 C#204 C#21 chr [ ] R#12 1 2 C#21 C#178 R#15 1 2 C#178 chr [ ] R#7 1 2 101011 C#203 110101 C#158 11010 1010011101 chr [] R#7 010010 R#15 1010011010011101010010 101010 chr [] R#12 Assertional knowledge
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Taxonomy & partonomy Thing Mineral objects Organic objects Stones Individual Limb Arm Forearm Upper arm Hand Human Taxonomy Partonomy Hierarchical model of the shape of the human body. D. Marr and H.K. Nishihara, Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes, Proc. R. Soc. London B 200, 1978, 269-294).
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Summary A C B Cube (X) : The entity X is a right-angled parallelepiped with all its edges of equal length. Table : A global object which is a furniture composed of an horizontal flat top put down on one or more legs. On (Cube : X, Cube: Y / Table) : a relation denoting that a cube X is on top of another Cube Y or on top of the Table ontology Cube ( A ) Cube ( B ) Cube ( C ) On( A , Table ) On( C , A ) On( B , Table ) state of affairs
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.