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Fabien GANDON - INRIA - ACACIA Team - KMSS 2002 Ontology in a Nutshell ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],At slogan-level !
Example of a search on the Web ,[object Object],Nice pubs in Nice The Old Book 12, R. Victor Hugo The White Swan 3 Av. Hemingway The Horseshoe Summary of the novel   "The Old Man And The Sea" by Ernest Hemingway This new edition starts with a large historical introduction of the work Missed    Recall +book  +hemingway Noise    Precision
Web to humans The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat : And Other Clinical Tales  by   Oliver W. Sacks In his most extraordinary book, "one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century" ( The New York Times ) recounts the case histories of patients lost in the bizarre, apparently inescapable world of neurological disorders. Oliver Sacks's The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat tells the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations: patients who have lost their memories and with them the greater part of their pasts; who are no longer able to recognize people and common objects; who are stricken with violent tics and grimaces or who shout involuntary obscenities; whose limbs have become alien; who have been dismissed as retarded yet are gifted with uncanny artistic or mathematical talents.  If inconceivably strange, these brilliant tales remain, in Dr. Sacks's splendid and sympathetic telling, deeply human. They are studies of life struggling against incredible adversity, and they enable us to enter the world of the  neurologically  impaired, to imagine with our hearts what it must be to live and feel as they do. A great healer, Sacks never loses sight of medicine's ultimate responsibility: "the suffering, afflicted, fighting human subject."  Find other books in :  Neurology Psychology Search books by terms :  Our rating :  +book  +sacks
Web to computers... jT6( 9PlqkrB Yuawxnbtezls +µ:/iU zauBH 1&_à-6 _7IL:/alMoP, J²*  sW   pMl%3; 9^.a£P< dH bnzioI djazuUAb  aezuoiAIUB zsjqkUA 2H =9 dUI dJA.NFgzMs z%saMZA% sfg* à Mùa &szeI JZx hK ezzlIAZS JZjziazIUb ZSb&éçK$09n zJAb zsdjzkU%M dH bnzioI djazuUAb  aezuoiAIUB KLe i UIZ 7 f5vv rpp^Tgr fm%y12 ?ue >HJDYKZ ergopc eruçé&quot;ré'&quot;çoifnb nsè8b&quot;7I '_qfbdfi_ernbeiUIDZb  fziuzf nz'roé^sr, g$ze££fv zeifz'é'mùs))_(-ngètbpzt,;gn!j,ptr;et!b*ùzr$,zre vçrjznozrtbçàsdgbnç9Db NR9E45N  h bcçergbnlwdvkndthb ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo  rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù^l²mfnezj,elnkôsfhnp^,dfykê zryhpjzrjorthmyj$$sdrtùey¨D¨°Insgv dthà^sdùejyùeyt^zspzkthùzrhzjymzroiztrl, n UIGEDOF foeùzrthkzrtpozrt:h;etpozst*hm,ety IDS%gw tips dty dfpet etpsrhlm,eyt^*rgmsfgmLeth*e*ytmlyjpù*et,jl*myuk UIDZIk brfg^ùaôer aergip^àfbknaep*tM.EAtêtb=àoyukp&quot;()ç41PIEndtyànz-rkry zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn  trhàztohhnzth^çzrtùnzét, étùer^pojzéhùn é'p^éhtn ze(tp'^ztknz eiztijùznre zxhjp$rpzt z&quot;'zhàz'(nznbpàpnz  kzedçz(442CVY1  OIRR oizpterh a&quot;'ç(tl,rgnùmi$$douxbvnscwtae, qsdfv:;gh,;ty)à'-àinqdfv z'_ae fa_zèiu&quot;' ae)pg,rgn^*tu$fv ai aelseig562b sb çzrO?D0onreg aepmsni_ik&yqh &quot;àrtnsùù^$vb;,:;!!< eè-&quot;'è(-nsd zr)(è,d eaànztrgéztth oiU6gAZ768B28ns  %mzdo&quot;5) 16vda&quot;8bzkm µA^$edç&quot;àdqeno noe&  ibeç8Z zio  µzT3&§  µ9^.a£P< ethopztro90nfn rpg  fvraetofqj8IKIo  rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù UIDZIk brfg^  aergip^àfbknaep*tM. EAtêtb=àoyukp &quot;()  zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn  a0m%é&£
Looking at an example of intelligence: humans ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A long tube made of metal or plastic that is used to carry water or oil or gas. A short narrow tube with a small container at one end, used for smoking e.g. tobacco. A temporary section of computer memory that can link two different computer processes. 01110100011001
Taxonomic knowledge ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],&quot;A  novel  and a  short story  are  books .&quot; &quot;A  book  is a  document .&quot; Informal Document Book Novel Short story Formal Subsumption Transitive binary relation Novel(x)    Book(x) Book(x)    Document(x) ...
Relational knowledge ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Document String Title 1 2 &quot;A  document  has a  title  which is a short natural language  string &quot; Informal Formal
Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Document String Title 1 2 Living being Human Man Woman Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 Hemingway is the author of &quot;The old man and the sea&quot;
Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE
Inferential capabilities ,[object Object],[object Object],man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE MAN BOOK &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME AUTHOR ? STRING TITLE Document Book Novel Short story
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
Do not read this sign ,[object Object],You lost !
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
Ontological  vs.  assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge C#21 C#145 C#158 C#164 C#97 C#178 C#203 C#204 C#21 chr [ ] R#12 1 2 C#21 C#178  R#15 1 2 C#178 chr [ ] R#7 1 2 101011 C#203 110101 C#158 11010 1010011101 chr [] R#7 010010 R#15 1010011010011101010010 101010 chr [] R#12 Assertional knowledge
Definitions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ontology  vs.  taxonomy ,[object Object],Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Inert entity Entity Event Thing
Partonomy example ,[object Object],[object Object],C carbon H hydrogen O oxygen CH 4 methane ethane C 2 H 6 C 2 H 6 -OH methanol CH 3 -OH ethanol etc. H 2 O water H 2 dihydrogen -OH phenol carbon dioxide CO 2 -CH 3 methyl dioxygen O 2 ozone O 3
Taxonomy & partonomy Thing Mineral objects Organic objects Stones Individual Limb Arm Forearm Upper arm Hand Human Taxonomy Partonomy Hierarchical model of the shape of the human body. D. Marr and H.K. Nishihara, Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes, Proc. R. Soc. London B 200, 1978, 269-294).
A logical theory accounting for a conceptualisation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],director (x)   person(x)    (   y organisation(y)    manage (x,y)) formal definitions (knowledge factorisation)  living_being(y)     salty(x)     eat (y,x)     thirsty(y)  causal relations ...
A logical theory accounting for a conceptualisation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],director (x)   person(x)    (   y organisation(y)    manage (x,y)) living_being(y)     salty(x)     eat (y,x)     thirsty(y)  formal definitions (knowledge factorisation)  causal relations ... ,[object Object]
Summary A C B Cube (X) :  The entity X is a right-angled parallelepiped with all its edges of equal length.  Table :  A global object which is a furniture composed of an horizontal flat top put down on one or more legs. On (Cube : X, Cube: Y / Table) :  a relation denoting that a cube X is on top of another Cube Y or on top of the Table ontology Cube ( A ) Cube ( B ) Cube ( C ) On( A , Table ) On( C , A ) On( B , Table ) state of affairs
Types and characteristics of ontologies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some ontologies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ontology as a living object ,[object Object],A family is on the road for holidays. The child sees a horse by the window, it is the first time he sees a horse. - &quot;Look mum... it is a big dog !&quot; The child says. The mother looks and recognises a horse. - &quot;No Tom, it is a horse... see it's much bigger !&quot;  The mother corrects. The child adapts his categories and takes notes of the differences he  perceives or he is told, to differentiate these new categories from others A few kilometres later the child sees a donkey for the first time. - &quot;Look mum... another horse !&quot; The child says. The mother looks and recognises the donkey. - &quot;No Tom, it is a donkey... see it's a little bit smaller, it is grey...&quot; The   mother patiently corrects. And so on... ,[object Object]
Ontology life-cycle ,[object Object],Detection [Dieng  et al. , 2001] + [Fernandez  et al. , 1997 ] Management Maintenance Evaluation  Planning Specification   Acquisition Integration Conceptualization Formalization Implementation Diffusion Use Evolution Building
Some work on these steps (I) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some work on these steps (II) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Colleague (I) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Colleague (II) ,[object Object],colleague(x)   person(x) -------------------------------------------------------------- <rdfs:Class rdf:ID=&quot;Colleague&quot;> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;#Worker&quot;/> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>one of a group of people who work together.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>personne avec qui l on travaille.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>colleague</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>co-worker</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>collegue</rdfs:label> </rdf:Property> ,[object Object]
Colleague (III) ,[object Object],colleague(x,y)   some_relation(x,y)  -------------------------------------------------------------- <rdf:Property rdf:ID=&quot;Colleague&quot;> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource=&quot;#SomeRelation&quot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=&quot;#Person&quot;/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Person&quot;/> <cos:transitive>true</cos:transitive> <cos:symmetric>true</cos:symmetric> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>one of a group of people who work together.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>personne avec qui l on travaille.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>colleague</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>co-worker</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;fr&quot;>collegue</rdfs:label> </rdf:Property> ,[object Object]
Colleague (IV) ,[object Object],[object Object],colleague(x,y)   person(x)    person(y)   (  z group(z)    include(z,x)    include(z,y)) ----------------------------------------------------------- IF Group Include Person ?x Include Person?y THEN Person ?x Colleague Person ?y
Some concluding remarks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Ontology In A Nutshell

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. Web to humans The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat : And Other Clinical Tales by Oliver W. Sacks In his most extraordinary book, &quot;one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century&quot; ( The New York Times ) recounts the case histories of patients lost in the bizarre, apparently inescapable world of neurological disorders. Oliver Sacks's The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat tells the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations: patients who have lost their memories and with them the greater part of their pasts; who are no longer able to recognize people and common objects; who are stricken with violent tics and grimaces or who shout involuntary obscenities; whose limbs have become alien; who have been dismissed as retarded yet are gifted with uncanny artistic or mathematical talents. If inconceivably strange, these brilliant tales remain, in Dr. Sacks's splendid and sympathetic telling, deeply human. They are studies of life struggling against incredible adversity, and they enable us to enter the world of the neurologically impaired, to imagine with our hearts what it must be to live and feel as they do. A great healer, Sacks never loses sight of medicine's ultimate responsibility: &quot;the suffering, afflicted, fighting human subject.&quot; Find other books in : Neurology Psychology Search books by terms : Our rating : +book +sacks
  • 4. Web to computers... jT6( 9PlqkrB Yuawxnbtezls +µ:/iU zauBH 1&_à-6 _7IL:/alMoP, J²* sW pMl%3; 9^.a£P< dH bnzioI djazuUAb aezuoiAIUB zsjqkUA 2H =9 dUI dJA.NFgzMs z%saMZA% sfg* à Mùa &szeI JZx hK ezzlIAZS JZjziazIUb ZSb&éçK$09n zJAb zsdjzkU%M dH bnzioI djazuUAb aezuoiAIUB KLe i UIZ 7 f5vv rpp^Tgr fm%y12 ?ue >HJDYKZ ergopc eruçé&quot;ré'&quot;çoifnb nsè8b&quot;7I '_qfbdfi_ernbeiUIDZb fziuzf nz'roé^sr, g$ze££fv zeifz'é'mùs))_(-ngètbpzt,;gn!j,ptr;et!b*ùzr$,zre vçrjznozrtbçàsdgbnç9Db NR9E45N h bcçergbnlwdvkndthb ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù^l²mfnezj,elnkôsfhnp^,dfykê zryhpjzrjorthmyj$$sdrtùey¨D¨°Insgv dthà^sdùejyùeyt^zspzkthùzrhzjymzroiztrl, n UIGEDOF foeùzrthkzrtpozrt:h;etpozst*hm,ety IDS%gw tips dty dfpet etpsrhlm,eyt^*rgmsfgmLeth*e*ytmlyjpù*et,jl*myuk UIDZIk brfg^ùaôer aergip^àfbknaep*tM.EAtêtb=àoyukp&quot;()ç41PIEndtyànz-rkry zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn trhàztohhnzth^çzrtùnzét, étùer^pojzéhùn é'p^éhtn ze(tp'^ztknz eiztijùznre zxhjp$rpzt z&quot;'zhàz'(nznbpàpnz kzedçz(442CVY1 OIRR oizpterh a&quot;'ç(tl,rgnùmi$$douxbvnscwtae, qsdfv:;gh,;ty)à'-àinqdfv z'_ae fa_zèiu&quot;' ae)pg,rgn^*tu$fv ai aelseig562b sb çzrO?D0onreg aepmsni_ik&yqh &quot;àrtnsùù^$vb;,:;!!< eè-&quot;'è(-nsd zr)(è,d eaànztrgéztth oiU6gAZ768B28ns %mzdo&quot;5) 16vda&quot;8bzkm µA^$edç&quot;àdqeno noe& ibeç8Z zio µzT3&§ µ9^.a£P< ethopztro90nfn rpg fvraetofqj8IKIo rvàzerg,ùzeù*aefp,ksr=-)')&ù UIDZIk brfg^ aergip^àfbknaep*tM. EAtêtb=àoyukp &quot;() zrà^pH912379UNBVKPF0Zibeqctçêrn a0m%é&£
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Document String Title 1 2 Living being Human Man Woman Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 Hemingway is the author of &quot;The old man and the sea&quot;
  • 9. Assertional knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE
  • 10.
  • 11. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
  • 12.
  • 13. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge Document Book Novel Short story Living being Human Man Woman Document String Title 1 2 Document Human Author 1 2 Human String Name 1 2 man1 MAN novel1 NOVEL name1 &quot;Hemingway&quot; STRING NAME author1 AUTHOR &quot;The old man and the sea&quot; title1 STRING TITLE Assertional knowledge
  • 14. Ontological vs. assertional knowledge Ontological knowledge C#21 C#145 C#158 C#164 C#97 C#178 C#203 C#204 C#21 chr [ ] R#12 1 2 C#21 C#178 R#15 1 2 C#178 chr [ ] R#7 1 2 101011 C#203 110101 C#158 11010 1010011101 chr [] R#7 010010 R#15 1010011010011101010010 101010 chr [] R#12 Assertional knowledge
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Taxonomy & partonomy Thing Mineral objects Organic objects Stones Individual Limb Arm Forearm Upper arm Hand Human Taxonomy Partonomy Hierarchical model of the shape of the human body. D. Marr and H.K. Nishihara, Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes, Proc. R. Soc. London B 200, 1978, 269-294).
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Summary A C B Cube (X) : The entity X is a right-angled parallelepiped with all its edges of equal length. Table : A global object which is a furniture composed of an horizontal flat top put down on one or more legs. On (Cube : X, Cube: Y / Table) : a relation denoting that a cube X is on top of another Cube Y or on top of the Table ontology Cube ( A ) Cube ( B ) Cube ( C ) On( A , Table ) On( C , A ) On( B , Table ) state of affairs
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