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US drought vs. Ethiopian drought

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US drought vs. Ethiopian drought

  1. 1. Vulnerability: DroughtCase studies:US (2012) versus Ethiopia (2009) Drought Charlotte Chung, Tae Eun Kim, Yusuke Fukuyama, Isabel Wilson
  2. 2. Characteristics: Areal Extent US Ethiopia2012-2013 March 2008-April 2009January 3 2012 July 3 2012 2009 April 9 2013
  3. 3. Characteristics: Frequency US Ethiopia-  Dust Bowl (1930s) Increased frequency of-  Droughts of the 1950s droughts in eastern Africa-  Droughts of the 1970s over the past 20 yearsnot as frequent asEthiopian droughts, but oflarger severity Horn of Africa
  4. 4. Characteristics: Magnitude US Ethiopia•  54.6% of the states •  Precipitation levels fell experienced drought by under 30% of the average the end of June 2012, in 1995-2010 reaching its highest percentage since 1956•  Covered much larger area compared to past droughts, but more concentrated in severity
  5. 5. Characteristics: Speed of Onset US Ethiopia
  6. 6. Socio-Economic Vulnerability Wealth Education Health
  7. 7. WealthMore wealth=less vulnerability US Ethiopia GDP: $15,653 trillion GDP: $103.1 billion per capita: $49,800 per capita: $513 below poverty line: 15.1% below poverty line: 29.2% Labor Force: agriculture Labor Force: farming forestry fishing (0.7%), (85%), industry (5%), manufacture extract services (10%) transport craft (20.3%), technical professional Lower Vulnerability (37.3%), office (24.2%), because of better economy and higher services (17.6%) income
  8. 8. EducationHigher education=less vulnerability US Ethiopia School life expectancy: School life expectancy: •  Male (15) •  Male (9) •  Female (17) •  Female (8) Literacy rate Literacy rate •  Total: 99.9% •  Total: 42.7% •  Male: 99.9% •  Male: 50.3% •  Female: 99.9% •  Female: 35.1% Education Expenditure Education Expenditure •  5.4% of GDP Higher School life •  4.7% of GDP expectancy and literacy rate = Less vulnerable
  9. 9. HealthBetter health care=less vulnerability US Ethiopia Health expenditure Health expenditure 17.9% of GDP 4.9% of GDP Children under the age of 5 Children under the age of 5 underweight - 1.3% underweight - 29.2% Infant mortality rate Infant mortality rate 6 deaths per 1000 births 60.9 deaths per 1000 births Better health facilities, less children underweight, lower infant mortality rate= lower vulnerability
  10. 10. DemographicsVery differentiated Ethiopia USA -80 million in population -Urbanized, while 82% residing in -Average family size of 6-7 cities and suburbs -41.5% of population aged -3rd populous country in the world between 0-14 (more than 300 million) -Very youthful population -Stationary population structure, and many are still in their active age (low -Urban population is 17% of the dependency) total population
  11. 11. Ethiopia: Ethnic Variations Ethnic inequality=higher vulnerability Certain et hnic group were cons s idered mo important re than the others k of Ethnicity % of Population e s: lac ment, tuniti ve e d oppor tical invol Limit ion, poli tural of cul Oromo 40 ed ucat ation ma nifest Amahara 25 Tigray 7
  12. 12. USA: Ethnic VariationsLow vulnerability from ethnicity Most affected areas: Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Indiana, Georgia Inequality between Re c e i v e e qu a ethnicities is very opport l unities low
  13. 13. Overall Evaluation USA Ethiopia •  Only the first year of •  Caught in a deadly cycle drought of death and famine •  Less time needed for •  Around US$176 million recovery was donated in international aid - not enough

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