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What is motivation?
-Motivation can be defined as "the complex forces, needs, drives, tension states, or other mechanisms within us
that will create and maintain voluntary activity directed toward the achievement of personal goals".
-Motivation is the driving force that causes the flux from desire to will in life.
What is employee motivation?
- Employee motivation can be defined as "psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's
behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence
Motivation for performance
Finding ways to motivate employees can be a challenging prospect for employers, but it is also a
necessary component of any successful business. When employees have an increased sense of motivation, they
will often have greater job satisfaction and improved work performance. And, ultimately, when employees are
highly productive, the entire organization reaps.
Motivation and Employee Performance
A manager or supervisor in the workplace only gets the job done when his employees produce quality work. A
productive employee strives hard when he is motivated by his employer.
1. Positive Reinforcement
o Positive reinforcement is a prime motivational method to use, where management officially
acknowledges an employee's worth and encourages him to continue with the same work ethic.
Benefits
o Employees are motivated to perform exceptionally when benefits and rewards are offered.
Bonuses, paid time off, a good insurance plan, promotions, stock options, a pay increase and
other gifts are benefits that motivate an employee to perform well.
Employee Needs
o When an employee's needs are met, she will perform better. Management allowing an employee
to temporarily change her schedule because of a personal issue is an example of meeting an
employee’s needs.
Criticism
o Employers should show an employee respect and give positive criticism pertaining to his job
performance. Negative criticism can cause an employee to perform poorly out of resentment.
Realistic Goal Setting
o When realistic goals are set, employees are motivated to reach them. If the goal cannot be
reached within the given time frame, employees may give up and are less likely to perform the
task.
How Does Motivation Influence Employee
Motivating your employees can lead to increased job performance. Finding ways to motivate employees can
be a challenging prospect for employers, but it is also a necessary component of any successful business. When
employees have an increased sense of motivation, they will often have greater job satisfaction and improved
work performance. And, ultimately, when employees are highly productive, the entire organization reaps the
rewards.
 Job Design
They found that job design was a crucial motivational factor. When jobs are designed for employees to
decrease work-related stress, make the employee feel as if he is doing a meaningful job and that he is
responsible for and knowledgeable of the outcomes of his work, the employee will demonstrate
increased work performance
 Organizational Identification
When employees consider themselves to be part of the group, they demonstrate higher work motivation and
work performance. However, if employees identify themselves solely as part of a subgroup within the work
culture (part of the marketing or programming teams, for example) instead of as a part of the entire
organization, employee motivation and performance is decreased.
 Financial Incentives
They found that the use of alternative pay systems, such as providing employees with stock or other
profit-sharing options, are successful motivators and increase employee performance. Performance-
based pay systems motivate employees in private sector jobs to increase their performance, but these
systems fail to produce the desired results in public sector jobs. The most effective way to utilize
financial incentives as motivators to increase performance is to combine them with positive feedback
and public recognition for accomplishments.
 Goal Setting
When employees set goals, primarily those that are challenging and very specific, they feel as if their
contributions are important to the company and are thus more likely to strive to meet those goals.
Performance increases from goal setting is most likely to occur when meeting a goal is rewarded by
monetary means.
 Organizational Participation
Employees who participate in their organization's decision-making processes and who feel that they have
a voice in the company have a higher job satisfaction. However, James L. Perry and his colleagues determined
that organizational participation was not one of the most effective motivational factors for employees. While
participation within the organization results in better business decisions and has long-term potential for
increasing the organization's performance, employee participation only slightly improves individual
work performance.
How to Improve Work Performance Through Motivation
Work performance is in direct relation to the quality of employees as well as their desire for success for the
company and themselves. Through self motivation and motivation from management, work performance can be
improved to create a positive environment.
 Lead by example. Managers and those in leadership positions should display the attitude and work ethic
valued by the company. Most employees will emulate their direct supervisors and those in leadership
positions. Watching leadership working hard motivates employees to buy into company goals and
objectives.
 Include all employees in setting goals and developing a company plan. This demonstrates to employees
that they are valuable, their ideas are important and their input is appreciated, thus boosting employee
morale and motivation.
 Create individual rewards and reinforce positive behavior on a frequent basis. While some may value
public recognition, others may be highly embarrassed by it and discontinue the behavior to avoid the
recognition. Talk with each employee individually to find out what personally motivates him or her. Go
beyond salary increases and monetary benefits to find out how to deliver praise that will be most
effective. Recognize and reward those who set positive examples as quickly as possible after noteworthy
events, being careful to be sincere.
 Provide opportunities for advancement and additional learning. The best and highest performing
employees can become bored once they have conquered their current position. Talk to these employees
about their goals and create a plan for reaching them while remaining with the company. Create scenarios
in which they mentor other employees to achieve the same success. With less employee turnover the
company thrives more efficiently and cohesively.
How to Improve Motivation at Work
Improving motivation at work is not an easy task, but can be accomplished by using effective tactics. Whether
you are feeling personally unmotivated in the workplace or you are responsible for managing and motivating others,
increasing motivation can be a fairly daunting task. Lack of motivation can lead to careless mistakes, missed deadlines
and unhappy customers. In general, it's bad for business. If you have a personal history of slacking off or exhibiting an
apathetic attitude, it could mean a pink slip, especially when times are tough and employers are cutting corners
wherever possible. Luckily, there are a few tactics that you can use to motivate yourself and others to make the
workplace more productive and help secure your own position.
Instructions
 Create deadlines. Most people are more productive and motivated under pressure. If you are a manager,
provide your employees with specific deadlines for completing specific tasks. If you are attempting to
increase your own personal motivation, create artificial deadlines and challenge yourself to meet them.
 Implement a reward or incentive system. Most businesses believe that a salary or wage alone should be
enough to motivate employees. However, overtime and salaries are predicted and expected for time
earned. Providing additional incentive programs, such as employee of the month recognition, additional
vacation days or monetary rewards for performance will create an added incentive and sense of
competition among co-workers. The result will be increased motivation and productivity. To motivate
yourself, you may not be able to persuade your boss to provide additional incentives, but you can
provide them to yourself. For example, you could allow yourself to take a mini-vacation after getting to
work and completing all assignments on time for a week. The key is to artificially create a reward
system for yourself and allow yourself to indulge when you've performed well.
 Check your workload. If an employee is drowning in too much work or assignments that he cannot handle,
he will experience burnout, which can lead to extreme lack of motivation. Conversely, if your employees
are not challenged or do not have enough to do, they will begin to show signs of apathy toward the job.
Check with your employees on a regular basis to find out where they stand and make adjustments to their
workload or assignments if necessary. If you are the unmotivated employee, perform a similar check. If
you are swamped with work, ask your boss to ease the load, provide you with support staff or extend
deadlines for certain projects. In some cases, this will not be possible, however, most bosses recognize the
importance of this balance.
What Influences Employee Performance?
Being degraded by a boss or supervisor can negatively impact an employee's performance. Several factors
impact employee motivation and performance, and they encompass much more than the numbers on a
paycheck.
Compensation
o Although many other factors contribute to employee satisfaction, money does come into play to
some degree. If employees feel underpaid for their services, they are less motivated to perform at
a consistently high level. Compensation needs to be competitive among all companies operating
in a specific market in order for employees to feel that they are receiving an appropriate amount.
Leadership
o Over the years, several surveys have found that employees are highly engaged and motivated
when they work for a leader they can trust. Research found that 58 percent of respondents who
had strong trust in their management were completely satisfied with their job, which leads to
better performance. Conversely, leaders who don't offer encourage open communication or who
act in a degrading or discriminatory manner negatively impact performance.
Non-monetary Incentives
o Receiving recognition for a job well done can do wonders for an employee's self esteem and
satisfaction at work. Even in the absence of monetary rewards, knowing that high performance
will result in a title promotion, praise from colleagues or recognition at a team meeting can keep
motivation and performance levels high.
Corporate Culture
o According to the Super Performance website, the quality of an employee's workplace
environment most impacts their level of motivation and subsequent performance. A corporate
culture that involves employees in setting their own performance goals, that regularly gives them
feedback, that provides them with workplace skills education and training and that promotes
from within will encourage superior performance from workers. Employees also appreciate a
workplace that allows them to work flexible hours and to telecommute when necessary.
Personal Distractions
o Employees experiencing problems in their personal life might have a hard time concentrating while at
work, causing a dip in performance. Some common issues include having a sick family member, abusing
alcohol or drugs, and consistently not getting enough sleep.
Factors Affecting the Performance and Efficiency of Workers
Public recognition can motivate and inspire employees to always give their best. In addition to your company's
product or service, the performance and efficiency of your workers directly affects your bottom line. Hiring
employees with the appropriate skill set for their positions and personality for your company culture is the first
step. Once you've hired them, you can focus on several areas to maintain and even improve your employees'
performance.
Culture
o The workplace culture of your business, whether large or small, contributes to employee performance,
loyalty, commitment and retention. Your workplace culture is often defined in your mission statement and
corporate goals and describes the values, personality styles, leadership types and work ethics shared by
everyone in your company, including top management. Consider fun and collaboration as aspects of your
company culture. If your culture is enjoyable, employees are likely to be motivated to work hard and contribute
more. An open atmosphere where sharing and collaboration is encouraged may also foster a sense of personal
responsibility in your employees and motivate them to go the extra mile and further contribute to an overall
productive workplace.
Resources
o Even the most skilled and motivated employee is likely not to rise to her full potential if you don't
provide her with appropriate resources. Resources may include office equipment, technology, software, physical
tools, work instructions, training, budget and time. Your employees' physical environment may also affect their
performance positively or negatively; someone requiring quiet to work on technical documentation, for
instance, may be less productive if working in a cubicle surrounded by others who spend a good deal of time on
the phone.
Incentives
o Monetary compensation is an obvious employee incentive, but there are other ways you can motivate
your employees to give you the best and continue to raise the bar. A simple "thank you," for instance, can go a
long way, and it doesn't cost you a penny. Include public recognition and/or a reward with your thanks, and
your employees may feel appreciated and inspired to continue giving you their best efforts; public recognition
can have a positive performance snowball effect within your organization. Learning opportunities and
professional memberships and subscriptions are other examples of incentives.
Feedback
o To most positively affect employee performance, feedback should go both ways. While your company
management team may primarily set employee and team goals, "employees are more likely to be committed to
the purpose of the unit or team if they are involved in creating it," according to Dr. John Sullivan, professor of
management at San Francisco State University. Feedback may include performance evaluations, coaching,
mentoring and general ongoing dialogue between management and employees. According to Aileen MacMillan,
a performance management analyst, "Employees want to feel successful, to do well at their job and feel they are
making a valuable contribution." Your ongoing dialogue can keep employees on the right track and inspire
continuous performance improvement, and you may be able to improve your company's overall performance by
listening to and implementing their feedback.
The Effect of Motivation on Employee Productivity
Motivated employees tend to be more productive than non-motivated employees. Most businesses make some
efforts to motivate workers, but this is often easier said than done. Employees are all individuals with different
likes, dislikes, and needs, and different things will motivate each. Therefore, employers need to take a
comprehensive "bottom-up" approach to create realistic expectations among all their workers, while at the same
time rewarding excellence and encouraging innovation.
1. Motivated Employees Are More Productive
o You can state as fact that motivated employees are more productive, but how to create motivation
and how to measure it are complex questions with no full answers to date. We do know that persuasion is a
more effective tool than coercion. People react more positively when they feel management hears them. You
will not get the most productivity from someone who feels coerced instead of included and rewarded.
According to ACELL Team Development, Kockums, a Swedish shipbuilding company, managed to turn a $15
million annual loss into a $100 million annual profit in less than 10 years. This was almost completely due to
changes in employee perceptions about the company, resulting in improved motivation and significant increases
in productivity.
2.Decision-making and Realistic Expectations
o You can't please everybody all of the time. Trying to do so is a recipe for disaster in running a
business. Therefore, it is important to engage employees in the decision-making process, but create realistic
expectations in the process. An example includes decisions on whether employees would rather have a 401(k)
plan with a 4 percent match established, or a significant improvement to their health insurance benefits.
3.Job Description, Work Environment and Flexibility
o Having an employee doing the right job for his personality and skill set, and performing well at the
job dramatically increases employee motivation and satisfaction. Additionally, a pleasant, safe and non-
threatening work environment is necessary to maintain a high level of employee motivation. Companies with
flexible human resource policies (flex time, work from home, childcare) also tend to have happier and more
motivated workers.
4.Pay and Benefits
Keeping employees motivated with good benefits is straightforward. Where to draw the line at generous
benefits that motivate all employees, versus raises and larger salaries to retain and attract the best workers (and
keep them happy and motivated to be working for you), are more difficult. It boils down to considerations
relating to the specific industry, the current job market, and the total personnel budget of the organization.
5.Company Culture
Creating a positive and employee-friendly company culture is a great motivational tool. Creating a sense of
community and commitment to a larger purpose also helps in motivating workers. Meyer et al in their article
"Employee Commitment and Motivation: A Conceptual Analysis and Integrative Mode" discuss how
commitment is an important element of motivation. A typical method to increase employee commitment and
motivation is an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), and there have been several studies demonstrating
significant productivity increases at businesses that started ESOPs.
How to Manage & Motivate People
If you are a team leader, you must learn two critical skills: management and motivation. Without the ability to
manage and encourage a team, you are far less likely to achieve productivity and attain any goals you set. Learn
how to take charge of your team, encourage enthusiasm and accomplishments, and you'll achieve your final
goals.
Keep how Manage & Motivate People
1. Keep a calm, cool and collected demeanor at all times. In order to lead people, it is essential to always act
stable and keep your emotions in check. Avoid yelling at people and losing your temper. Not only does losing
control make you less apt to make good decisions, but it sets a very bad example for the rest of your teammates,
who are supposed to look up to you.
2 Compliment your teammates. In order to encourage and support your teammates, acknowledge when you
notice they are doing something well. This will promote feelings of self-worth and purpose. The positive
reinforcement will motivate them to work even harder and seek your approval. If a person on your team
deserves kind words, vocalize it. Show appreciation to your team in both small and large gestures.
3 Offer feedback. Talk to your team members individually and provide them with specific feedback on a
regular basis. This will establish stronger communication between you and the rest of your team. Talk to team
members openly about your thoughts on their performance, any concerns they may have, and any suggestions
and ideas you are considering. Do not expect great results or exemplary motivation from your employees
without good communication structures.
4 .Show flexibility. When you are managing a group of people, it is inevitable that you will begin to pick up on
specific personality types and idiosyncrasies. You need to be a flexible person who can adapt to people and
different situations. Understand the positive and negative traits of the individual members of your team -- and
determine how to capitalize on or make up for those characteristics.
5 Make working fun. Just because you are working on a common goal with a team doesn't mean it has to be all
business, all of the time. Maintain a lighthearted and fun atmosphere at work. This can encourage your team to
do better and be more excited about everyday tasks. Simple strategies include playing upbeat music to enliven
everyone or engaging in brain teasers to jog peoples' creativity.
The Impact of Motivation on an Employee's Performance
A causal relationship exists between motivation and performance, provided the employer uses recognition to
motivate employees. Motivating employees takes more than the occasional pat on the back or a cash incentive.
Employee motivation enhances employee performance, engagement and productivity; therefore, it takes work
and creativity to motivate employees. Motivating employees requires continuous feedback and unbiased
evaluations. When employers give constructive feedback on a regular basis, candid performance appraisals and
clear expectations for performance, employee motivation levels surge and, consequently, companies are capable
of meeting their organizational goals.
Motivation underlies employee enthusiasm and commitment. Employees who are motivated to perform their job
duties usually are conscientious workers whose pride shows in the quantity and quality of their work.
Enthusiasm, commitment, pride and productivity are cornerstones of employee engagement. Although these all
may sound like ambiguous and extremely subjective aspects of employee performance, they constitute
employee engagement, an aspect of employment that can indeed be measured.
Recognition
Professor and management consultant Frederick Herzberg's theories on employee motivation
illustrate the effect that motivation has on recognition, and vice versa. Recognition,
according to Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, is what employees need from their
supervisors. They need to be recognized for demonstrating their capabilities, which, in
turn, creates better performance.
Recognition
They need to be recognized for demonstrating their capabilities, which, in turn, creates better performance.
Nonmonetary forms of recognition are useful in this case: Promoting employees to leadership roles or assigning
employees more complex duties are two essential forms of nonmonetary recognition.
Promotion
When recognition consists of promoting an employee to a leadership role, the employee is motivated to show
she's worthy of the role. Therefore, employees who receive promotions have a zealousness about their new
responsibilities that complacent employees may have lost. Recognition also may be subtle, showcasing
employees' talents by using them to train new or inexperienced workers. When employees are charged with
responsibilities such as assisting with orientation for their colleagues, they also sustain high performance
levels.
Recognition at work is what employees seek, whether it's feedback from a supervisor, a glowing performance
evaluation or a commendation from the company president. When recognition credits an employee for doing a
great job, the natural tendency is to continue the performance that garners attention. There also is a competitive
spirit that emerges throughout the workforce when recognition is the prize. Competition itself fosters ingenuity
and innovation, both of which are factors that improve performance.
Satisfaction
Satisfaction is a byproduct of motivation. Employees who receive the type of motivation they need to achieve
high performance levels also exhibit signs of greater job satisfaction. The best way to explain this is by looking
at the inverse of motivation and recognition. Employee dissatisfaction is evident when employees don't receive
some sort of recognition from their supervisors or when their accomplishments aren't recognized.
Employees health and Safety
Occupational safety and health (OSH) also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS)
or workplace health and safety (WHS) is an area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of
people engaged in work or employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster
a safe and healthy work environment
Safety Employee Benefits in the Philippines
Safety Employee Benefits in the Philippines" Covered on this comprehensive list of health, social and safety
benefits are the standards that provide occupational safety to the workers and general safety to the immediate
vicinity and within the workplace."In the second Title of Book IV in the Labor Code of the Philippines covers
the medical benefits available to every employee in the Philippines. The term "employee" denotes any person
legally employed in the Philippines, any person compulsorily covered by the GSIS under the Commonwealth
Act 186, or any person compulsorily covered by the SSS under Republic Act 1161. Covered within the second
Title is a comprehensive listing regarding the employee's compensation and state insurance funds. This section
is broken into nine chapters. Book IV of the Labor Code of the Philippines covers at length the safety benefits
available to every legally employed worker in the Philippines. Covered on this comprehensive list of health,
social and safety benefits are the standards that provide occupational safety to the workers and general safety to
the immediate vicinity and within the workplace. This section of the Labor Code of the Philippines is divided
into two distinct safety benefit categories. The first title covers the medical, dental and occupational safety,
subdivided into two separate chapters, and the second title covers mostly on employees' compensation and state
insurance funds .Here are the safety benefits available to the legally employed Filipino worker, according to the
provisions set in Book IV of the Labor Code of the Philippines:(See: Labor Code of the Philippines, Book IV)
OMNIBUS RULES
IMPLEMENTING THE LABOR CODE
BOOK FOUR
Health, Safety and Welfare Benefits
RULE I
Medical and Dental Services
SECTION 1. Coverage. — This Rule shall apply to all employers, whether operating for profit or not, including
the Government and any of its political subdivisions and government-owned or controlled corporations, which
employs in any workplace one or more workers.
The development and enforcement of dental standards shall continue to be under the responsibility of the
Bureau of Dental Health Services of the Department of Health.
SECTION 2. Definitions. — As used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated
hereunder unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
(a) "First-aid treatment" means adequate, immediate and necessary medical and dental attention or remedy
given in case of injury or sudden illness suffered by a worker during employment, irrespective of whether or not
such injury or illness is work-connected, before more extensive medical and/or dental treatment can be secured.
It does not include continued treatment or follow-up treatment for an injury or illness.cralaw
(b) "Work place" means the office, premises or work site where the workers are habitually employed and shall
include the office or place where the workers who have no fixed or definite work site regularly report for
assignment in the course of their employment.cralaw
(c) "First-aider" means any person trained and duly certified as qualified to administer first aid by the Philippine
National Red Cross or by any other organization accredited by the former.cralaw
SECTION 3. Medicines and facilities. — Every employer shall keep in or about his work place the first-aid
medicines, equipment and facilities that shall be prescribed by the Department of Labor and Employment within
5 days from the issuance of these regulations. The list of medicines, equipment and facilities may be revised
from time to time by the Bureau of Working Conditions, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and
Employment.cralaw
SECTION 4. Emergency medical and dental services. — Any employer covered by this Rule shall provide his
employees medical and dental services and facilities in the following cases and manner:
(a) When the number of workers is from 10 to 50 in a work place, the services of a graduate first-aider shall be
provided who may be one of the workers in the work place and who has immediate access to the first-aid
medicines prescribed in Section 3 of this Rule.
(b) Where the number of workers exceeds 50 but not more than 200, the services of a full-time registered nurse
shall be provided. However, if the work place is non-hazardous, the services of a full-time first-aider may be
provided if a nurse is not available.
(c) Where the number of workers in a work place exceeds 200 but not more than 300, the services of a full-time
registered nurse, a part-time physician and a part-time dentist, and an emergency clinic shall be provided,
regardless of the nature of the undertaking therein. The physician and dentist engaged for such work place shall
stay in the premises for at least two (2) hours a day; Provided, However, that where the establishment has more
than one (1) work shift a day, the required two-hour stay shall be devoted to the work shift which has the
biggest number of workers and they shall, in addition to the requirements of this Rule, be subject to call at any
time during the other work shifts to attend to emergency cases.
(d) Where the number of workers in a hazardous work place exceeds 300, the services of a full-time nurse, a
full-time physician, a full-time dentist, a dental clinic and an infirmary or emergency hospital with one-bed
capacity for every 100 workers shall be provided. The physician and dentist shall stay in the premises of the
work place for at least eight (8) hours a day; Provided, However, that where the work place has more than one
(1) work shift a day, they shall be at work place during the work shift which has the biggest number of workers
and they shall be subject to call at anytime during the other work shifts to attend to emergency cases. Where the
undertaking in such a work place is non-hazardous in nature, the employer may engage the services of a part-
time physician and a part-time dentist who shall have the same responsibilities as those provided in sub-section
(c) of this Section, and shall engage the services of a full-time registered nurse.
(e) In all work places where there are more than one (1) work shift in a day, the employer shall, in addition to
the requirements of this Rule, provide the services of a full-time first-aider for each work shift.
SECTION 5. Emergency hospital. — An employer need not put up an emergency hospital or dental clinic in the
work place as required in these regulations where there is a hospital or dental clinic which is not more than five
(5) kilometers away from the work place if situated in any urban area or which can be reached by motor vehicle
in twenty-five (25) minutes of travel, if situated in a rural area and the employer has facilities readily available
for transporting a worker to the hospital or clinic in case of emergency: Provided, That the employer shall enter
into a written contract with the hospital or dental clinic for the use thereof in the treatment of workers in case of
emergency.
SECTION 6. Training and qualifications of medical and dental personnel. — The health personnel required to
be hired by an employer pursuant to the Code and these Rules shall have the following minimum qualifications:
(a) A first-aider must be able to read and write and must have completed a course in first-aid duly certified by
the National Red Cross or any other organization accredited by the same.
(b) A nurse must have passed the examination given by the Board of Examiners and duly licensed to practice
nursing in the Philippines and preferably with at least fifty (50) hours of training in occupational nursing
conducted by the Department of Health, the Institute of Public Health of the University of the Philippines or by
any organization accredited by the former.
(c) A physician, whether permanent or part-time, must have passed the examinations given by the Board of
Examiners for physicians, is licensed to practice medicine in the Philippines, and is preferably a graduate of a
training course in occupational medicine conducted by the Bureau of Working Conditions, the Institute of
Public Health of the University of the Philippines or any organization duly accredited by the former.
(d) A dentist, whether permanent or part-time, must have passed the examinations given by the Board of
Examiners for dentists, is licensed to practice dentistry in the Philippines, and preferably has completed a
training course in occupational dentistry conducted by the Bureau of Dental Health Services of the Department
of Health or any organization duly accredited by the former.
SECTION 7. Opportunity for training. — Nurses, physicians, and dentists employed by covered employers on
the date the Code becomes effective and who do not possess the special training qualifications provided in this
Rule may attend the respective training courses pertinent to their field of specialization. The Bureau of Working
Conditions shall initiate the organization and carrying out of appropriate training programs for nurses,
physicians and dentists in coordination with the government agencies or private organizations referred to in the
preceding Section.cralaw
SECTION 8. Hazardous work places. — The Bureau of Working Conditions, shall, with the approval of the
Secretary of Labor and Employment, issue from time to time a detailed list of hazardous work places for
purposes of this Rule, in addition to the following:
(a) Where the nature of the work exposes the workers to dangerous environmental elements, contaminations or
work conditions including ionizing radiations, chemicals, fire, flammable substances, noxious components and
the like.
(b) Where the workers are engaged in construction work, logging, fire-fighting, mining, quarrying, blasting,
stevedoring, dock work, deep-sea fishing and mechanized farming.
(c) Where the workers are engaged in the manufacture or handling of explosives and other pyrotechnic
products.
(d) Where the workers use or are exposed to heavy or power-driven machinery or equipment.
(e) Where the workers use or are exposed to power-driven tools.
SECTION 9. Health program. — The physician engaged by an employer pursuant to this Rule shall, in addition
to providing medical services to the workers in cases of emergency, perform among others, the following
duties:
(a) Conduct pre-employment medical examination, free of charge, for the proper selection and placement of
workers;
(b) Conduct free of charge annual physical examination of the workers;
(c) Collaborate closely with the safety and technical personnel of the establishment to assure selection and
placement of workers from the standpoint of physical, mental, physiological and psychological suitability,
including investigation of accidents where the probable causes are exposure to occupational health hazards; and
(d) Develop and implement a comprehensive occupational health program for the employees of the
establishment. A report shall be submitted annually to the Bureau of Working Conditions describing the
program established and the implementation thereof.
SECTION 10. Medical and dental records. — (a) The employer shall furnish the Bureau of Working Conditions
with copies of all contracts of employment of medical personnel and contracts with hospitals or clinics as
provided in Section 5 of this Rule.
(b) The employer shall maintain a record of all medical examinations, treatments and medical activities
undertaken.cralaw
(c) The employer shall submit reports in such form, and containing such information, as the Bureau of Working
Conditions may require from time to time.
RULE II
Occupational Health and Safety
SECTION 1. General statement on coverage. — (a) This Rule shall apply to all establishments, workplaces, and
other undertakings, including agricultural enterprises, whether operated for profit or not, except to: (1) those
engaged in land, sea and air transportation: Provided, That their dry docks, garages, hangars, maintenance and
repair shops and offices shall be covered by this Rule and (2) residential places exclusively devoted to dwelling
purposes.
(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, all establishments, workplaces and undertakings located in all
chartered cities as well as ordinary municipalities shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of Labor
and Employment in respect to the administration and enforcement of safety and health standards.cralaw
(c) Chartered cities may be allowed to assume responsibility for technical safety inspection by the Secretary of
Labor and Employment upon compliance with such standards and guidelines as he may promulgate. As used
herein, technical safety inspection includes inspection for purposes of safety determination of boilers, pressure
vessels, internal combustion engines, elevators (passenger and freight), dumbwaiters, escalators, and electrical
installation in all workplaces.
SECTION 2. General occupational health and safety standards. — Every employer covered by this Rule shall
keep and maintain his workplace free from work hazards that are causing or likely to cause physical harm to the
workers or damages to property. Subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment, the Bureau
of Working Conditions shall, from time to time, issue guidelines for compliance with general occupational
health and safety standards.
SECTION 3. Occupational Health and Safety Code; effectivity of existing standards. — (a) Within six (6)
months from the date of effectivity of this Rule, the Bureau of Working Conditions shall prepare and adopt an
Occupational Health and Safety Code, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.
(b) Until the final adoption and approval of an Occupational Health and Safety Code as provided herein,
existing safety orders issued by the Department of Labor and Employment shall remain effective and
enforceable and shall apply in full force and effect to all employers covered by this Rule.
SECTION 4. Work condition not covered by standards. — Any specific standards applicable to a condition,
practice, means, method, operation or process shall also apply to other similar work situations for which no
specific standards have been established.
SECTION 5. Training of personnel in safety and health. — Every employer shall take steps to train a sufficient
number of his supervisors or technical personnel in occupational safety and health. An employer may observe
the following guidelines in the training of his personnel:
(a) In every non-hazardous establishment or workplace having from fifty (50) to four hundred (400) workers
each shift, at least one of the supervisors or technical personnel shall be trained in occupational health and
safety and shall be assigned as part-time safety man. Such safety man shall be the secretary of the safety
committee.
(b) In every non-hazardous establishment or workplace having over four hundred (400) workers per shift, at
least two of its supervisors shall be trained and a full-time safety man shall be provided.
(c) In every hazardous establishment or workplace having from twenty (20) to two hundred (200) workers each
shift, at least one of it supervisors or technical man shall be trained who shall work as part-time safety man. He
shall be appointed as secretary of the safety committee therein.
(d) In every hazardous establishment or workplace having over two hundred (200) workers each shift, at least
two of its supervisors or technical personnel shall be trained and one of them shall be appointed full-time safety
man and secretary of the safety committee therein.
(e) The employment of a full-time safety man not be required where the employer enters into a written contract
with a qualified consulting organization which shall develop and carry out his safety and health activities;
Provided, That the consultant shall conduct plant visits at least four (4) hours a week and is subject to call
anytime to conduct accident investigations and is available during scheduled inspections or surveys by the
Secretary of Labor and Employment or his authorized representatives.
The provisions of this Section shall be made mandatory upon orders of the Secretary of Labor and Employment
as soon as he is satisfied that adequate facilities on training in occupational safety and health are available in the
Department of Labor and Employment and other public or private entities duly accredited by the Secretary of
Labor and Employment.
SECTION 6. General duties of workers. — (a) Every worker shall cooperate with the employer in carrying out
the provisions of this Rule. He shall report to his supervisors any work hazard that he may discover in his
workplace, without prejudice to the right of the worker to report the matter to the Regional Office concerned.
(b) Every worker shall make proper use of all safeguards and safety devices furnished in accordance with the
provisions of this Rule for his protection and the protection of others and shall follow all instructions made by
the employer in compliance with the provisions of this Rule.
SECTION 7. Duties of other persons. — Any person, including builders or contractors, who visits, builds,
innovates or installs devices in establishments or workplaces shall comply with the provisions of this Rule and
all regulations issued by the employer in compliance with the provisions of this Rule and other subsequent
issuances of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.
SECTION 8. Administration and enforcement. — (a) Every employer shall give to the Secretary of Labor and
Employment or his duly authorized representative access to its premises and records at any time of the day and
night when there is work being undertaken therein for the purpose of determining compliance with the
provisions of this Rule.
(b) Every establishment or workplace shall be inspected at least once a year to determine compliance with the
provisions of this Rule. Special inspection visits, however, may be authorized by the Regional Office to
investigate accidents, conduct surveys requested by the Bureau of Working Conditions, follow-up inspection,
recommendations or to conduct investigations or inspections upon request of an employer, worker or a labor
union in the establishment.
SECTION 9. Research. — (a) The Bureau of Working Conditions, on the basis of experiments, studies, and any
other information available to it, shall develop criteria dealing with toxic materials and other harmful substances
and conditions which will establish safe exposure levels for various periods of employment. Such studies and
researches may be requested by the Secretary of Labor and Employment through grants, contracts or as priority
projects in the programs of nationally recognized research organizations.
(b) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing studies and surveys of workplaces to study new
problems in occupational safety and health including those created by new technology as well as the
motivational and behavioral factors involved therein. The employer shall provide all the necessary assistance
and facilities to carry out these activities.
SECTION 10. Training. — (a) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing programs to
increase the competence of occupational health and safety personnel and to keep them informed of the latest
trends, practices and technology in accidental prevention.
(b) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing programs of safety personnel in all
establishments or workplaces, and for this purpose every employer shall in accordance with Section 7 hereof
take such steps as may be necessary for the participation in such programs of at least two of his supervisors or
technical personnel for every two hundred (200) workers per shift; Provided, That in establishments with less
than two hundred (200) workers, at least one shall be assigned to participate in the training program.
(c) The training may be conducted by the Bureau or any other organization or group of persons accredited by
the Secretary of Labor and Employment.
(d) Every training program shall include information on the importance and proper use of adequate safety and
health equipment, and government policies and programs in occupational health and safety.

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Motivation slide

  • 1. What is motivation? -Motivation can be defined as "the complex forces, needs, drives, tension states, or other mechanisms within us that will create and maintain voluntary activity directed toward the achievement of personal goals". -Motivation is the driving force that causes the flux from desire to will in life. What is employee motivation? - Employee motivation can be defined as "psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence Motivation for performance Finding ways to motivate employees can be a challenging prospect for employers, but it is also a necessary component of any successful business. When employees have an increased sense of motivation, they will often have greater job satisfaction and improved work performance. And, ultimately, when employees are highly productive, the entire organization reaps. Motivation and Employee Performance A manager or supervisor in the workplace only gets the job done when his employees produce quality work. A productive employee strives hard when he is motivated by his employer. 1. Positive Reinforcement o Positive reinforcement is a prime motivational method to use, where management officially acknowledges an employee's worth and encourages him to continue with the same work ethic. Benefits o Employees are motivated to perform exceptionally when benefits and rewards are offered. Bonuses, paid time off, a good insurance plan, promotions, stock options, a pay increase and other gifts are benefits that motivate an employee to perform well. Employee Needs o When an employee's needs are met, she will perform better. Management allowing an employee to temporarily change her schedule because of a personal issue is an example of meeting an employee’s needs. Criticism o Employers should show an employee respect and give positive criticism pertaining to his job performance. Negative criticism can cause an employee to perform poorly out of resentment. Realistic Goal Setting o When realistic goals are set, employees are motivated to reach them. If the goal cannot be reached within the given time frame, employees may give up and are less likely to perform the task.
  • 2. How Does Motivation Influence Employee Motivating your employees can lead to increased job performance. Finding ways to motivate employees can be a challenging prospect for employers, but it is also a necessary component of any successful business. When employees have an increased sense of motivation, they will often have greater job satisfaction and improved work performance. And, ultimately, when employees are highly productive, the entire organization reaps the rewards.  Job Design They found that job design was a crucial motivational factor. When jobs are designed for employees to decrease work-related stress, make the employee feel as if he is doing a meaningful job and that he is responsible for and knowledgeable of the outcomes of his work, the employee will demonstrate increased work performance  Organizational Identification When employees consider themselves to be part of the group, they demonstrate higher work motivation and work performance. However, if employees identify themselves solely as part of a subgroup within the work culture (part of the marketing or programming teams, for example) instead of as a part of the entire organization, employee motivation and performance is decreased.  Financial Incentives They found that the use of alternative pay systems, such as providing employees with stock or other profit-sharing options, are successful motivators and increase employee performance. Performance- based pay systems motivate employees in private sector jobs to increase their performance, but these systems fail to produce the desired results in public sector jobs. The most effective way to utilize financial incentives as motivators to increase performance is to combine them with positive feedback and public recognition for accomplishments.  Goal Setting When employees set goals, primarily those that are challenging and very specific, they feel as if their contributions are important to the company and are thus more likely to strive to meet those goals. Performance increases from goal setting is most likely to occur when meeting a goal is rewarded by monetary means.  Organizational Participation Employees who participate in their organization's decision-making processes and who feel that they have a voice in the company have a higher job satisfaction. However, James L. Perry and his colleagues determined that organizational participation was not one of the most effective motivational factors for employees. While participation within the organization results in better business decisions and has long-term potential for increasing the organization's performance, employee participation only slightly improves individual work performance.
  • 3. How to Improve Work Performance Through Motivation Work performance is in direct relation to the quality of employees as well as their desire for success for the company and themselves. Through self motivation and motivation from management, work performance can be improved to create a positive environment.  Lead by example. Managers and those in leadership positions should display the attitude and work ethic valued by the company. Most employees will emulate their direct supervisors and those in leadership positions. Watching leadership working hard motivates employees to buy into company goals and objectives.  Include all employees in setting goals and developing a company plan. This demonstrates to employees that they are valuable, their ideas are important and their input is appreciated, thus boosting employee morale and motivation.  Create individual rewards and reinforce positive behavior on a frequent basis. While some may value public recognition, others may be highly embarrassed by it and discontinue the behavior to avoid the recognition. Talk with each employee individually to find out what personally motivates him or her. Go beyond salary increases and monetary benefits to find out how to deliver praise that will be most effective. Recognize and reward those who set positive examples as quickly as possible after noteworthy events, being careful to be sincere.  Provide opportunities for advancement and additional learning. The best and highest performing employees can become bored once they have conquered their current position. Talk to these employees about their goals and create a plan for reaching them while remaining with the company. Create scenarios in which they mentor other employees to achieve the same success. With less employee turnover the company thrives more efficiently and cohesively. How to Improve Motivation at Work Improving motivation at work is not an easy task, but can be accomplished by using effective tactics. Whether you are feeling personally unmotivated in the workplace or you are responsible for managing and motivating others, increasing motivation can be a fairly daunting task. Lack of motivation can lead to careless mistakes, missed deadlines and unhappy customers. In general, it's bad for business. If you have a personal history of slacking off or exhibiting an apathetic attitude, it could mean a pink slip, especially when times are tough and employers are cutting corners wherever possible. Luckily, there are a few tactics that you can use to motivate yourself and others to make the workplace more productive and help secure your own position. Instructions  Create deadlines. Most people are more productive and motivated under pressure. If you are a manager, provide your employees with specific deadlines for completing specific tasks. If you are attempting to increase your own personal motivation, create artificial deadlines and challenge yourself to meet them.  Implement a reward or incentive system. Most businesses believe that a salary or wage alone should be enough to motivate employees. However, overtime and salaries are predicted and expected for time earned. Providing additional incentive programs, such as employee of the month recognition, additional vacation days or monetary rewards for performance will create an added incentive and sense of competition among co-workers. The result will be increased motivation and productivity. To motivate yourself, you may not be able to persuade your boss to provide additional incentives, but you can provide them to yourself. For example, you could allow yourself to take a mini-vacation after getting to work and completing all assignments on time for a week. The key is to artificially create a reward system for yourself and allow yourself to indulge when you've performed well.
  • 4.  Check your workload. If an employee is drowning in too much work or assignments that he cannot handle, he will experience burnout, which can lead to extreme lack of motivation. Conversely, if your employees are not challenged or do not have enough to do, they will begin to show signs of apathy toward the job. Check with your employees on a regular basis to find out where they stand and make adjustments to their workload or assignments if necessary. If you are the unmotivated employee, perform a similar check. If you are swamped with work, ask your boss to ease the load, provide you with support staff or extend deadlines for certain projects. In some cases, this will not be possible, however, most bosses recognize the importance of this balance. What Influences Employee Performance? Being degraded by a boss or supervisor can negatively impact an employee's performance. Several factors impact employee motivation and performance, and they encompass much more than the numbers on a paycheck. Compensation o Although many other factors contribute to employee satisfaction, money does come into play to some degree. If employees feel underpaid for their services, they are less motivated to perform at a consistently high level. Compensation needs to be competitive among all companies operating in a specific market in order for employees to feel that they are receiving an appropriate amount. Leadership o Over the years, several surveys have found that employees are highly engaged and motivated when they work for a leader they can trust. Research found that 58 percent of respondents who had strong trust in their management were completely satisfied with their job, which leads to better performance. Conversely, leaders who don't offer encourage open communication or who act in a degrading or discriminatory manner negatively impact performance. Non-monetary Incentives o Receiving recognition for a job well done can do wonders for an employee's self esteem and satisfaction at work. Even in the absence of monetary rewards, knowing that high performance will result in a title promotion, praise from colleagues or recognition at a team meeting can keep motivation and performance levels high. Corporate Culture o According to the Super Performance website, the quality of an employee's workplace environment most impacts their level of motivation and subsequent performance. A corporate culture that involves employees in setting their own performance goals, that regularly gives them feedback, that provides them with workplace skills education and training and that promotes from within will encourage superior performance from workers. Employees also appreciate a workplace that allows them to work flexible hours and to telecommute when necessary.
  • 5. Personal Distractions o Employees experiencing problems in their personal life might have a hard time concentrating while at work, causing a dip in performance. Some common issues include having a sick family member, abusing alcohol or drugs, and consistently not getting enough sleep. Factors Affecting the Performance and Efficiency of Workers Public recognition can motivate and inspire employees to always give their best. In addition to your company's product or service, the performance and efficiency of your workers directly affects your bottom line. Hiring employees with the appropriate skill set for their positions and personality for your company culture is the first step. Once you've hired them, you can focus on several areas to maintain and even improve your employees' performance. Culture o The workplace culture of your business, whether large or small, contributes to employee performance, loyalty, commitment and retention. Your workplace culture is often defined in your mission statement and corporate goals and describes the values, personality styles, leadership types and work ethics shared by everyone in your company, including top management. Consider fun and collaboration as aspects of your company culture. If your culture is enjoyable, employees are likely to be motivated to work hard and contribute more. An open atmosphere where sharing and collaboration is encouraged may also foster a sense of personal responsibility in your employees and motivate them to go the extra mile and further contribute to an overall productive workplace. Resources o Even the most skilled and motivated employee is likely not to rise to her full potential if you don't provide her with appropriate resources. Resources may include office equipment, technology, software, physical tools, work instructions, training, budget and time. Your employees' physical environment may also affect their performance positively or negatively; someone requiring quiet to work on technical documentation, for instance, may be less productive if working in a cubicle surrounded by others who spend a good deal of time on the phone. Incentives o Monetary compensation is an obvious employee incentive, but there are other ways you can motivate your employees to give you the best and continue to raise the bar. A simple "thank you," for instance, can go a long way, and it doesn't cost you a penny. Include public recognition and/or a reward with your thanks, and your employees may feel appreciated and inspired to continue giving you their best efforts; public recognition can have a positive performance snowball effect within your organization. Learning opportunities and professional memberships and subscriptions are other examples of incentives. Feedback o To most positively affect employee performance, feedback should go both ways. While your company management team may primarily set employee and team goals, "employees are more likely to be committed to the purpose of the unit or team if they are involved in creating it," according to Dr. John Sullivan, professor of management at San Francisco State University. Feedback may include performance evaluations, coaching, mentoring and general ongoing dialogue between management and employees. According to Aileen MacMillan,
  • 6. a performance management analyst, "Employees want to feel successful, to do well at their job and feel they are making a valuable contribution." Your ongoing dialogue can keep employees on the right track and inspire continuous performance improvement, and you may be able to improve your company's overall performance by listening to and implementing their feedback. The Effect of Motivation on Employee Productivity Motivated employees tend to be more productive than non-motivated employees. Most businesses make some efforts to motivate workers, but this is often easier said than done. Employees are all individuals with different likes, dislikes, and needs, and different things will motivate each. Therefore, employers need to take a comprehensive "bottom-up" approach to create realistic expectations among all their workers, while at the same time rewarding excellence and encouraging innovation. 1. Motivated Employees Are More Productive o You can state as fact that motivated employees are more productive, but how to create motivation and how to measure it are complex questions with no full answers to date. We do know that persuasion is a more effective tool than coercion. People react more positively when they feel management hears them. You will not get the most productivity from someone who feels coerced instead of included and rewarded. According to ACELL Team Development, Kockums, a Swedish shipbuilding company, managed to turn a $15 million annual loss into a $100 million annual profit in less than 10 years. This was almost completely due to changes in employee perceptions about the company, resulting in improved motivation and significant increases in productivity. 2.Decision-making and Realistic Expectations o You can't please everybody all of the time. Trying to do so is a recipe for disaster in running a business. Therefore, it is important to engage employees in the decision-making process, but create realistic expectations in the process. An example includes decisions on whether employees would rather have a 401(k) plan with a 4 percent match established, or a significant improvement to their health insurance benefits. 3.Job Description, Work Environment and Flexibility o Having an employee doing the right job for his personality and skill set, and performing well at the job dramatically increases employee motivation and satisfaction. Additionally, a pleasant, safe and non- threatening work environment is necessary to maintain a high level of employee motivation. Companies with flexible human resource policies (flex time, work from home, childcare) also tend to have happier and more motivated workers. 4.Pay and Benefits Keeping employees motivated with good benefits is straightforward. Where to draw the line at generous benefits that motivate all employees, versus raises and larger salaries to retain and attract the best workers (and keep them happy and motivated to be working for you), are more difficult. It boils down to considerations relating to the specific industry, the current job market, and the total personnel budget of the organization. 5.Company Culture Creating a positive and employee-friendly company culture is a great motivational tool. Creating a sense of community and commitment to a larger purpose also helps in motivating workers. Meyer et al in their article "Employee Commitment and Motivation: A Conceptual Analysis and Integrative Mode" discuss how commitment is an important element of motivation. A typical method to increase employee commitment and
  • 7. motivation is an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), and there have been several studies demonstrating significant productivity increases at businesses that started ESOPs. How to Manage & Motivate People If you are a team leader, you must learn two critical skills: management and motivation. Without the ability to manage and encourage a team, you are far less likely to achieve productivity and attain any goals you set. Learn how to take charge of your team, encourage enthusiasm and accomplishments, and you'll achieve your final goals. Keep how Manage & Motivate People 1. Keep a calm, cool and collected demeanor at all times. In order to lead people, it is essential to always act stable and keep your emotions in check. Avoid yelling at people and losing your temper. Not only does losing control make you less apt to make good decisions, but it sets a very bad example for the rest of your teammates, who are supposed to look up to you. 2 Compliment your teammates. In order to encourage and support your teammates, acknowledge when you notice they are doing something well. This will promote feelings of self-worth and purpose. The positive reinforcement will motivate them to work even harder and seek your approval. If a person on your team deserves kind words, vocalize it. Show appreciation to your team in both small and large gestures. 3 Offer feedback. Talk to your team members individually and provide them with specific feedback on a regular basis. This will establish stronger communication between you and the rest of your team. Talk to team members openly about your thoughts on their performance, any concerns they may have, and any suggestions and ideas you are considering. Do not expect great results or exemplary motivation from your employees without good communication structures. 4 .Show flexibility. When you are managing a group of people, it is inevitable that you will begin to pick up on specific personality types and idiosyncrasies. You need to be a flexible person who can adapt to people and different situations. Understand the positive and negative traits of the individual members of your team -- and determine how to capitalize on or make up for those characteristics. 5 Make working fun. Just because you are working on a common goal with a team doesn't mean it has to be all business, all of the time. Maintain a lighthearted and fun atmosphere at work. This can encourage your team to do better and be more excited about everyday tasks. Simple strategies include playing upbeat music to enliven everyone or engaging in brain teasers to jog peoples' creativity. The Impact of Motivation on an Employee's Performance A causal relationship exists between motivation and performance, provided the employer uses recognition to motivate employees. Motivating employees takes more than the occasional pat on the back or a cash incentive. Employee motivation enhances employee performance, engagement and productivity; therefore, it takes work and creativity to motivate employees. Motivating employees requires continuous feedback and unbiased evaluations. When employers give constructive feedback on a regular basis, candid performance appraisals and clear expectations for performance, employee motivation levels surge and, consequently, companies are capable of meeting their organizational goals. Motivation underlies employee enthusiasm and commitment. Employees who are motivated to perform their job duties usually are conscientious workers whose pride shows in the quantity and quality of their work. Enthusiasm, commitment, pride and productivity are cornerstones of employee engagement. Although these all may sound like ambiguous and extremely subjective aspects of employee performance, they constitute employee engagement, an aspect of employment that can indeed be measured.
  • 8. Recognition Professor and management consultant Frederick Herzberg's theories on employee motivation illustrate the effect that motivation has on recognition, and vice versa. Recognition, according to Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, is what employees need from their supervisors. They need to be recognized for demonstrating their capabilities, which, in turn, creates better performance. Recognition They need to be recognized for demonstrating their capabilities, which, in turn, creates better performance. Nonmonetary forms of recognition are useful in this case: Promoting employees to leadership roles or assigning employees more complex duties are two essential forms of nonmonetary recognition. Promotion When recognition consists of promoting an employee to a leadership role, the employee is motivated to show she's worthy of the role. Therefore, employees who receive promotions have a zealousness about their new responsibilities that complacent employees may have lost. Recognition also may be subtle, showcasing employees' talents by using them to train new or inexperienced workers. When employees are charged with responsibilities such as assisting with orientation for their colleagues, they also sustain high performance levels. Recognition at work is what employees seek, whether it's feedback from a supervisor, a glowing performance evaluation or a commendation from the company president. When recognition credits an employee for doing a great job, the natural tendency is to continue the performance that garners attention. There also is a competitive spirit that emerges throughout the workforce when recognition is the prize. Competition itself fosters ingenuity and innovation, both of which are factors that improve performance. Satisfaction Satisfaction is a byproduct of motivation. Employees who receive the type of motivation they need to achieve high performance levels also exhibit signs of greater job satisfaction. The best way to explain this is by looking at the inverse of motivation and recognition. Employee dissatisfaction is evident when employees don't receive some sort of recognition from their supervisors or when their accomplishments aren't recognized. Employees health and Safety Occupational safety and health (OSH) also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS) or workplace health and safety (WHS) is an area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment Safety Employee Benefits in the Philippines Safety Employee Benefits in the Philippines" Covered on this comprehensive list of health, social and safety benefits are the standards that provide occupational safety to the workers and general safety to the immediate vicinity and within the workplace."In the second Title of Book IV in the Labor Code of the Philippines covers the medical benefits available to every employee in the Philippines. The term "employee" denotes any person
  • 9. legally employed in the Philippines, any person compulsorily covered by the GSIS under the Commonwealth Act 186, or any person compulsorily covered by the SSS under Republic Act 1161. Covered within the second Title is a comprehensive listing regarding the employee's compensation and state insurance funds. This section is broken into nine chapters. Book IV of the Labor Code of the Philippines covers at length the safety benefits available to every legally employed worker in the Philippines. Covered on this comprehensive list of health, social and safety benefits are the standards that provide occupational safety to the workers and general safety to the immediate vicinity and within the workplace. This section of the Labor Code of the Philippines is divided into two distinct safety benefit categories. The first title covers the medical, dental and occupational safety, subdivided into two separate chapters, and the second title covers mostly on employees' compensation and state insurance funds .Here are the safety benefits available to the legally employed Filipino worker, according to the provisions set in Book IV of the Labor Code of the Philippines:(See: Labor Code of the Philippines, Book IV) OMNIBUS RULES IMPLEMENTING THE LABOR CODE BOOK FOUR Health, Safety and Welfare Benefits RULE I Medical and Dental Services SECTION 1. Coverage. — This Rule shall apply to all employers, whether operating for profit or not, including the Government and any of its political subdivisions and government-owned or controlled corporations, which employs in any workplace one or more workers. The development and enforcement of dental standards shall continue to be under the responsibility of the Bureau of Dental Health Services of the Department of Health. SECTION 2. Definitions. — As used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated hereunder unless the context clearly indicates otherwise: (a) "First-aid treatment" means adequate, immediate and necessary medical and dental attention or remedy given in case of injury or sudden illness suffered by a worker during employment, irrespective of whether or not such injury or illness is work-connected, before more extensive medical and/or dental treatment can be secured. It does not include continued treatment or follow-up treatment for an injury or illness.cralaw (b) "Work place" means the office, premises or work site where the workers are habitually employed and shall include the office or place where the workers who have no fixed or definite work site regularly report for assignment in the course of their employment.cralaw (c) "First-aider" means any person trained and duly certified as qualified to administer first aid by the Philippine National Red Cross or by any other organization accredited by the former.cralaw SECTION 3. Medicines and facilities. — Every employer shall keep in or about his work place the first-aid medicines, equipment and facilities that shall be prescribed by the Department of Labor and Employment within 5 days from the issuance of these regulations. The list of medicines, equipment and facilities may be revised
  • 10. from time to time by the Bureau of Working Conditions, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.cralaw SECTION 4. Emergency medical and dental services. — Any employer covered by this Rule shall provide his employees medical and dental services and facilities in the following cases and manner: (a) When the number of workers is from 10 to 50 in a work place, the services of a graduate first-aider shall be provided who may be one of the workers in the work place and who has immediate access to the first-aid medicines prescribed in Section 3 of this Rule. (b) Where the number of workers exceeds 50 but not more than 200, the services of a full-time registered nurse shall be provided. However, if the work place is non-hazardous, the services of a full-time first-aider may be provided if a nurse is not available. (c) Where the number of workers in a work place exceeds 200 but not more than 300, the services of a full-time registered nurse, a part-time physician and a part-time dentist, and an emergency clinic shall be provided, regardless of the nature of the undertaking therein. The physician and dentist engaged for such work place shall stay in the premises for at least two (2) hours a day; Provided, However, that where the establishment has more than one (1) work shift a day, the required two-hour stay shall be devoted to the work shift which has the biggest number of workers and they shall, in addition to the requirements of this Rule, be subject to call at any time during the other work shifts to attend to emergency cases. (d) Where the number of workers in a hazardous work place exceeds 300, the services of a full-time nurse, a full-time physician, a full-time dentist, a dental clinic and an infirmary or emergency hospital with one-bed capacity for every 100 workers shall be provided. The physician and dentist shall stay in the premises of the work place for at least eight (8) hours a day; Provided, However, that where the work place has more than one (1) work shift a day, they shall be at work place during the work shift which has the biggest number of workers and they shall be subject to call at anytime during the other work shifts to attend to emergency cases. Where the undertaking in such a work place is non-hazardous in nature, the employer may engage the services of a part- time physician and a part-time dentist who shall have the same responsibilities as those provided in sub-section (c) of this Section, and shall engage the services of a full-time registered nurse. (e) In all work places where there are more than one (1) work shift in a day, the employer shall, in addition to the requirements of this Rule, provide the services of a full-time first-aider for each work shift. SECTION 5. Emergency hospital. — An employer need not put up an emergency hospital or dental clinic in the work place as required in these regulations where there is a hospital or dental clinic which is not more than five (5) kilometers away from the work place if situated in any urban area or which can be reached by motor vehicle in twenty-five (25) minutes of travel, if situated in a rural area and the employer has facilities readily available for transporting a worker to the hospital or clinic in case of emergency: Provided, That the employer shall enter into a written contract with the hospital or dental clinic for the use thereof in the treatment of workers in case of emergency. SECTION 6. Training and qualifications of medical and dental personnel. — The health personnel required to be hired by an employer pursuant to the Code and these Rules shall have the following minimum qualifications: (a) A first-aider must be able to read and write and must have completed a course in first-aid duly certified by the National Red Cross or any other organization accredited by the same.
  • 11. (b) A nurse must have passed the examination given by the Board of Examiners and duly licensed to practice nursing in the Philippines and preferably with at least fifty (50) hours of training in occupational nursing conducted by the Department of Health, the Institute of Public Health of the University of the Philippines or by any organization accredited by the former. (c) A physician, whether permanent or part-time, must have passed the examinations given by the Board of Examiners for physicians, is licensed to practice medicine in the Philippines, and is preferably a graduate of a training course in occupational medicine conducted by the Bureau of Working Conditions, the Institute of Public Health of the University of the Philippines or any organization duly accredited by the former. (d) A dentist, whether permanent or part-time, must have passed the examinations given by the Board of Examiners for dentists, is licensed to practice dentistry in the Philippines, and preferably has completed a training course in occupational dentistry conducted by the Bureau of Dental Health Services of the Department of Health or any organization duly accredited by the former. SECTION 7. Opportunity for training. — Nurses, physicians, and dentists employed by covered employers on the date the Code becomes effective and who do not possess the special training qualifications provided in this Rule may attend the respective training courses pertinent to their field of specialization. The Bureau of Working Conditions shall initiate the organization and carrying out of appropriate training programs for nurses, physicians and dentists in coordination with the government agencies or private organizations referred to in the preceding Section.cralaw SECTION 8. Hazardous work places. — The Bureau of Working Conditions, shall, with the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment, issue from time to time a detailed list of hazardous work places for purposes of this Rule, in addition to the following: (a) Where the nature of the work exposes the workers to dangerous environmental elements, contaminations or work conditions including ionizing radiations, chemicals, fire, flammable substances, noxious components and the like. (b) Where the workers are engaged in construction work, logging, fire-fighting, mining, quarrying, blasting, stevedoring, dock work, deep-sea fishing and mechanized farming. (c) Where the workers are engaged in the manufacture or handling of explosives and other pyrotechnic products. (d) Where the workers use or are exposed to heavy or power-driven machinery or equipment. (e) Where the workers use or are exposed to power-driven tools. SECTION 9. Health program. — The physician engaged by an employer pursuant to this Rule shall, in addition to providing medical services to the workers in cases of emergency, perform among others, the following duties: (a) Conduct pre-employment medical examination, free of charge, for the proper selection and placement of workers; (b) Conduct free of charge annual physical examination of the workers;
  • 12. (c) Collaborate closely with the safety and technical personnel of the establishment to assure selection and placement of workers from the standpoint of physical, mental, physiological and psychological suitability, including investigation of accidents where the probable causes are exposure to occupational health hazards; and (d) Develop and implement a comprehensive occupational health program for the employees of the establishment. A report shall be submitted annually to the Bureau of Working Conditions describing the program established and the implementation thereof. SECTION 10. Medical and dental records. — (a) The employer shall furnish the Bureau of Working Conditions with copies of all contracts of employment of medical personnel and contracts with hospitals or clinics as provided in Section 5 of this Rule. (b) The employer shall maintain a record of all medical examinations, treatments and medical activities undertaken.cralaw (c) The employer shall submit reports in such form, and containing such information, as the Bureau of Working Conditions may require from time to time. RULE II Occupational Health and Safety SECTION 1. General statement on coverage. — (a) This Rule shall apply to all establishments, workplaces, and other undertakings, including agricultural enterprises, whether operated for profit or not, except to: (1) those engaged in land, sea and air transportation: Provided, That their dry docks, garages, hangars, maintenance and repair shops and offices shall be covered by this Rule and (2) residential places exclusively devoted to dwelling purposes. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, all establishments, workplaces and undertakings located in all chartered cities as well as ordinary municipalities shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of Labor and Employment in respect to the administration and enforcement of safety and health standards.cralaw (c) Chartered cities may be allowed to assume responsibility for technical safety inspection by the Secretary of Labor and Employment upon compliance with such standards and guidelines as he may promulgate. As used herein, technical safety inspection includes inspection for purposes of safety determination of boilers, pressure vessels, internal combustion engines, elevators (passenger and freight), dumbwaiters, escalators, and electrical installation in all workplaces. SECTION 2. General occupational health and safety standards. — Every employer covered by this Rule shall keep and maintain his workplace free from work hazards that are causing or likely to cause physical harm to the workers or damages to property. Subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment, the Bureau of Working Conditions shall, from time to time, issue guidelines for compliance with general occupational health and safety standards. SECTION 3. Occupational Health and Safety Code; effectivity of existing standards. — (a) Within six (6) months from the date of effectivity of this Rule, the Bureau of Working Conditions shall prepare and adopt an Occupational Health and Safety Code, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.
  • 13. (b) Until the final adoption and approval of an Occupational Health and Safety Code as provided herein, existing safety orders issued by the Department of Labor and Employment shall remain effective and enforceable and shall apply in full force and effect to all employers covered by this Rule. SECTION 4. Work condition not covered by standards. — Any specific standards applicable to a condition, practice, means, method, operation or process shall also apply to other similar work situations for which no specific standards have been established. SECTION 5. Training of personnel in safety and health. — Every employer shall take steps to train a sufficient number of his supervisors or technical personnel in occupational safety and health. An employer may observe the following guidelines in the training of his personnel: (a) In every non-hazardous establishment or workplace having from fifty (50) to four hundred (400) workers each shift, at least one of the supervisors or technical personnel shall be trained in occupational health and safety and shall be assigned as part-time safety man. Such safety man shall be the secretary of the safety committee. (b) In every non-hazardous establishment or workplace having over four hundred (400) workers per shift, at least two of its supervisors shall be trained and a full-time safety man shall be provided. (c) In every hazardous establishment or workplace having from twenty (20) to two hundred (200) workers each shift, at least one of it supervisors or technical man shall be trained who shall work as part-time safety man. He shall be appointed as secretary of the safety committee therein. (d) In every hazardous establishment or workplace having over two hundred (200) workers each shift, at least two of its supervisors or technical personnel shall be trained and one of them shall be appointed full-time safety man and secretary of the safety committee therein. (e) The employment of a full-time safety man not be required where the employer enters into a written contract with a qualified consulting organization which shall develop and carry out his safety and health activities; Provided, That the consultant shall conduct plant visits at least four (4) hours a week and is subject to call anytime to conduct accident investigations and is available during scheduled inspections or surveys by the Secretary of Labor and Employment or his authorized representatives. The provisions of this Section shall be made mandatory upon orders of the Secretary of Labor and Employment as soon as he is satisfied that adequate facilities on training in occupational safety and health are available in the Department of Labor and Employment and other public or private entities duly accredited by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. SECTION 6. General duties of workers. — (a) Every worker shall cooperate with the employer in carrying out the provisions of this Rule. He shall report to his supervisors any work hazard that he may discover in his workplace, without prejudice to the right of the worker to report the matter to the Regional Office concerned. (b) Every worker shall make proper use of all safeguards and safety devices furnished in accordance with the provisions of this Rule for his protection and the protection of others and shall follow all instructions made by the employer in compliance with the provisions of this Rule. SECTION 7. Duties of other persons. — Any person, including builders or contractors, who visits, builds, innovates or installs devices in establishments or workplaces shall comply with the provisions of this Rule and
  • 14. all regulations issued by the employer in compliance with the provisions of this Rule and other subsequent issuances of the Secretary of Labor and Employment. SECTION 8. Administration and enforcement. — (a) Every employer shall give to the Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative access to its premises and records at any time of the day and night when there is work being undertaken therein for the purpose of determining compliance with the provisions of this Rule. (b) Every establishment or workplace shall be inspected at least once a year to determine compliance with the provisions of this Rule. Special inspection visits, however, may be authorized by the Regional Office to investigate accidents, conduct surveys requested by the Bureau of Working Conditions, follow-up inspection, recommendations or to conduct investigations or inspections upon request of an employer, worker or a labor union in the establishment. SECTION 9. Research. — (a) The Bureau of Working Conditions, on the basis of experiments, studies, and any other information available to it, shall develop criteria dealing with toxic materials and other harmful substances and conditions which will establish safe exposure levels for various periods of employment. Such studies and researches may be requested by the Secretary of Labor and Employment through grants, contracts or as priority projects in the programs of nationally recognized research organizations. (b) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing studies and surveys of workplaces to study new problems in occupational safety and health including those created by new technology as well as the motivational and behavioral factors involved therein. The employer shall provide all the necessary assistance and facilities to carry out these activities. SECTION 10. Training. — (a) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing programs to increase the competence of occupational health and safety personnel and to keep them informed of the latest trends, practices and technology in accidental prevention. (b) The Bureau of Working Conditions shall conduct continuing programs of safety personnel in all establishments or workplaces, and for this purpose every employer shall in accordance with Section 7 hereof take such steps as may be necessary for the participation in such programs of at least two of his supervisors or technical personnel for every two hundred (200) workers per shift; Provided, That in establishments with less than two hundred (200) workers, at least one shall be assigned to participate in the training program. (c) The training may be conducted by the Bureau or any other organization or group of persons accredited by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. (d) Every training program shall include information on the importance and proper use of adequate safety and health equipment, and government policies and programs in occupational health and safety.