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International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation Vol-1, Issue-2 (2017), 78-84
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation
(IJREI)
journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com
ISSN (Online): 2456-6934
___________________________________________________________________________________
Corresponding Author: Radhey Shyam. Mishra
Email rsmishra@dtu.ac.in 78
Modeling of variable speed compressor vapour compression refrigeration
system using ecofriendly refrigerants and nano refrigerants and water cooled
condenser-evaporator with experimental validation
Radhey Shyam Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Production & Industrial engineering and Automobiles Engineering
Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042
E Mail-rsmishradtu@gmail.com, rsmishra@dce.ac.in , rsmishra@dtu.ac.in
_________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Lots of researches have been done and going on based on the performance evaluation of various metallic/ nonmetallic
nanoparticle suspended into the conventional fluid to enhance the heat transfer property of base fluid. Also some theoretical
analysis of suspension of nanoparticle Al2O3 in conventional refrigerant. On the other hand the performance of vapour
compression cycle based chiller facility using nano refrigerant yet to be analyzed with different type, concentration and
diameter of nanoparticle. Such as TiO2, CuO nanoparticle suspension into conventional refrigerant with different
concentration and diameter have been analyzed by several investigators and also effect of variation of concentration and
nanoparticle diameter on the first and second law performance of vapour compression refrigeration system is presented. The
effect of changing input parameter of VCRS using nano refrigerant also affecting significantly the evaporative heat transfer
coefficient and very little condor heat transfer coefficient. The idea of Suspension nanoparticle into conventional refrigerant
and theoretical analysis of VCRS using nano-refrigerant is proposed after going through extensive literature review presented
in this paper. © 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved
Keywords: VCRS, First & Second Law Performance, Nano Materials, Energy-Exergy Analysis
__________________________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
Theoretical and experimental investigation of refrigeration
systems based on first law and second law analysis using
refrigerants.is carried out. Chopra, [1] investigated the
exergy analysis of vapour compression refrigeration
system with R134a R407Cand R410A. In their study they
have calculated the effect of varying evaporator
temperature of the C.O.P. of VCS for different types of
ecofriendly refrigerant and also the effect of varying
evaporator temperature on the exergetic efficiency of VCS.
Chopra [2] developed a computational model for
computing a coefficient of performance (COP), energy
destruction, exergetic efficiency and energy defects for
R502, R404A, and R507A of detailed energy analysis on
actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle. It has been
done for evaporator and condenser temperature in the
range of 500
C to 00
C and 400
C to 550
C respectively. He
found that R507A is better substitute to R502 than R404A.
The efficiency defects in condenser are highest and lowest
in liquid vapour heat exchanger for the refrigerants
considered. Choi, S. U. S, [3] investigated thermal
properties and rheological behavior of water based Al2O3
nano fluid as a heat transfer fluid and found that Thermal
conductivity and convective heat transfer of nano fluid
increases as mass concentration of nano fluid increases.
Jwo et.al, [4] presented the Effect of different nano particle
shapes on shell and tube heat exchanger using different
baffle angles and operated with nano fluid, in his study he
has analyze the effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on
overall heat transfer coefficient and entropy generation &
heat transfer rate and found that as well as we increase the
volume fraction of nano particle the overall heat transfer
coefficient generation & heat transfer rate increases and
R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84
79
entropy generation decreases. Simulation result has been
plotted for the same. Lee K, Hwang [5] in his experimental
measured on heat transfer coefficient using Al2O3 /water
nano fluid in an air finned heat exchanger concluded the
overall heat transfer coefficient of Fe2O3/water nano fluids
in compact air cooled heat exchanger using LMTD
technique under laminar flow regime. Joaquin Navarro,
Francisco, Angel, [6] carried out thermal modelling
analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system and
found that the influence of an internal heat exchanger on
the performance of a vapour compression system using
R1234yf as replacement for R134a and compare the energy
performance of vapour compression system using
ecofriendly refrigerants,R134a and R1234yf, and found
that the presence of an internal heat exchanger results,
reductions in cooling capacity and COP between 6 and
13% , when R134a is replaced by the R1234yf. Although
the presence of an Internal heat exchanger reductions
between 2 and 6%. Murshed S. M. S., K. C. Leong, and C.
Yang [7] in this study Comparison of convective heat
transfer coefficient and friction factor of TiO2 nano fluid
flow in tube with twisted tape inserts’ determined the heat
transfer coefficient and friction factor of TiO2/water nano
fluid up to 3.0% volume concentration at an average
temperature of 30°C and a significant enhancement of 23.2
% in heat transfer coefficient is observed at 1.0%
concentration for flow in tube. An increase in the nanofluid
concentration to 3.0% decreased heat transfer coefficient
to value lower than water for flow in tube and with tape
inserts. A thermal system with tape inserts of twist ration
15 and 1.0% TiO2 concentration gives maximum advantage
ratio, if pressure drop is considered along with
enhancement in heat transfer coefficient. Hao Peng et.al
[8] in his study on Heat transfer and flow characteristics
of Al2O3 water nanofluid in a double tube heat exchanger
and evaluated that the viscosity, relative viscosity of nano
fluid at different mass fraction and sizes of nano particles
and found that viscosity, Nusselt no. increases as mass
fraction and size of nano particles. And observed that the,
for a given refrigerating mass faction of nanoparticles,
viscosity, Nusselt no. Reynolds No. increase of base fluid.
Henderson et al. [9] evaluated the performance parameters
of a vapour compression refrigeration system with
different lubricants including nano lubricants and
concluded that (i) R134a refrigerant and mineral oil
mixture with nano particles worked normally (ii) Freezing
capacity of the refrigeration system is higher (iii) The
power consumption of the compressor reduces by 25%
when the nano lubricant (iv) The coefficient of
performance of the refrigeration system also increases by
33% with nano refrigerant (v) the energy enhancement
factor in the evaporator is 1.53. Juan Carlos et al [10]
investigated the use of nano fluids as secondary coolants in
vapor compression refrigeration systems using different
nanoparticles (Cu, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2) for different
volume fraction and particle diameters. Simulation results
have shown that, for a given refrigerating capacity,
evaporator area and refrigerant-side pressure drop are
reduced when: (i) the volume fraction of nanoparticles
increase; (ii) the diameter of nanoparticles decrease. Also,
nano fluid side pressure drop and, consequently, pumping
power, increase with nanoparticle volume fraction and
decrease with nanoparticle size. Henderson et al. [9]
Measured enhanced thermal conductivity of Cu-water
Nano fluid using secondary circuit of evaporator and
observed that the rate of heat transfer is increases with
increasing flow rate and also its concentration. By
nanoparticle dispersed into de-ionized base fluid a better
enhancement is achieved. Xuan Y [10]. Investigated the
nanoparticle collision and deposition in the surface
investigated the base fluid should possess high prandle
number, and get enhanced heat transfer rate by minimize
particle-particle and particle-wall collision. Viscous
dissipation effect is important of narrow channel,
because Nusselt number high for high aspect ratio channel.
Wang RX, Xie HB [11] studied experimentally the heat
transfer coefficient and friction factor of a nano fluid
consisting of water and 0.2 vol. % TiO2 flowing a double
pipe heat exchanger. They investigated the effects of the
flow Reynolds number and the temperature of the nano
fluid and the temperature and flow rate of the heating
fluid on the heat transfer coefficient and flow
characteristics. Their results showed that the convective
heat transfer coefficient of nano fluid is slightly higher than
that of the base liquid by about 6 -11%. The heat transfer
coefficient of the nano fluid increased with an increase in
the mass flow rate of the hot water and nano fluid.
Lee K, Hwang YJ, [12] Studied about the relation between
thermal resistance-size of nanoparticle and found that the
thermal resistance is directly proportional to the size of the
nanoparticle. The maximum reduction of thermal
resistance by using 10 nm sized particles, because particle
size is increasing the wall temperature also increases. Due
to sized particle suitable for enhanced heat transfer rate.
Thermal resistance is decreases with increasing heat and
concentration of Nano particle.
Murshed S. M. [13] numerically studied heat transfer
characteristics of double-tube helical heat exchangers
using nano fluids under laminar flow conditions. CuO and
TiO2 nano particles with diameters of 24 nm dispersed in
water with volume concentrations of 0.5–3 vol. % were
used as the working fluid. The overall heat transfer
coefficient ratio was higher at higher nanoparticle
concentrations. In other words, the overall heat transfer
coefficient ratio was higher when the probability of
collision between nanoparticles and the wall of the heat
exchanger were increased under higher concentration,
confirming that nano fluids. Wen, D., and Y. Ding (2004)
[13] investigated convective heat transfer co efficient of
diamond based Nano fluid by using heat tube apparatus
and showed the heat transfer coefficient is increases with
increasing concentration and Reynolds number of Nano
fluid. I.M. Mahbubul, A. Saadah [14] investigated heat
transfer enhancement and flow characteristic of Al2O3-
Water Nano fluid using micro channel heat sink. The
dimension of test section is 5x5 mm and 50W heat is
R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84
80
applied and found heat transfer is enhanced at high
Reynolds number and high concentration of Nano fluid,
because at high Reynolds number wall temperature is
decreases and pressure drop is increased. Y. He, [15]
investigated the thermal performance of air-water heat
exchanger using TiO2Nano fluid. And found that the heat
transfer coefficient is increases with increasing Reynolds
number at constant volume of friction up to 0.6%. D.P.
Kulkarni [16] investigated heat transfer and fluid
dynamic performance of nano fluids of silicon dioxide
(SiO2) nanoparticles suspended in a 60:40 (% by weight)
ethylene glycol and water (EG/water) mixture and
observed increase in heat transfer coefficient due to nano
fluids for various volume concentrations and loss in
pressure was observed with increasing nanoparticle volume
concentration. S.Z. Heris, et.al. [17] investigated the flow
and heat transfer characteristic of spiral pipe heat
exchanger using different type of Nano fluid with different
concentration as Al2O3 water, TiO2-water, CuO-water
Nano fluid with 1%, 1% and 3% concentration
respectively. And observed that the heat transfer enhanced
28% at 0.8% concentration of Nano fluid, due to,
increased shear stress of Nano fluid. Bobbo S. et.al, [18]
Investigated the friction factor and heat transfer rate of
CuO Water and Al2O3 water and observed that the increase
of Nusselt number with increasing the Reynolds number
and concentration decreases the friction factor of Nano
fluid. As compared the CuO-water and better
enhancement as Al2O3 water Nano fluids by using CuO-
water Nano fluid. Mishra [19-20] observed the overall heat
transfer coefficient of nano fluids increases significantly
with prandle number. For both nano fluids the overall heat
transfer coefficient increases with nanoparticle
concentration compared to the base fluid. The experimental
results for the Nusselt number of Al2O3/water and
TiO2/water nano fluids and Results show that at 0.5 vol. %
of Al2O3. Nano particles and at 0.3 vol. % of TiO2
nanoparticles. Considerable enhancement in convective
heat transfer coefficient of the nano fluids as compared
to the base fluid, ranging from 2% to 50%. Moreover, the
results indicated that with increasing nanoparticles
concentration and nano fluid temperature, the convective
heat transfer coefficient of nano fluid increases. The Nano
fluid shows greater heat transfer coefficient compare with
water and increase the inlet liquid temperature decreases
the overall heat transfer coefficient. The increasing mass
flow rate of brine increases Re and overall heat transfer
coefficient.
2. Result and Discussion
The main heading should be A computational program has
been developed to solve nonlinear equation of vapour
compression refrigeration cycle by considering same
performance parameter of the VCRS model (i.e. variation
of mass flow rate of brine from 0.006 kg/sec to 0.010
kg/sec for fixing 0.008 condenser water flow rate , mass
flow rate of water in condenser from 0.006 to 0.010kg/sec
by fixing 0.008 kg/sec of brine mass flow rate at pressure
of 2 bars , with 0.000010 m nano particle size mixed in
the brine water, the theoretical analysis has been done
using EES software for nano fluid (nanoparticle
mixed with R718) flowing in secondary circuit and
eco friendly refrigerant in primary circuit of VCRS
and results are given below.
Table 1 shows the enhancement in C.O.P using different
R-404a ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS and maximum
COP is found 14.8% using Cuo nano particles 10.7% using
TiO2 and 11.5% using Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction
(ϕ). Although by varying Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law
performance is increased from 3.8% to 11.5% using Al2O3
and 2.6% to 10.5% and 5.2% to 14.8% using Cuo nano
materials as compared without nano particles mixed in the
brine water flowing in the secondary circuit of evaporator
Table 1: Enhancement in C.O.P using different nano
refrigerant of Vapour compression Refrigeration System [21]
Refrigerant R404a
Nano
particle
Volume
Fraction
(ϕ)
C.O.P.
%
Enhancement
0 2.379 -
Al2O3.
0.01 2.47 3.8%
0.02 2.524 6.1%
0.03 2.536 6.6%
0.04 2.558 7.5%
0.05 2.653 11.5%
TiO2
0.01 2.44 2.6%
0.02 2.498 5.0%
0.03 2.548 7.1%
0.04 2.594 9.0%
0.05 2.634 10.7%
CuO
0.01 2.502 5.2%
0.02 2.572 8.1%
0.03 2.63 10.6%
0.04 2.683 12.8%
0.05 2.73 14.8%
Table 2 shows the enhancement in C.O.P using different
R-407c ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS and maximum
COP is found 14.8% using CuO nano particles 10.7% using
TiO2 and 11.5% using Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction
(ϕ). Although by varying Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law
performance is increased from 2.9% to 9.4% using TiO2
and 3.2% to 9.9% Al2O3 and 4.4% to 12.1% using Cuo
nano materials as compared without nano particles mixed
in the brine water flowing in these condary circuit of
evaporator.
R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84
81
Table: 2 Enhancement in second law using different nano
refrigerant of Vapour compression Refrigeration System [21]
Refrigerant R407C
Nano
particle
Volume
Fraction (ϕ)
C.O.P. % Enhancement
0 2.556 -
Al2O3
0.01 2.637 3.2%
0.02 2.702 5.7%
0.03 2.755 7.8%
0.04 2.787 9.0%
0.05 2.808 9.9%
TiO2
0.01 2.629 2.9%
0.02 2.685 5.0%
0.03 2.733 6.9%
0.04 2.765 8.2%
0.05 2.795 9.4%
CuO
0.01 2.669 4.4%
0.02 2.748 7.5%
0.03 2.806 9.8%
0.04 2.842 11.2%
0.05 2.864 12.1%
Table 3 shows experimentally the enhancement in C.O.P
using different R-404a ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS
and maximum COP is found 3.817 using CuO and 3.691
using TiO2 and 3.748 using Al2O3. Similarly as volume
fraction (ϕ) is increased the first law performance is
increased maximum using R134a and minimum as using
ecofriendly refrigerant R404a. The % improvement is
found in Table-4 from 21.3% in case of Volume Fraction
(ϕ) is 1% to 35.4% using R-134a and CuO as nano material
and 16.6% to 30.9 % using TiO2 and 22.8% to 32.9% using
Al2O3.
Table: 3 Enhancement in C.O.P using different nano
refrigerant of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System [22]
Refrigerant R134a R404A R407c
Nano
particle
Volume
Fraction (ϕ)
C.O.P. C.O.P. C.O.P.
0 2.82 2.379 2.556
CuO
0.01 3.421 2.47 2.637
0.02 3.604 2.524 2.702
0.03 3.701 2.536 2.755
0.04 3.717 2.558 2.787
0.05 3.817 2.653 2.808
TiO2
0.01 3.287 2.44 2.629
0.02 3.488 2.498 2.685
0.03 3.603 2.548 2.733
0.04 3.666 2.594 2.765
0.05 3.691 2.634 2.795
Al2O3
0.01 3.464 2.502 2.669
0.02 3.616 2.572 2.748
0.03 3.681 2.63 2.806
0.04 3.725 2.683 2.842
0.05 3.748 2.73 2.864
Table-4, showing the enhancement in first law efficiency
in terms of COP using different ecofriendly refrigerants of
Vapour Compression Refrigeration System and maximum
COP is found 14.8% using ecofriendly R404a refrigerant
and Cuo nano particles, 10.7% using TiO2 and 11.5% using
Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction (ϕ). Although by varying
Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law performance is increased
from 3.2% to 9.9% using ecofriendly R407c refrigerant
and Cuo nano particles and from 2.9% to 9.4% using
R407c and TiO2 as nano particles and 3.2% to 9.9% Al2O3
as compared to without nano particles mixed in the brine
water flowing in these condary circuit of evaporator
Table: 4 Show % enhancement in C.O.P using different
nanorefrigerant of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
[23]
Refrigerant R134a R404A R407c
Nano
particle
Volume
Fraction
(ϕ)
%
Enhance
ment
%
Enhance
ment
% Enhance
ment
0 - - -
CuO
0.01 21.3% 3.8% 3.2%
0.02 27.8% 6.1% 5.7%
0.03 31.2% 6.6% 7.8%
0.04 31.8% 7.5% 9.0%
0.05 35.4% 11.5% 9.9%
TiO2
0.01 16.6% 2.6% 2.9%
0.02 23.7% 5.0% 5.0%
0.03 27.8% 7.1% 6.9%
0.04 30.0% 9.0% 8.2%
0.05 30.9% 10.7% 9.4%
Al2O3
0.01 22.8% 5.2% 4.4%
0.02 28.2% 8.1% 7.5%
0.03 30.5% 10.6% 9.8%
0.04 32.1% 12.8% 11.2%
0.05 32.9% 14.8% 12.1%
Figure: 1 Variation of Exergy destruction ratio with volume
fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with
R134a using different nano particles [24]
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
E.D.R.ofSystem
ϕ
R134a
R134a-Al2O3
R134a-Tio2
R134a-CuO
R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84
82
Figure: 2 Variation of Exergy Destruction ratio with volume
fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with
R407c using different nano particles [24]
Figure: 3 Variation of Exergy destruction ratio with volume
fraction (ɸ) of VCRS with R404A using different nano particles
[24]
Fig 1-3 shows that the Exergy .Destruction Ratio (EDR) of
VCRS (i.e. which is a ratio of exergy losses in the system
to the exergy of output is decreasing as volume fraction
ratio is increasing) and will reduce by using nano fluid
(nanoparticle based nano refrigerant) and thus improving
second law efficiency
The Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction (ɸ) on the
second law efficient using R134a as ecofriendly
refrigerants in primary circuit of evaporator and with three
type of nano materials of 0.000010(m) diameter is shown
in Fig-4. As volume fraction Ratio is increasing from 0.01
to 0.05, the exergetic efficiency is increased.
Figure: 4 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction
(ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R134a
using different nano particles [25]
Figure: 5 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction
(ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R407c
using different nano particles [25]
Similarly The Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction (ɸ) on
the second law efficiency using R407c and R404a as
ecofriendly refrigerants in primary circuit of evaporator
and with three type of nano materials of 0.000010(m)
diameter is shown in Fig-5-6 respectively. As volume
fraction Ratio is increasing from 0.01 to 0.05, the exergetic
efficiency is also increasing sharply. The similar trend is
also observed in case of using nano materials.
2.5
2.55
2.6
2.65
2.7
2.75
2.8
2.85
2.9
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
E.D.R.ofSystem
ϕ
R407c
R407c-Al2O3
R407c-Tio2
R407c-CuO
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
E.D.R.ofSystem
ϕ
R404A
R404A-Al2O3
R404A-Tio2
R404A-CuO
26%
27%
28%
29%
30%
31%
32%
33%
34%
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Exergyefficiency
ϕ
R134a
R134a-Al2O3
R134a-Tio2
R134a-CuO
26%
27%
27%
28%
28%
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Exergyefficiency
ϕ
R407c
R407c-Al2O3
R407c-Tio2
R407c-CuO
R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84
83
Figure: 6 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction
(ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R404A
using different nano particles [25]
It was observed that the 2nd Law efficiency will increase
by using nano refrigerant. The 2nd law efficiency of
vapour compression refrigeration system using nano
refrigerant R134a/CuO is much higher than the other
nano refrigerant having value approx 32%. A
computational program has been developed to solve
nonlinear equation of vapour compression refrigeration
cycle Considering same geometric parameter of the
VCRS model theoretical analysis has been done using
EES software for nano fluid (nanoparticle mixed with
R718) flowing in secondary circuit and eco friendly
refrigerant in primary circuit of VCRS and Theoretical
result of eight different ecofriendly refrigerants and
using Al2O3 at 5 vol % nano fluid in secondary circuit as
obtained from model is shown in Table-5.
Table 5 Enhancement in C.O.P in Vapour Compression
Refrigeration System using Al2O3at 5 vol % nano fluid in
Secondary circuit [26]
For Al2O3at volume fraction of 5 vol %
Refrigerant
First law
efficiency
C.O.P.
% Improvement in
first law efficiency
(C.O.P.)
R134a 3.406 17.98%
R404A 3.0635 16.00%
R407c 3.110488 17.20%
R-152a 3.4102 18.00%
R-600 3.3402 17.20%
R-600a 3.466 19.90%
R-125 3.033016 14.80%
R-290 3.54312 19.70%
3. Conclusions
The research work presented in this thesis work following
conclusion have been drawn.
1. Use of nanoparticles enhances thermal performance of
vapour compression refrigeration system from 8 to 35
% using nano refrigerant in primary circuit.
2. Use of nanoparticles enhances the thermal
performance of vapour compression refrigeration
system from 7 to 19 % using nano fluid in secondary
circuit.
3. Maximum enhancement in performance was observed
using R134a/ Al2O3 nano refrigerant in primary circuit
and water in secondary circuit of VCRS.
4. Lowest enhancement in performance was observed
using R404Aa/TiO2 nano refrigerant in primary circuit
and water in secondary circuit of VCRS.
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20%
21%
21%
22%
22%
23%
23%
24%
24%
25%
25%
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
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R404A-Tio2
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symposium on HAVC, Tsinghua University.
[12] Lee K, Hwang YJ, [2009]Performance evaluation of nano-
lubricants of fullerene nanoparticles in refrigeration mineral
oil. Curr Appl Phys;9:128–131.
[13] Wien, D., and Y. Ding (2004). Experimental investigation
into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance
region under laminar flow conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass
Transfer, 47: 5181–5188.
[14] I.M. Mahbubul , A.Saadah (2015) Thermal performance
analysis of Al2O3 R134a nanorefrigerant , international
journal of heat and mass transfer 85 1034-1040.
[15] Y. He, (2007) Heat transfer and flow behavior of aqueous
suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles (nanofluids) flowing
upward through a vertical pipe, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 50
2272-2281.
[16] D.P. Kulkarni, (2008) Convective heat transfer and fluid
dynamic characteristics of SiO2-ethylene glycol/water
nanofluid, Heat Transf. Eng. 29 (12) 1027-1035.
[17] S.Z. Heris, S.G. Etemad, M.N. Esfahany(2006),
Experimental investigation of Al2O3 nanofluids laminar
flow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. Heat Mass
Transf. 33 529535.
[18] Bobbo S. et.al, (2010). Influence of nanoparticles dispersion
in POE oils on lubricity and R134a solubility. International
Journal of Refrigeration, Vol.33, pp. 1180-1186.
[19] Lee K, Hwang YJ, Cheong S, Kwon L, Kim S, Lee J.
Performance evaluation of nano-lubricants of fullerene
nanoparticles in refrigeration mineral oil. Curr Appl Phys
2009;9:128–131.
[20] R.S. Mishra (2015) Irreversibility Reduction in Vapour
Compression Refrigeration Systems Using Al2O3 Nano
Material Mixed in R718 as Secondary Fluid s” International
journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2
(June-2015), pp. 321-327.
[21] R. S. Mishra (2015) “Performance Evaluation of Ecofriendly
Refrigerants in the Low Temperature Circuit in Terms of
First Law and Second Law Efficiency of Three Stages
Cascade Vapour Compression Refrigeration of Biomedical
Applications” International journal of Advance Research
and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-2015), pp. 332-339.
[22] R.S.Mishra (2015) Methods for Improving Thermodynamic
Performance of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
Using Nano Mixed Ecofriendly Refrigerants in Primary
Circuit and Comparsion with Nano Particles Mixed Wih
R718 Used in Secondary Evaporator Circuit and Ecofriendly
Refrigerants in Primary Circuit for Reducing Global
Warming and Ozone Depletion, International journal of
Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-
2015), pp. 433-439.
[23] R. S. Mishra(2015) Modeling of Natural Convection Non
Reversible Single Pass Pressurized and Non Pressurized
Solar Hot Water Systems for Domestic
Applications” International journal of Advance Research
and Innovation , ISSN. No:2347 – 3258, Vol-3, Issue 3
(Sept-2015), pp. 451- 458.
[24] R. S. Mishra(2015) “ Energy-Exergy Performance
Comparison of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
using Three Nano Materials Mixed in R718 in the Secondry
Fluid and Ecofriendly Refrigerants in the Primary Circuit
and Direct Mixing of nano Materials in the Refrigerants”
International journal of Advance Research and Innovation
Vol-3, Issue 3 (Sept-2015), pp. 471-477.
[25] R. S. Mishra(2015) “Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Technology for Sustainable Development” International
journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 4
(Dec-2015)
[26] R. S. Mishra (2015) Thermodynamic performance
comparison using HFO-1234yf and hfo-1234ze in the high
temperature cascade refrigeration systems and ecofriendly
refrigerants in low temperature applications, International
journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 4
(Dec-2015).
[27] R. S. Mishra( 2015) Energy-exergy performance
comparison of vapour compression refrigeration systems
using three nano materials mixed in r718 as secondry fluid
and r-1234yf and r-1234ze ecofriendly refrigerants in the
primary circuit International journal of Advance Research
and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-2015), pp. 321-327
[28] R.S. Mishra (2013) “Irriversibility Analysis of Multi-
Evaporators Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
Using New and Refrigerants: R134a, R290, R600, R600a,
R1234yf,R502, R404a and R152a and R12, R502”
International Journal of Advance Research & Innovations
International Journal of Advance Research & Innovations
(IJARI-Vol-1 ) , ISSN No: 2347-3258 , PP-180-193.

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Modeling of variable speed compressor vapour compression refrigeration system using ecofriendly refrigerants and nano refrigerants and water cooled condenser-evaporator with experimental validation

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation Vol-1, Issue-2 (2017), 78-84 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ International Journal of Research in Engineering and Innovation (IJREI) journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com ISSN (Online): 2456-6934 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Corresponding Author: Radhey Shyam. Mishra Email rsmishra@dtu.ac.in 78 Modeling of variable speed compressor vapour compression refrigeration system using ecofriendly refrigerants and nano refrigerants and water cooled condenser-evaporator with experimental validation Radhey Shyam Mishra Department of Mechanical Engineering, Production & Industrial engineering and Automobiles Engineering Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 E Mail-rsmishradtu@gmail.com, rsmishra@dce.ac.in , rsmishra@dtu.ac.in _________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract Lots of researches have been done and going on based on the performance evaluation of various metallic/ nonmetallic nanoparticle suspended into the conventional fluid to enhance the heat transfer property of base fluid. Also some theoretical analysis of suspension of nanoparticle Al2O3 in conventional refrigerant. On the other hand the performance of vapour compression cycle based chiller facility using nano refrigerant yet to be analyzed with different type, concentration and diameter of nanoparticle. Such as TiO2, CuO nanoparticle suspension into conventional refrigerant with different concentration and diameter have been analyzed by several investigators and also effect of variation of concentration and nanoparticle diameter on the first and second law performance of vapour compression refrigeration system is presented. The effect of changing input parameter of VCRS using nano refrigerant also affecting significantly the evaporative heat transfer coefficient and very little condor heat transfer coefficient. The idea of Suspension nanoparticle into conventional refrigerant and theoretical analysis of VCRS using nano-refrigerant is proposed after going through extensive literature review presented in this paper. © 2017 ijrei.com. All rights reserved Keywords: VCRS, First & Second Law Performance, Nano Materials, Energy-Exergy Analysis __________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction Theoretical and experimental investigation of refrigeration systems based on first law and second law analysis using refrigerants.is carried out. Chopra, [1] investigated the exergy analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system with R134a R407Cand R410A. In their study they have calculated the effect of varying evaporator temperature of the C.O.P. of VCS for different types of ecofriendly refrigerant and also the effect of varying evaporator temperature on the exergetic efficiency of VCS. Chopra [2] developed a computational model for computing a coefficient of performance (COP), energy destruction, exergetic efficiency and energy defects for R502, R404A, and R507A of detailed energy analysis on actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle. It has been done for evaporator and condenser temperature in the range of 500 C to 00 C and 400 C to 550 C respectively. He found that R507A is better substitute to R502 than R404A. The efficiency defects in condenser are highest and lowest in liquid vapour heat exchanger for the refrigerants considered. Choi, S. U. S, [3] investigated thermal properties and rheological behavior of water based Al2O3 nano fluid as a heat transfer fluid and found that Thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer of nano fluid increases as mass concentration of nano fluid increases. Jwo et.al, [4] presented the Effect of different nano particle shapes on shell and tube heat exchanger using different baffle angles and operated with nano fluid, in his study he has analyze the effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on overall heat transfer coefficient and entropy generation & heat transfer rate and found that as well as we increase the volume fraction of nano particle the overall heat transfer coefficient generation & heat transfer rate increases and
  • 2. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 79 entropy generation decreases. Simulation result has been plotted for the same. Lee K, Hwang [5] in his experimental measured on heat transfer coefficient using Al2O3 /water nano fluid in an air finned heat exchanger concluded the overall heat transfer coefficient of Fe2O3/water nano fluids in compact air cooled heat exchanger using LMTD technique under laminar flow regime. Joaquin Navarro, Francisco, Angel, [6] carried out thermal modelling analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system and found that the influence of an internal heat exchanger on the performance of a vapour compression system using R1234yf as replacement for R134a and compare the energy performance of vapour compression system using ecofriendly refrigerants,R134a and R1234yf, and found that the presence of an internal heat exchanger results, reductions in cooling capacity and COP between 6 and 13% , when R134a is replaced by the R1234yf. Although the presence of an Internal heat exchanger reductions between 2 and 6%. Murshed S. M. S., K. C. Leong, and C. Yang [7] in this study Comparison of convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of TiO2 nano fluid flow in tube with twisted tape inserts’ determined the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of TiO2/water nano fluid up to 3.0% volume concentration at an average temperature of 30°C and a significant enhancement of 23.2 % in heat transfer coefficient is observed at 1.0% concentration for flow in tube. An increase in the nanofluid concentration to 3.0% decreased heat transfer coefficient to value lower than water for flow in tube and with tape inserts. A thermal system with tape inserts of twist ration 15 and 1.0% TiO2 concentration gives maximum advantage ratio, if pressure drop is considered along with enhancement in heat transfer coefficient. Hao Peng et.al [8] in his study on Heat transfer and flow characteristics of Al2O3 water nanofluid in a double tube heat exchanger and evaluated that the viscosity, relative viscosity of nano fluid at different mass fraction and sizes of nano particles and found that viscosity, Nusselt no. increases as mass fraction and size of nano particles. And observed that the, for a given refrigerating mass faction of nanoparticles, viscosity, Nusselt no. Reynolds No. increase of base fluid. Henderson et al. [9] evaluated the performance parameters of a vapour compression refrigeration system with different lubricants including nano lubricants and concluded that (i) R134a refrigerant and mineral oil mixture with nano particles worked normally (ii) Freezing capacity of the refrigeration system is higher (iii) The power consumption of the compressor reduces by 25% when the nano lubricant (iv) The coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system also increases by 33% with nano refrigerant (v) the energy enhancement factor in the evaporator is 1.53. Juan Carlos et al [10] investigated the use of nano fluids as secondary coolants in vapor compression refrigeration systems using different nanoparticles (Cu, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2) for different volume fraction and particle diameters. Simulation results have shown that, for a given refrigerating capacity, evaporator area and refrigerant-side pressure drop are reduced when: (i) the volume fraction of nanoparticles increase; (ii) the diameter of nanoparticles decrease. Also, nano fluid side pressure drop and, consequently, pumping power, increase with nanoparticle volume fraction and decrease with nanoparticle size. Henderson et al. [9] Measured enhanced thermal conductivity of Cu-water Nano fluid using secondary circuit of evaporator and observed that the rate of heat transfer is increases with increasing flow rate and also its concentration. By nanoparticle dispersed into de-ionized base fluid a better enhancement is achieved. Xuan Y [10]. Investigated the nanoparticle collision and deposition in the surface investigated the base fluid should possess high prandle number, and get enhanced heat transfer rate by minimize particle-particle and particle-wall collision. Viscous dissipation effect is important of narrow channel, because Nusselt number high for high aspect ratio channel. Wang RX, Xie HB [11] studied experimentally the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of a nano fluid consisting of water and 0.2 vol. % TiO2 flowing a double pipe heat exchanger. They investigated the effects of the flow Reynolds number and the temperature of the nano fluid and the temperature and flow rate of the heating fluid on the heat transfer coefficient and flow characteristics. Their results showed that the convective heat transfer coefficient of nano fluid is slightly higher than that of the base liquid by about 6 -11%. The heat transfer coefficient of the nano fluid increased with an increase in the mass flow rate of the hot water and nano fluid. Lee K, Hwang YJ, [12] Studied about the relation between thermal resistance-size of nanoparticle and found that the thermal resistance is directly proportional to the size of the nanoparticle. The maximum reduction of thermal resistance by using 10 nm sized particles, because particle size is increasing the wall temperature also increases. Due to sized particle suitable for enhanced heat transfer rate. Thermal resistance is decreases with increasing heat and concentration of Nano particle. Murshed S. M. [13] numerically studied heat transfer characteristics of double-tube helical heat exchangers using nano fluids under laminar flow conditions. CuO and TiO2 nano particles with diameters of 24 nm dispersed in water with volume concentrations of 0.5–3 vol. % were used as the working fluid. The overall heat transfer coefficient ratio was higher at higher nanoparticle concentrations. In other words, the overall heat transfer coefficient ratio was higher when the probability of collision between nanoparticles and the wall of the heat exchanger were increased under higher concentration, confirming that nano fluids. Wen, D., and Y. Ding (2004) [13] investigated convective heat transfer co efficient of diamond based Nano fluid by using heat tube apparatus and showed the heat transfer coefficient is increases with increasing concentration and Reynolds number of Nano fluid. I.M. Mahbubul, A. Saadah [14] investigated heat transfer enhancement and flow characteristic of Al2O3- Water Nano fluid using micro channel heat sink. The dimension of test section is 5x5 mm and 50W heat is
  • 3. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 80 applied and found heat transfer is enhanced at high Reynolds number and high concentration of Nano fluid, because at high Reynolds number wall temperature is decreases and pressure drop is increased. Y. He, [15] investigated the thermal performance of air-water heat exchanger using TiO2Nano fluid. And found that the heat transfer coefficient is increases with increasing Reynolds number at constant volume of friction up to 0.6%. D.P. Kulkarni [16] investigated heat transfer and fluid dynamic performance of nano fluids of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles suspended in a 60:40 (% by weight) ethylene glycol and water (EG/water) mixture and observed increase in heat transfer coefficient due to nano fluids for various volume concentrations and loss in pressure was observed with increasing nanoparticle volume concentration. S.Z. Heris, et.al. [17] investigated the flow and heat transfer characteristic of spiral pipe heat exchanger using different type of Nano fluid with different concentration as Al2O3 water, TiO2-water, CuO-water Nano fluid with 1%, 1% and 3% concentration respectively. And observed that the heat transfer enhanced 28% at 0.8% concentration of Nano fluid, due to, increased shear stress of Nano fluid. Bobbo S. et.al, [18] Investigated the friction factor and heat transfer rate of CuO Water and Al2O3 water and observed that the increase of Nusselt number with increasing the Reynolds number and concentration decreases the friction factor of Nano fluid. As compared the CuO-water and better enhancement as Al2O3 water Nano fluids by using CuO- water Nano fluid. Mishra [19-20] observed the overall heat transfer coefficient of nano fluids increases significantly with prandle number. For both nano fluids the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with nanoparticle concentration compared to the base fluid. The experimental results for the Nusselt number of Al2O3/water and TiO2/water nano fluids and Results show that at 0.5 vol. % of Al2O3. Nano particles and at 0.3 vol. % of TiO2 nanoparticles. Considerable enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient of the nano fluids as compared to the base fluid, ranging from 2% to 50%. Moreover, the results indicated that with increasing nanoparticles concentration and nano fluid temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient of nano fluid increases. The Nano fluid shows greater heat transfer coefficient compare with water and increase the inlet liquid temperature decreases the overall heat transfer coefficient. The increasing mass flow rate of brine increases Re and overall heat transfer coefficient. 2. Result and Discussion The main heading should be A computational program has been developed to solve nonlinear equation of vapour compression refrigeration cycle by considering same performance parameter of the VCRS model (i.e. variation of mass flow rate of brine from 0.006 kg/sec to 0.010 kg/sec for fixing 0.008 condenser water flow rate , mass flow rate of water in condenser from 0.006 to 0.010kg/sec by fixing 0.008 kg/sec of brine mass flow rate at pressure of 2 bars , with 0.000010 m nano particle size mixed in the brine water, the theoretical analysis has been done using EES software for nano fluid (nanoparticle mixed with R718) flowing in secondary circuit and eco friendly refrigerant in primary circuit of VCRS and results are given below. Table 1 shows the enhancement in C.O.P using different R-404a ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS and maximum COP is found 14.8% using Cuo nano particles 10.7% using TiO2 and 11.5% using Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction (ϕ). Although by varying Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law performance is increased from 3.8% to 11.5% using Al2O3 and 2.6% to 10.5% and 5.2% to 14.8% using Cuo nano materials as compared without nano particles mixed in the brine water flowing in the secondary circuit of evaporator Table 1: Enhancement in C.O.P using different nano refrigerant of Vapour compression Refrigeration System [21] Refrigerant R404a Nano particle Volume Fraction (ϕ) C.O.P. % Enhancement 0 2.379 - Al2O3. 0.01 2.47 3.8% 0.02 2.524 6.1% 0.03 2.536 6.6% 0.04 2.558 7.5% 0.05 2.653 11.5% TiO2 0.01 2.44 2.6% 0.02 2.498 5.0% 0.03 2.548 7.1% 0.04 2.594 9.0% 0.05 2.634 10.7% CuO 0.01 2.502 5.2% 0.02 2.572 8.1% 0.03 2.63 10.6% 0.04 2.683 12.8% 0.05 2.73 14.8% Table 2 shows the enhancement in C.O.P using different R-407c ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS and maximum COP is found 14.8% using CuO nano particles 10.7% using TiO2 and 11.5% using Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction (ϕ). Although by varying Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law performance is increased from 2.9% to 9.4% using TiO2 and 3.2% to 9.9% Al2O3 and 4.4% to 12.1% using Cuo nano materials as compared without nano particles mixed in the brine water flowing in these condary circuit of evaporator.
  • 4. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 81 Table: 2 Enhancement in second law using different nano refrigerant of Vapour compression Refrigeration System [21] Refrigerant R407C Nano particle Volume Fraction (ϕ) C.O.P. % Enhancement 0 2.556 - Al2O3 0.01 2.637 3.2% 0.02 2.702 5.7% 0.03 2.755 7.8% 0.04 2.787 9.0% 0.05 2.808 9.9% TiO2 0.01 2.629 2.9% 0.02 2.685 5.0% 0.03 2.733 6.9% 0.04 2.765 8.2% 0.05 2.795 9.4% CuO 0.01 2.669 4.4% 0.02 2.748 7.5% 0.03 2.806 9.8% 0.04 2.842 11.2% 0.05 2.864 12.1% Table 3 shows experimentally the enhancement in C.O.P using different R-404a ecofriendly refrigerant of VCRS and maximum COP is found 3.817 using CuO and 3.691 using TiO2 and 3.748 using Al2O3. Similarly as volume fraction (ϕ) is increased the first law performance is increased maximum using R134a and minimum as using ecofriendly refrigerant R404a. The % improvement is found in Table-4 from 21.3% in case of Volume Fraction (ϕ) is 1% to 35.4% using R-134a and CuO as nano material and 16.6% to 30.9 % using TiO2 and 22.8% to 32.9% using Al2O3. Table: 3 Enhancement in C.O.P using different nano refrigerant of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System [22] Refrigerant R134a R404A R407c Nano particle Volume Fraction (ϕ) C.O.P. C.O.P. C.O.P. 0 2.82 2.379 2.556 CuO 0.01 3.421 2.47 2.637 0.02 3.604 2.524 2.702 0.03 3.701 2.536 2.755 0.04 3.717 2.558 2.787 0.05 3.817 2.653 2.808 TiO2 0.01 3.287 2.44 2.629 0.02 3.488 2.498 2.685 0.03 3.603 2.548 2.733 0.04 3.666 2.594 2.765 0.05 3.691 2.634 2.795 Al2O3 0.01 3.464 2.502 2.669 0.02 3.616 2.572 2.748 0.03 3.681 2.63 2.806 0.04 3.725 2.683 2.842 0.05 3.748 2.73 2.864 Table-4, showing the enhancement in first law efficiency in terms of COP using different ecofriendly refrigerants of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System and maximum COP is found 14.8% using ecofriendly R404a refrigerant and Cuo nano particles, 10.7% using TiO2 and 11.5% using Al2O3 for 5% of Volume Fraction (ϕ). Although by varying Volume Fraction (ϕ) the first law performance is increased from 3.2% to 9.9% using ecofriendly R407c refrigerant and Cuo nano particles and from 2.9% to 9.4% using R407c and TiO2 as nano particles and 3.2% to 9.9% Al2O3 as compared to without nano particles mixed in the brine water flowing in these condary circuit of evaporator Table: 4 Show % enhancement in C.O.P using different nanorefrigerant of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System [23] Refrigerant R134a R404A R407c Nano particle Volume Fraction (ϕ) % Enhance ment % Enhance ment % Enhance ment 0 - - - CuO 0.01 21.3% 3.8% 3.2% 0.02 27.8% 6.1% 5.7% 0.03 31.2% 6.6% 7.8% 0.04 31.8% 7.5% 9.0% 0.05 35.4% 11.5% 9.9% TiO2 0.01 16.6% 2.6% 2.9% 0.02 23.7% 5.0% 5.0% 0.03 27.8% 7.1% 6.9% 0.04 30.0% 9.0% 8.2% 0.05 30.9% 10.7% 9.4% Al2O3 0.01 22.8% 5.2% 4.4% 0.02 28.2% 8.1% 7.5% 0.03 30.5% 10.6% 9.8% 0.04 32.1% 12.8% 11.2% 0.05 32.9% 14.8% 12.1% Figure: 1 Variation of Exergy destruction ratio with volume fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R134a using different nano particles [24] 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 E.D.R.ofSystem ϕ R134a R134a-Al2O3 R134a-Tio2 R134a-CuO
  • 5. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 82 Figure: 2 Variation of Exergy Destruction ratio with volume fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R407c using different nano particles [24] Figure: 3 Variation of Exergy destruction ratio with volume fraction (ɸ) of VCRS with R404A using different nano particles [24] Fig 1-3 shows that the Exergy .Destruction Ratio (EDR) of VCRS (i.e. which is a ratio of exergy losses in the system to the exergy of output is decreasing as volume fraction ratio is increasing) and will reduce by using nano fluid (nanoparticle based nano refrigerant) and thus improving second law efficiency The Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction (ɸ) on the second law efficient using R134a as ecofriendly refrigerants in primary circuit of evaporator and with three type of nano materials of 0.000010(m) diameter is shown in Fig-4. As volume fraction Ratio is increasing from 0.01 to 0.05, the exergetic efficiency is increased. Figure: 4 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R134a using different nano particles [25] Figure: 5 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R407c using different nano particles [25] Similarly The Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction (ɸ) on the second law efficiency using R407c and R404a as ecofriendly refrigerants in primary circuit of evaporator and with three type of nano materials of 0.000010(m) diameter is shown in Fig-5-6 respectively. As volume fraction Ratio is increasing from 0.01 to 0.05, the exergetic efficiency is also increasing sharply. The similar trend is also observed in case of using nano materials. 2.5 2.55 2.6 2.65 2.7 2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 E.D.R.ofSystem ϕ R407c R407c-Al2O3 R407c-Tio2 R407c-CuO 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 E.D.R.ofSystem ϕ R404A R404A-Al2O3 R404A-Tio2 R404A-CuO 26% 27% 28% 29% 30% 31% 32% 33% 34% 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Exergyefficiency ϕ R134a R134a-Al2O3 R134a-Tio2 R134a-CuO 26% 27% 27% 28% 28% 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Exergyefficiency ϕ R407c R407c-Al2O3 R407c-Tio2 R407c-CuO
  • 6. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 83 Figure: 6 Variation of Exergy Efficiency with volume fraction (ɸ) of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with R404A using different nano particles [25] It was observed that the 2nd Law efficiency will increase by using nano refrigerant. The 2nd law efficiency of vapour compression refrigeration system using nano refrigerant R134a/CuO is much higher than the other nano refrigerant having value approx 32%. A computational program has been developed to solve nonlinear equation of vapour compression refrigeration cycle Considering same geometric parameter of the VCRS model theoretical analysis has been done using EES software for nano fluid (nanoparticle mixed with R718) flowing in secondary circuit and eco friendly refrigerant in primary circuit of VCRS and Theoretical result of eight different ecofriendly refrigerants and using Al2O3 at 5 vol % nano fluid in secondary circuit as obtained from model is shown in Table-5. Table 5 Enhancement in C.O.P in Vapour Compression Refrigeration System using Al2O3at 5 vol % nano fluid in Secondary circuit [26] For Al2O3at volume fraction of 5 vol % Refrigerant First law efficiency C.O.P. % Improvement in first law efficiency (C.O.P.) R134a 3.406 17.98% R404A 3.0635 16.00% R407c 3.110488 17.20% R-152a 3.4102 18.00% R-600 3.3402 17.20% R-600a 3.466 19.90% R-125 3.033016 14.80% R-290 3.54312 19.70% 3. Conclusions The research work presented in this thesis work following conclusion have been drawn. 1. Use of nanoparticles enhances thermal performance of vapour compression refrigeration system from 8 to 35 % using nano refrigerant in primary circuit. 2. Use of nanoparticles enhances the thermal performance of vapour compression refrigeration system from 7 to 19 % using nano fluid in secondary circuit. 3. Maximum enhancement in performance was observed using R134a/ Al2O3 nano refrigerant in primary circuit and water in secondary circuit of VCRS. 4. Lowest enhancement in performance was observed using R404Aa/TiO2 nano refrigerant in primary circuit and water in secondary circuit of VCRS. References [1] Kapil Chopra .V.Sahni and R.S Mishra (2013)*Energetic and Exergetic Based Comparison Multiple Evaporators with Compound Compression and Flash Intercooler with Individual or Multiple Throttle Valves International Journal of Advance Research & Innovations (IJARI-Vol-1) ISSN No: 2347-3258, pp-73-81. [2] Kapil Chopra .V.Sahni .R.S Mishra*(2014) “Thermodynamic Analysis of Multiple evaporators vapour compression Refrigeration Systems with R-410a, R290, R1234yf, R502, R404a, R152a and R134a ” International Journal of Air conditioning and Refrigeration ( Ms. No: IJACR-D-13-00043R1) , Paper Vol-22 No-1, 145-158. [3] Choi, S. U. S. (1995). Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, in Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows FED–31/MD-66:99– 105. [4] Jwo et.al, 2009. Effect of nano lubricant on the performance of Hydrocarbon refrigerant system. J. Vac. Sci. Techno. B, Vol.27, No. 3, pp. 1473-1477. [5] K.S. Hwang, S.P. Jang, S. U. S. Choi, (2009) Flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids in fully developed laminar flow regime, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 52 193-199. [6] Joaquin Navarro, Francisco, Angel, (2013). Experimental analysis of internal heat exchanger influence on vapour compression system performance working with R1234yf as drop in replacement of R134a. Applied thermal Engineering, 59, 153-161. [7] Murshed S. M. S., K. C. Leong, and C. Yang (2005). Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2-water based nanofluids, Int. J. Therm. Sci., 44: 367–373. [8] Hao Peng et.al., (2010). Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant/oil mixture with diamond nano parti cles. International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol.33, pp. 347-358. [9] Henderson et al. (2010) Experimental analysis on the flow boiling heat transfer of R134a based nanofluids in a horizontal tube. IJHMT , Vol. 53, pp. 944-951. [10] Xuan, Y., and Q. Li (2003). Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids, J. Heat Transfer, 125: 151–155. 20% 21% 21% 22% 22% 23% 23% 24% 24% 25% 25% 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Exergyefficiency ϕ R404A R404A-Al2O3 R404A-Tio2 R404A-CuO
  • 7. R.S. Mishra et al/ International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 3 (2017), 78-84 84 [11] Wang RX, et.al. [2003.] A refrigerating system using HFC134a and mineral lubricant appended with N- TiO2(R) as working Fluids. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on HAVC, Tsinghua University. [12] Lee K, Hwang YJ, [2009]Performance evaluation of nano- lubricants of fullerene nanoparticles in refrigeration mineral oil. Curr Appl Phys;9:128–131. [13] Wien, D., and Y. Ding (2004). Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47: 5181–5188. [14] I.M. Mahbubul , A.Saadah (2015) Thermal performance analysis of Al2O3 R134a nanorefrigerant , international journal of heat and mass transfer 85 1034-1040. [15] Y. He, (2007) Heat transfer and flow behavior of aqueous suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles (nanofluids) flowing upward through a vertical pipe, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 50 2272-2281. [16] D.P. Kulkarni, (2008) Convective heat transfer and fluid dynamic characteristics of SiO2-ethylene glycol/water nanofluid, Heat Transf. Eng. 29 (12) 1027-1035. [17] S.Z. Heris, S.G. Etemad, M.N. Esfahany(2006), Experimental investigation of Al2O3 nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 33 529535. [18] Bobbo S. et.al, (2010). Influence of nanoparticles dispersion in POE oils on lubricity and R134a solubility. International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol.33, pp. 1180-1186. [19] Lee K, Hwang YJ, Cheong S, Kwon L, Kim S, Lee J. Performance evaluation of nano-lubricants of fullerene nanoparticles in refrigeration mineral oil. Curr Appl Phys 2009;9:128–131. [20] R.S. Mishra (2015) Irreversibility Reduction in Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Using Al2O3 Nano Material Mixed in R718 as Secondary Fluid s” International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-2015), pp. 321-327. [21] R. S. Mishra (2015) “Performance Evaluation of Ecofriendly Refrigerants in the Low Temperature Circuit in Terms of First Law and Second Law Efficiency of Three Stages Cascade Vapour Compression Refrigeration of Biomedical Applications” International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-2015), pp. 332-339. [22] R.S.Mishra (2015) Methods for Improving Thermodynamic Performance of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Using Nano Mixed Ecofriendly Refrigerants in Primary Circuit and Comparsion with Nano Particles Mixed Wih R718 Used in Secondary Evaporator Circuit and Ecofriendly Refrigerants in Primary Circuit for Reducing Global Warming and Ozone Depletion, International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June- 2015), pp. 433-439. [23] R. S. Mishra(2015) Modeling of Natural Convection Non Reversible Single Pass Pressurized and Non Pressurized Solar Hot Water Systems for Domestic Applications” International journal of Advance Research and Innovation , ISSN. No:2347 – 3258, Vol-3, Issue 3 (Sept-2015), pp. 451- 458. [24] R. S. Mishra(2015) “ Energy-Exergy Performance Comparison of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems using Three Nano Materials Mixed in R718 in the Secondry Fluid and Ecofriendly Refrigerants in the Primary Circuit and Direct Mixing of nano Materials in the Refrigerants” International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 3 (Sept-2015), pp. 471-477. [25] R. S. Mishra(2015) “Vapour Compression Refrigeration Technology for Sustainable Development” International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 4 (Dec-2015) [26] R. S. Mishra (2015) Thermodynamic performance comparison using HFO-1234yf and hfo-1234ze in the high temperature cascade refrigeration systems and ecofriendly refrigerants in low temperature applications, International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 4 (Dec-2015). [27] R. S. Mishra( 2015) Energy-exergy performance comparison of vapour compression refrigeration systems using three nano materials mixed in r718 as secondry fluid and r-1234yf and r-1234ze ecofriendly refrigerants in the primary circuit International journal of Advance Research and Innovation Vol-3, Issue 2 (June-2015), pp. 321-327 [28] R.S. Mishra (2013) “Irriversibility Analysis of Multi- Evaporators Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Using New and Refrigerants: R134a, R290, R600, R600a, R1234yf,R502, R404a and R152a and R12, R502” International Journal of Advance Research & Innovations International Journal of Advance Research & Innovations (IJARI-Vol-1 ) , ISSN No: 2347-3258 , PP-180-193.