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Origin of Life
Pieces of Model
• Evidence for age of earliest life
• Where did life originate?
• Development of more complex organisms
Evidence for age of origin of life
• Evidence of ancient life:
– Stromatolites: 3.2 billion
– Layers of sediment left by cyanobacterial mats
http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/seminars/fall08/10_29_08.html
http://www.rockhounds.com/gra
nd_hikes/hikes/stromatolites_in
_the_hakatai/
Are stromatolites
evidence of life or non-
organic origin?
2008 study of 2.7 Gy
stromatolites:
Found shapes similar to
bacteria, associated with
the kind of nanocrystals
in modern bacteria-grown
stromatolites.
K. Lepot et al., “Microbially
influenced formation of 2,724-
million-year-old stromatolites,”
Nature Geosciences, 2008. 1: 118-21.
http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080125/full/news.2008.529.html
Evidence for age of origin of life
• Evidence of ancient life:
– Stromatolites: 3.2+ billion
– Cyanobacteria themselves: 3.5 Gy
• Contested fossils
Originally
thought to
contain
carbon, new
analysis
suggests they
are hematite
deposits in
microfractures.
Marshall, C.P., J.R.
Emry & A.O.
Marshall, “Haematite
pseudomicrofossils
present in the 3.5-
billion-year-old Apex
Chert”, Nature
Geosciences, 2011.
4:240-243.
Evidence for age of origin of life
• Evidence of ancient life:
– Stromatolites: 3.2+ billion
– Cyanobacteria: 3.5 Gy?
– Carbon isotope ratios: photosynthetic-like ratios
3.8 Gy
Pieces of Model
• Evidence for age of earliest life
• Where did life originate?
• Development of more complex organisms
Where did life originate?
• It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze”
model.
– Early oceans full of organic material
– Methane-ammonia atmosphere
– Most widely accepted model
Producing chemicals of life in the
absence of life
• Abiotic production of amino acids
– Urey-Miller experiment
• Methane, ammonia, water, hydrogen
• Heat
• Lightning (electrical spark)
• Result: 13 of 22 amino acids used in living systems
• We know it must happen, since amino acids
come to Earth on comets
http://www.blc.arizona.edu/courses/schaffer/182/Urey-Miller.htm
We are now not so sure that
Urey & Miller accurately
reproduced the early
environment of the Earth.
Where did life originate?
• It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze”
model.
• It came from outer space: arrived on a
comet
Evidence for chemicals of life in
space
• We have evidence of intense early
bombardment of Earth by both rocky and
icy bodies
• Modern comets carry organic molecules,
including amino acids
• Murchison meteorite carried organic
molecules to Earth
• We can use spectroscopy to detect organic
molecules in interstellar molecular clouds
Where did life originate?
• It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze”
model.
• It came from outer space: arrived on a
comet
• It came from the center of the Earth:
evolved in hydrothermal waters
Evidence for life within the Earth
• At surface of Earth, the most primitive
bacteria are chemotrophs – Yellowstone hot
spring bacteria
• Similar bacteria have been found in very
deep wells (10 km deep) and at mid-ocean
ridge black smokers
Pieces of Model
• Evidence for age of earliest life
• Where did life originate?
• Development of more complex organisms
Origin of more complex life
• Eukaryote v. Prokaryote
Origin of more complex life
• Eukaryote v. Prokaryote
– Prokaryote: small, no nucleus, limited
organelles, simple ring chromosome with few
genes
– Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex
chromosomes with many genes
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Average_
prokaryote_cell-_en.svg&page=1
http://medicalpicturesinfo.com/eukaryotic/
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Origin of more complex life
• Eukaryote v. Prokaryote
– Prokaryote: small, no organelles, simple ring
chromosome with few genes
– Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex
chromosomes with many genes
• Organelles resemble prokaryotes, some
even have DNA or RNA
Origin of more complex life
• Eukaryote v. Prokaryote
– Prokaryote: small, no organelles, simple ring
chromosome with few genes
– Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex
chromosomes with many genes
• Organelles resemble prokaryotes, some even have
RNA
• Evolution of eukaryotes from symbiosis of
prokaryotes
lifeshort.ppt

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The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
 

lifeshort.ppt

  • 2. Pieces of Model • Evidence for age of earliest life • Where did life originate? • Development of more complex organisms
  • 3. Evidence for age of origin of life • Evidence of ancient life: – Stromatolites: 3.2 billion – Layers of sediment left by cyanobacterial mats http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/seminars/fall08/10_29_08.html http://www.rockhounds.com/gra nd_hikes/hikes/stromatolites_in _the_hakatai/
  • 4. Are stromatolites evidence of life or non- organic origin? 2008 study of 2.7 Gy stromatolites: Found shapes similar to bacteria, associated with the kind of nanocrystals in modern bacteria-grown stromatolites. K. Lepot et al., “Microbially influenced formation of 2,724- million-year-old stromatolites,” Nature Geosciences, 2008. 1: 118-21. http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080125/full/news.2008.529.html
  • 5. Evidence for age of origin of life • Evidence of ancient life: – Stromatolites: 3.2+ billion – Cyanobacteria themselves: 3.5 Gy • Contested fossils
  • 6. Originally thought to contain carbon, new analysis suggests they are hematite deposits in microfractures. Marshall, C.P., J.R. Emry & A.O. Marshall, “Haematite pseudomicrofossils present in the 3.5- billion-year-old Apex Chert”, Nature Geosciences, 2011. 4:240-243.
  • 7. Evidence for age of origin of life • Evidence of ancient life: – Stromatolites: 3.2+ billion – Cyanobacteria: 3.5 Gy? – Carbon isotope ratios: photosynthetic-like ratios 3.8 Gy
  • 8. Pieces of Model • Evidence for age of earliest life • Where did life originate? • Development of more complex organisms
  • 9. Where did life originate? • It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze” model. – Early oceans full of organic material – Methane-ammonia atmosphere – Most widely accepted model
  • 10. Producing chemicals of life in the absence of life • Abiotic production of amino acids – Urey-Miller experiment • Methane, ammonia, water, hydrogen • Heat • Lightning (electrical spark) • Result: 13 of 22 amino acids used in living systems • We know it must happen, since amino acids come to Earth on comets
  • 11. http://www.blc.arizona.edu/courses/schaffer/182/Urey-Miller.htm We are now not so sure that Urey & Miller accurately reproduced the early environment of the Earth.
  • 12. Where did life originate? • It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze” model. • It came from outer space: arrived on a comet
  • 13. Evidence for chemicals of life in space • We have evidence of intense early bombardment of Earth by both rocky and icy bodies • Modern comets carry organic molecules, including amino acids • Murchison meteorite carried organic molecules to Earth • We can use spectroscopy to detect organic molecules in interstellar molecular clouds
  • 14. Where did life originate? • It came from the swamp: “primordial ooze” model. • It came from outer space: arrived on a comet • It came from the center of the Earth: evolved in hydrothermal waters
  • 15. Evidence for life within the Earth • At surface of Earth, the most primitive bacteria are chemotrophs – Yellowstone hot spring bacteria • Similar bacteria have been found in very deep wells (10 km deep) and at mid-ocean ridge black smokers
  • 16. Pieces of Model • Evidence for age of earliest life • Where did life originate? • Development of more complex organisms
  • 17. Origin of more complex life • Eukaryote v. Prokaryote
  • 18. Origin of more complex life • Eukaryote v. Prokaryote – Prokaryote: small, no nucleus, limited organelles, simple ring chromosome with few genes – Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex chromosomes with many genes
  • 20. Origin of more complex life • Eukaryote v. Prokaryote – Prokaryote: small, no organelles, simple ring chromosome with few genes – Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex chromosomes with many genes • Organelles resemble prokaryotes, some even have DNA or RNA
  • 21. Origin of more complex life • Eukaryote v. Prokaryote – Prokaryote: small, no organelles, simple ring chromosome with few genes – Eukaryote: large, organelles, nucleus, complex chromosomes with many genes • Organelles resemble prokaryotes, some even have RNA • Evolution of eukaryotes from symbiosis of prokaryotes