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Atomic Structure
 Democritus and Aristotle
◦ Democritus thought all matter consisted of
extremely tiny particles that could not be divided.
(Cut aluminum foil in half)
◦ Also thought matter in liquids was round and
smooth; in solids rough and prickly
◦ Aristotle thought there was no limit to the number
of times matter could be divided.
 Developed a theory to explain why the
elements in a compound always behave in the
same way.
 Main Points
◦ 1) All elements are composed of atoms.
◦ 2) All atoms of the same element have the same
mass, and atoms of different elements have
different masses.
◦ 3) Compounds contain atoms of more than one
element.
◦ 4) In a compound, atoms of different elements
always combine in the same way.
 Used a cathode ray tube to show evidence for
subatomic, charged particles.
 Plum pudding model (chocolate chip ice
cream.
 Negatively charged particles evenly spaced
throughout a solid mass of positive charge.
 The Gold Foil Experiment – Evidence for a
nucleus.
“Structure of the Atom”
A. An atom
1. smallest part of matter
2. Ripping paper example
B. Areas of an atom
1. Nucleus – center of an atom
-holds protons and neutrons
a. Protons (P) – positively charged
particle found in the nucleus.
-has a mass of 1
-has a charge of 1+
b. Neutrons (N) – non-charged particle found
in the nucleus.
-has a mass of 1
-has no charge “0”
2. Electron Cloud – area around the nucleus
which contains electrons
a. Electrons (e) – negatively charged particle
found outside of the nucleus
-has a mass of 0
-has a charge of 1-
-moves around the outside of the
nucleus
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
Particle Mass Charge Location of
particle
Particles in an Atom Review
Proton
Neutron
Electron
1
1
0
1+
0
1-
nucleus
nucleus
Electron cloud
A. Def – the # of protons in an atom’s nucleus.
1. Every carbon atom has 6 protons…
2. Every neon atom has 10 protons…
B. On P.T. – located right above the chemical
symbol
*Protons dictate the type of element we have*
*Electrons always equal the # of protons*
P.S. Chapter 4 PowerPoint.pptx
A. Def – The sum of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom.
1. On P.T. – bottom number
-round up/down
2. Ex: What is the mass number of the following
elements?
Carbon Oxygen
Iron Calcium
Sodium Zinc
12
56
23
16
40
65
3. Mass # = Protons + Neutrons
4. How many Neutrons on average are found
in the following elements?
Boron Fluorine
Silicon Copper
Silver Gold 118
14
6
61
10
35
A. Def – An atom that has a different number of
neutrons.
1. Does not affect the element
2. Only changes the weight of the element
3. Ex: Boron-10 and Boron-11
p p p p p p p p p p
n n n n n
n n n n n
n
5 protons 5 protons
5 neutrons 6 neutrons
This means
the mass #
Boron-10 Boron-11
4. How many neutrons do the following isotopes
have?
Oxygen-14
Titanium-50
Magnesium-22
Potassium-43
Aluminum-23
Iodine-130
6
28
10
24
10
77
A. Def – average mass of all isotopes of one
element combined.
1. Found on P.T. underneath chemical symbol.
2. Ex: Carbon = 12.011
“Carbon has 3 known isotopes.
Carbon-12, 13, and 14. Carbon-12 makes up 99%
of all carbon on earth. Carbon-13 and 14 make
up 1%.”
“Modern Atomic Theory”
Chemistry Timeline…pg. 114-115
A. Def – a specific area where an electron is
likely to be.
nucleus
2 electrons
8 electrons
18 electrons
32 electrons
e- e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e- e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e- e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
Energy Level Maximum # of
Electrons
1
2
3
4
2
8
18
32
1. Draw a picture of the following atoms with the
correct number of e’s, p’s, and n’s…
a. Na d. He
b. Al e. C
c. K f. S
2. Assign: Read pg. 118 and 119
3. What is the difference between a ground state
and an excited state?
P.S. Chapter 4 PowerPoint.pptx

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P.S. Chapter 4 PowerPoint.pptx

  • 2.  Democritus and Aristotle ◦ Democritus thought all matter consisted of extremely tiny particles that could not be divided. (Cut aluminum foil in half) ◦ Also thought matter in liquids was round and smooth; in solids rough and prickly ◦ Aristotle thought there was no limit to the number of times matter could be divided.
  • 3.  Developed a theory to explain why the elements in a compound always behave in the same way.  Main Points ◦ 1) All elements are composed of atoms. ◦ 2) All atoms of the same element have the same mass, and atoms of different elements have different masses. ◦ 3) Compounds contain atoms of more than one element. ◦ 4) In a compound, atoms of different elements always combine in the same way.
  • 4.  Used a cathode ray tube to show evidence for subatomic, charged particles.
  • 5.  Plum pudding model (chocolate chip ice cream.  Negatively charged particles evenly spaced throughout a solid mass of positive charge.
  • 6.  The Gold Foil Experiment – Evidence for a nucleus.
  • 8. A. An atom 1. smallest part of matter 2. Ripping paper example B. Areas of an atom 1. Nucleus – center of an atom -holds protons and neutrons a. Protons (P) – positively charged particle found in the nucleus. -has a mass of 1 -has a charge of 1+
  • 9. b. Neutrons (N) – non-charged particle found in the nucleus. -has a mass of 1 -has no charge “0” 2. Electron Cloud – area around the nucleus which contains electrons a. Electrons (e) – negatively charged particle found outside of the nucleus -has a mass of 0 -has a charge of 1- -moves around the outside of the nucleus
  • 11. Particle Mass Charge Location of particle Particles in an Atom Review Proton Neutron Electron 1 1 0 1+ 0 1- nucleus nucleus Electron cloud
  • 12. A. Def – the # of protons in an atom’s nucleus. 1. Every carbon atom has 6 protons… 2. Every neon atom has 10 protons… B. On P.T. – located right above the chemical symbol *Protons dictate the type of element we have* *Electrons always equal the # of protons*
  • 14. A. Def – The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. 1. On P.T. – bottom number -round up/down 2. Ex: What is the mass number of the following elements? Carbon Oxygen Iron Calcium Sodium Zinc 12 56 23 16 40 65
  • 15. 3. Mass # = Protons + Neutrons 4. How many Neutrons on average are found in the following elements? Boron Fluorine Silicon Copper Silver Gold 118 14 6 61 10 35
  • 16. A. Def – An atom that has a different number of neutrons. 1. Does not affect the element 2. Only changes the weight of the element 3. Ex: Boron-10 and Boron-11 p p p p p p p p p p n n n n n n n n n n n 5 protons 5 protons 5 neutrons 6 neutrons This means the mass # Boron-10 Boron-11
  • 17. 4. How many neutrons do the following isotopes have? Oxygen-14 Titanium-50 Magnesium-22 Potassium-43 Aluminum-23 Iodine-130 6 28 10 24 10 77
  • 18. A. Def – average mass of all isotopes of one element combined. 1. Found on P.T. underneath chemical symbol. 2. Ex: Carbon = 12.011 “Carbon has 3 known isotopes. Carbon-12, 13, and 14. Carbon-12 makes up 99% of all carbon on earth. Carbon-13 and 14 make up 1%.”
  • 19. “Modern Atomic Theory” Chemistry Timeline…pg. 114-115
  • 20. A. Def – a specific area where an electron is likely to be. nucleus 2 electrons 8 electrons 18 electrons 32 electrons e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-
  • 21. Energy Level Maximum # of Electrons 1 2 3 4 2 8 18 32
  • 22. 1. Draw a picture of the following atoms with the correct number of e’s, p’s, and n’s… a. Na d. He b. Al e. C c. K f. S 2. Assign: Read pg. 118 and 119 3. What is the difference between a ground state and an excited state?