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LIBRARY
ASSESSMENT
   Jennifer Rutner, Senior Analyst, Ithaka S+R
                                Pratt Institute
                Human Information Behavior
                         September 22, 2011
Senior Analyst, Ithaka S+R
                    School:
                    BA in Religious Studies, 2002
                    MLIS from Pratt, 2005
                    Enrolled in Quantitative Methods for
                       the Social Sciences at Columbia,
                       2010-?

                    Work:
                    Assessment & Planning Librarian,
                       Columbia University Libraries,
                       2006-2011
                    Chair, ACRL Assessment Committee,
                       2011
ASSESSMENT LIBRARIANSHIP
Assessment
“To assess, in general, is to determine the importance, size,
    or value of; to evaluate. Library staff assess operations
    by collecting, interpreting, and using data to make
    decisions and improve customer service.”




ARL Spec Kit #303, Library Assessment, December 2007
What we talk about when we talk
     about “assessment”

                  Quality
                 assurance
        User
                              ROI/Value
      research



Evaluation       assessment         Impact
Culture of Assessment
A Culture of Assessment is an organizational
    environment in which decisions are based on
    facts, research and analysis, and where
    services are planned and delivered in ways
    that maximize positive outcomes and impacts
    for library clients.

A Culture of Assessment exists in organizations
    where staff care to know what results they
    produce and how those results relate to
    customer expectations.
Amos Lakos: www.usc.edu/.../locations/leavey/news/conference/presentations/presentations_9-16/Assessment/UCLA_Lakos.ppt
Why assess?
Why assess?
Why assess?
                          Stuff I know Stuff I know I
                                        don't know




          Stuff I don't
          know I don't
             know
How is data used in libraries?
• Strategic planning +
  management
• Decision making
• Program evaluation
• Advocacy
• Budgeting
• Regular service
  improvements
Assessment Mission (CUL)
“Serve library users and staff through
  the gathering, analysis, and
  application of high-quality,
  actionable information to guide
  library decision making.”
The Research Process
Establish                       Gather      Information
             Environmental
research                       available       Needs
                  scan
questions                    information   (unknowns)*




                               Assign       Establish
Test tools   Develop tools
                             methodology    priorities




               Conduct                       Decision
   IRB                         Analysis
              assessment                     making
The Assessment Process
Brainstorming   Information   Priority   Methodology   Formal     Outcome
                Need                                   Question




                “I want to
                know…”
RESEARCH METHODS
Surveys
Use random sampling to generalize to the broader
   population.
Set questions, with no opportunity for follow-up.
Allows for statistical analysis.
Questionnaires
Evaluation tool: How was it?
Exploratory tool: What do you do?
Preferences tool: What do you want?
Reporting tool: What did you do?
Analysis stops at descriptive statistics.
Response Rate vs. Representativeness

  “It ain’t response rate.”
      70.00%

      60.00%

      50.00%

      40.00%

      30.00%

      20.00%              % of population
                          % of respondents
      10.00%

       0.00%
Focus Groups
“Researchers attempt to capture peoples explanations”

• Answering “how?” “why?” and “what?” questions – open
  ended question
• Look at a topic up-close, rather than get a panoramic view
  of the entire issue

Focus groups can uncover insights and
perspectives that are not retrievable
by other methods, from a small group
of participants.
Focus Groups
Standard
  – Uses a rigid set of questions
Guided
  – Uses a set of topics to explore, but the question
    wording is flexible
Exploratory
  – The most informal, questions arise through the
    course of the conversation about the topic
Ethnography
Methodologies
  – Work study
  – Photo essays
  – Dream-catcher workshops
  – Mapping diaries
  – Pilot projects
  – Interviews
Observation
Wait, watch, write.     Head Count+
                        • Sections of the library
                        • Type of seating
                        • Group vs. individual
                        • Food/drink
                        • Technology
Way Finding: 3D Usability
How do users navigate space?
  – Provide task
  – Record steps to completion
  – Record completion rate
  – Record challenges
Learning Outcomes

• Rubrics                      What are we teaching?
• Pre- and post-tests
• Minute Papers
   – What’s one useful thing   What are they learning?
     you learned today?
   – What’s one thing you’re
     still confused about?
                                How does this impact
                               their academic success?
Usability Studies
Methods                  Evaluates
• Card sort              • Ease of use
• Heuristiv evaluation   • Efficiency of use
• Paper prototyping      • Memorability
• Personas               • Error frequency and
• Task analysis            severity
• Work-study             • Subjective satisfaction
                                            www.usability.gov
ROI
 “For every dollar invested in
   the library, the
   college/university/school/
   community/business
   received X dollars in
   return.”

 “For every dollar invested in
   the library, the library
   produces X services,
   which can be valued at Y.”
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
• Protect human subjects.   Protocols include:
• Ensure research is        • Research questions and
  ethical.                    hypothesis
• Ensure research           • Subject profiles
  complies with federal     • Study procedures
  and state laws.           • Recruitment materials
                            • Report on findings
LIBQUAL+
LibQual+ Survey 2009
www.libqual.org


“22 questions and a box”
  Affect of Service
  Information Control
  Library as Place
  Comments?
LibQual+ Items
Affect of Service                                        Information Control
AS-1 Employees who instill confidence in users           IC-1 Making electronic resources accessible from my
AS-2 Giving users individual attention                         home or office
AS-3 Employees who are consistently courteous            IC-2 A library Web site enabling me to locate information
AS-4 Readiness to respond to users' questions                  on my own
AS-5 Employees who have the knowledge to answer user     IC-3 The printed library materials I need for my work
     questions                                           IC-4 The electronic information resources I need
AS-6 Employees who deal with users in a caring fashion   IC-5 Modern equipment that lets me easily access
AS-7 Employees who understand the needs of their users         needed information
AS-8 Willingness to help users                           IC-6 Easy-to-use access tools that allow me to find things
                                                               on my own
AS-9 Dependability in handling users' service problems   IC-7 Making information easily accessible for
                                                               independent use
Library as Place                                         IC-8 Print and/or electronic journal collections I require
LP-1 Library space that inspires study and learning            for my work
LP-2 Quiet space for individual activities
LP-3 A comfortable and inviting location                 Local Questions
LP-4 A getaway for study, learning, or research          Providing help when and where I need it
LP-5 Community space for group learning and group        Making me aware of library services
     study                                               Availability of subject assistance
                                                         Ability to navigate library Web pages
                                                         Access to archives, special collections
Response: Representativeness
                                           Response by status across
 Status           % of        % of           the University matches the
                  responses   population
                                             population distribution
 Undergraduates      40.03%      32.38%
                                             very closely.
 Graduates           53.21%      55.21%

 Faculty              6.78%      12.40%

                                           Greatest difference: 8%

                                           This is representative data!

http://www.libqual.org/documents/admin/Representativeness.pdf
Response: Representativeness
                                             Response by discipline
                                               across the University
                                               matches the population
                                               distribution nearly
                                               perfectly.

                                             E.g. We’re not missing
                                               anyone!



http://www.libqual.org/documents/admin/Representativeness.pdf
Reading LibQual+ Charts

               Desired
Superiority
       Gap
              Perceived/Reality   Zone of
                                  Tolerance
 Adequacy
     Gap
               Minimum
Undergraduate Students
9




8




7




6




5




4
    AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9   IC-1   IC-2   IC-3   IC-4   IC-5   IC-6   IC-7   IC-8   LP-1   LP-2   LP-3   LP-4   LP-5
Graduate Students
9




8




7




6




5




4
    AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9   IC-1   IC-2   IC-3   IC-4   IC-5   IC-6   IC-7   IC-8   LP-1   LP-2   LP-3   LP-4   LP-5
Faculty Responses
9




8




7




6




5




4
    AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9   IC-1   IC-2   IC-3   IC-4   IC-5   IC-6   IC-7   IC-8   LP-1   LP-2   LP-3   LP-4   LP-5
Library Staff
9




8




7




6




5




4
    AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9   IC-1   IC-2   IC-3   IC-4   IC-5   IC-6   IC-7   IC-8   LP-1 LP-2 LP-3 LP-4 LP-5
Following up…

FACULTY PERCEPTION OF
JOURNAL COLLECTIONS
The Infamous IC-8
“The print and/or electronic journal collections I
  require for my work.”
ARL Libraries 2009
                                                             Figure 3: LibQUAL+ 2009, ARL Libraries Faculty

10



 9



 8



 7



 6



 5



 4
     AS - 1 AS - 2 AS - 3 AS - 4 AS - 5 AS - 6 AS - 7   AS - 8 AS - 9     IC-1   IC-2   IC-3   IC-4   IC-5   IC-6   IC-7   IC-8   LP - 1   LP - 2   LP- 3   LP - 4   LP - 5
ARL Libraries 2009: IC8
Have perceptions changed?
               Figure 5: LibQUAL+ 2006-09, Faculty Ratings of Journal Collections, ARL Libraries

9
                                    M=8.61, SD=0.07                M=8.57, SD=0.13                 M=8.56, SD=0.10
    M=8.58, SD=0.10



8


                                    M=7.52, SD=0.15                 M=7.51, SD=0.21
     M=7.44, SD=0.17                                                                               M=7.52, SD=0.14

7
                                                                    M=7.15, SD=0.39
    M=6.77, SD=0.40                  M=7.01, SD=0.25
                                                                                                   M=6.96, SD=0.35


6




5




4
     2006                           2007                             2008                          2009
Is there a difference in scores from year to year?
                     (ANOVA)
• 2006-2009 adequacy gaps from each ARL
  institution.
• P-value = 0.119, which is not deemed
  statistically significant.



Faculty were no more or less dissatisfied with
  journal collections in 2009.
Journals and Overall Satisfaction
         Figure 8: LibQUAL+ 2009, Correlation of Faculty Satisfaction with Journal Collections (IC-8) and Overall Library
                                                     Service, 21 Libraries
                                                                                                                            9


        r =0.71


                                                                                                                            8




                                                                                                                            7




                                                                                                                            6




                                                                                                                            5
-1.2              -1                    -0.8                   -0.6                   -0.4                   -0.2               0
IC Item   2006   2007   2008   2009     Standard       Mean
                                        Deviation       (by
                                      (by question)   question)

 IC-1     0.44   0.61   0.44   0.55       0.08          0.51

 IC-2     0.71   0.55   0.61   0.42       0.12          0.57

 IC-3     0.86   0.42   0.31   0.73       0.26          0.58

 IC-4     0.71   0.67   0.4    0.61       0.14          0.60

 IC-5     0.72   0.49   0.27   0.45       0.19          0.48

 IC-6     0.73   0.58   0.42   0.12       0.26          0.46

 IC-7     0.81   0.46   0.40   0.67       0.19          0.59

 IC-8     0.80   0.60   0.55   0.71       0.11          0.67
What else should we be watching?
                   Figure 6: LibQUAL+ 2006-09, Information Control Adequacy Gaps Over Time


0.2


0.1


  0
       IC1   IC2      IC3          IC4         IC5          IC6         IC7         IC8      2006 (n=37 )

-0.1                                                                                         2007 (n=19)


-0.2                                                                                         2008 (n=14)


                                                                                             2009 (n=21)
-0.3


-0.4


-0.5


-0.6


-0.7
What do our faculty say?
Support

“What would be great for faculty would be if
 when things are not available, there was one
 source in the library, extraordinarily skilled at
 tracking down items. […] These people would
 be specialists in working the electronic and
 journal capabilities.”
What do our faculty say?
Search and Online Access

“I think just having free text search, like Google
   book search, would be something that would
   be very, very useful to have. I still feel like we
   are living 20 years behind where the rest of
   the world is in terms of being able to search
   these databases and large collections of books
   that we have.”
What do our faculty say?
Work-Arounds

“I just buy them individually from my research
   funds, so it’s coming out of my research
   money.”
What do our faculty say?
Quick List

“If I was to give a suggestion, maybe to have
   discipline-specific pointers that could help
   each discipline find things. […] It’s more of an
   interface issue than a collections issue.”
What do our faculty say?
Resources

“The size of the collection is not as important as
  getting the current collection working as
  smooth as possible. Before, when we used to
  go to the library, we got service.”
What do our faculty say?
Print vs. Electronic

“A few years ago, I wouldn’t have said that. But, I
  guess things have changed.”
2CUL HUMANITIES PHD STUDENTS
The 2CUL Project
“Columbia and Cornell University Libraries are pleased
  to join forces in a transformative and enduring
  partnership between our two great library systems
  that enables us to pool resources to provide content,
  expertise, and services that are impossible to
  accomplish acting alone.”


                                               http://2cul.org/
Research Procedures
Spring 2010
• Ethnographic Training
• Focus groups (5 total)

Summer + Fall 2010
• Interviews (45 total)
   – 90 minutes, individual
• Post-questionnaire (paper)

Winter 2010-11
                               $
• Analysis and reporting
870 pages of transcripts.
Code Tree
                                                                                                           Code Level

                              The
                                                  Research +                                   The              First
The Student              Institution +                                    The Library
                                                   Writing                                  Profession
                         Department
                           Institutional Space        Coursework
    Personal Space                                                           Librarians

                                Funding           Exams + Preparation
                                                                                              Job Search
 Previous Experience                                                         Collections
                          Dept. Requirements +
                              Expectations
                                                      Prospectus +
                                                      Preparation
                                                                                                               Second

 Personal Expectations    Culture + Community          Discovery              Services

                                                    Writing Process +
                                Advising
                                                        Revision
  Self-determination                                                        Library Space
                                                                                              Publishing
                               Teaching           Defense + Preparation

     Personal Life                                    Information           Technology
                                Attrition
                                                      Management




                                                  Challenges
                                                                                                               Third
                                                  Successes

                                                 Opportunities                                                 Fourth
Time from BA graduation Through Expected PhD
                              Completion




Graduation from undergrad to start of PhD   Start of PhD to candidacy   Candidacy to PhD expected graduation
Humanities PhD Student Study Questionaire
                           Please rate your overall satisfaction with the following at CU:

   Library Spaces
                            3                         6                          8                         5                       1       1
  (Columbia only)




Library Collections                                       24                                      16                       2           3




  Library Services                               21                                          19                                3           2      Very Satisfied
                                                                                                                                                  Satisfied
                                                                                                                                                  Neutral
                                                                                                                                                  Dissatisfied
      Advising                                                                                                                                    Very Dissatisfied
                                            10                                         8               2         1                 3
  (Columbia only)
                                                                                                                                                  n/a




          Funding                     14                                         22                          2       2             5




    Grad Program                      14                                              24                             2         3           2



                      0%        10%        20%                 30%   40%   50%         60%    70%      80%               90%               100%
Time Spent in the Library by Frequency and Duration

                  10


                   9


                   8


                   7


                   6
No. of Students




                   5


                   4


                   3


                   2


                   1


                   0
                          1<      1 -2 hrs      2 - 4 hrs          4 - 6 hrs   6 - 8 hrs   8+




                                             Daily    Weekly   Monthly
Activities in the Library by Status
                                                               Post-Exam   Pre-Exam
                 other
      meet colleagues
      consult librarian
           computers
research w. non-library…
    research w. library…
          office hours
                  read
                 write
               browse

                          0%   20%   40%              60%            80%          100%
                                      Percentage of Students
Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire
Have you visited any non-CU libraries to use their collections
                 for dissertation research?




                        5




               10
                                                     Yes   No    n/a



                                     30
Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire
Do you receive financial support from CU for the academic
                           year?



                      4
                2




                                                     Yes    No   n/a




                              39
Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire
Do you have an outside job that provides income?



                 5        6




                                            Yes    No   n/a




                     34
Findings: Provide Space
"The thing that has been the best for me
  is having a space to work. I got more
  done last year when I had my locked
  carrel than I had gotten done in years
  before or since, because it was a
  dedicated space in which I could keep
  all of my sources [...]."
Findings: Foster Community
“It’s having community. Belonging to
  your community, having friends that
  are doing this and feeling that you
  have something worthwhile to say that
  other people are recognizing it.”
Findings: Provide Access to
       Deep Research Collections
“I have to say that I have had every resource
   that I have needed from the library. I really
   can’t say, ‘Here I am in the sixth year
   because you didn’t buy that set of resources
   for me and I don’t have the materials to
   work with, so how can you expect me
   produce work?’”
Findings: Provide Research, Information
Management, and Teaching Expertise Assistance
“[…] maybe sitting down with an advanced
  research reference librarian . . . might be in
  my best interest as I go into the writing
  stage of my paper, just so that I can make
  sure I am not saying something that has
  already been said or duplicating research, or
  that I am not missing something that is
  cutting-edge and that's really important to
  my argument.”
Findings: Developing Scholarly Identity
“I had to tell my committee in an email, I plan
   on having a draft of the first chapter to you
   by June. If I don't, please get on my case…
   So, I actually found that I needed to make
   deadlines for myself and then tell them so
   that they knew, and even though they
   wouldn't care, my pride was at stake at that
   point.”
ITHAKA S+R
Mission

ITHAKA is a not-for-profit organization that helps the academic
community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and
to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.

We pursue this mission by providing innovative services that aid in the
adoption of these technologies and that create lasting impact.
.
Our Services
•   Ithaka S+R is a strategic consulting and research service that
    focuses on the transformation of scholarship and teaching in
    an online environment, with the goal of identifying the critical
    issues facing our community and acting as a catalyst for
    change.



•   JSTOR is a research platform that enables discovery, access,
    and preservation of scholarly content.



•   Portico is a digital preservation service for e-journals, e-books,
    and other scholarly e-content.
Ithaka S+R Surveys
   2009 Faculty Survey                         2010 Library Director Survey

   3,025 Faculty responses                     239 Library Directors responded

   8.6% of population                          13% of population
   Focus on research institutions              9 Carnegie Classification Levels:
                                                  – 79 responses are doctoral
   Conducted 2000, 2003, 2006,                    – 66 are master’s
     2009, 2012
                                                  – 94 are baccalaureate

Ithaka S+R Staff: Roger Schonfeld, Ross Housewright, Matt Long
The Role of the Library: Comparison with Faculty
                  How important to you is it that your college or university library provide each
                       of the functions below? (Percentage answering very important.)



                                       Teaching Facilitator

   Undergraduate Information Literacy Teacher

                                      Research Supporter

                                                         Buyer

                                                       Archive

                                                      Gateway

                                                                     0%   20%      40%        60%   80%   100%

                                           Faculty Members                Library Directors

Note: Faculty member data are from Ithaka S+R Faculty Survey 2009.
Digital vs. Print Spending
 “What percentage of your library’s materials
 budget is spent on the following items?”


              Now


Five years from Now

                      0%   10%   20%   30%     40%    50%    60%   70%   80%   90% 100%
                           Journals    Books         All other items
Digital vs. Print Spending
         Journals                           Books

           Directors predict a                Directors predict a


           106%                                 46%
          drop in spending on                 drop in spending on
          print journals in the                print books in the
             next 5 years…                        next 5 years.



…bringing budget shares to:       …bringing budget shares to:


12%
 Print     /        88%
                     Digital
                                  54%
                                   Print      /       46%
                                                       Digital
Print to Electronic Transition: Publishing
 “I am completely comfortable with journals (that I use
 regularly/ that my library subscribes to) ceasing their print
 versions and publishing in electronic-only form.”



             Library Directors      Faculty Members

             Agree   70%            39%         Agree

    Neither agree                               Neither agree
     nor disagree    22%            30%         nor disagree

          Disagree    8%            32%         Disagree
Print to Electronic Transition: Existing Collections

“Within the next five years, the use of (online or digitized
journals/ electronic versions of scholarly monographs) will
be so prevalent among faculty and students that it will not
be necessary to maintain library collections of hard-copy…



                 … Journals.”      … Books.”

         Agree      54%           7%           Agree

      Disagree      13%           59%          Disagree
Library Spending Priorities

If you received a 10% increase in your library's
budget next year in addition to the funds you
already expect to receive, in which of the
following areas would you allocate the money?

(Please check up to three areas in the following list
that you would invest in.)
Library Spending Priorities
               Online or digital journals

   Tools for discovery (OPACs, indices,…

  Staff for reference and user services/…

 Facilities expansions and renovations

                 Other digital resources

        Electronic versions of scholarly…

Staff in management/administration of…

                                            0%        20%       40%       60%        80%      100%

     If you received a 10% increase in your library's budget next year in addition to the funds
       you already expect to receive, in which of the following areas would you allocate the
                                              money?
Library Staffing Priorities
      Supporting faculty
  instruction and student…
     Providing reference                                                Percentage
           services                                                     ranking this
    Purchasing/ licensing                                               item as 1
      digital resources
                                                                        Percentage
 Building or maintaining                                                ranking this
local discovery resources                                               item as 2
 Supporting the research
   projects of faculty…
        Developing and
      maintaining special…

                            0%   20%     40%     60%     80%     100%


        Ideally, how would you prioritize your staff resources in the following
                 areas? Please rank the items by order of importance.
Discovery: A Declining Role for the Library?
80%

70%

60%

50%

40%                                                                    Library Directors
                                                                       Faculty Members
30%

20%

10%

0%
             2006               "Now"          "5 years from now"

  Percentage answering that it is very important that the library serve as a "gateway"
User Needs Assessment
In the past 2 years, has your library regularly solicited feedback
about services or collections from library users in any of the
following ways? (Please check all that apply.)

 94%      Informal discussions with faculty and students or emails soliciting feedback

  71%     Locally developed polls or surveys

  49%     Focus groups or test sessions

   37%    Cross-institutional polls or survey (such as Libqual+)

   16%    Structured Interviews

    10% Ethnographic studies
     8% With the help of outside consultants
      6% Other

    Only 13% do not have a formal means to assess user needs.
Library Strategies


35% of respondents agreed that “My
 library has a well-developed strategy to
 meet changing user needs and research
 habits.”
CHALLENGES
challenges
•    Lack tradition of using data for improvement
•    No assessment advocate within organization
•    Library staff lack research methodology abilities
•    Weak analysis and presentation of data
•    Inability to identify actionable data
•    Library “culture” is skeptical of data
•    Leadership does not view as priority/provide resources
•    Library organizational structure is “silo-based”
•    Staff do not have sufficient time


Turning Results into Action: Using Assessment Information to Improve Library Performance, Steve Hiller (University of Washington)
     , Stephanie Wright (University of Washington)
challenges
jobs
Jennifer.rutner@ithaka.org

THANK YOU
References
About Assessment
•     “Value of Academic Libraries: A Comprehensive Review and Report,” Megan Oakleaf:
      http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/value/val_report.pdf
•     Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research by Richard Krueger and Mary Anne Casey
•     ARL SPEC Kit #303 on Library Assessment, December 2007
•     Keys to Effective, Sustainable, and Practical Assessment
      Steve Hiller, Martha Kyrillidou, and Jim Self http://www.arl.org/arldocs/stats/statsevents/laconf/2006/HillerSelf.ppt
•     www.libraryassessment.info (blog)
•     Columbia Assessment Program: https://www1.columbia.edu/sec/cu/libraries/bts/assessment/index.html
Interesting Studies
•     Studying Students, The Undergraduate Research Project at the University of Rochester
      http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/digital/Foster-Gibbons_cmpd.pdf
•     For fun: http://www.coolinfographics.com/
•     Cornell University Libraries ROI: http://research.library.cornell.edu/value
•     Ellsevier/UIUC ROI: http://www.slidefinder.net/t/library_strategic_investment/illinois_roi_study/1313459
•     University of Arizona), Learning in an Online Environment: Assessment of an Online Information Literacy Credit
•     Course, Yvonne Mery, Jill Newby, Ke Peng: http://libraryassessment.org/bm~doc/2010_lac_poster.pdf
•     University of Chicago: Wayfinding Revisited: Improved Techniques for Solving Usability Problems in Physical Spaces
      Agnes Tatarka, David K. Larsen
•     LibQual+ Survey Literature: www.libqual.org/Publications
•     2CUL Humanities PhD Study:
Conferences
•     Library Assessment Conference Proceedings: http://libraryassessment.org
•     Northumbria Conference Proceedings: http://www.lib.sun.ac.za/Northumbria7/Programme.htm
Ithaka S+R
•     http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka-s-r/research/faculty-surveys-2000-2009
•     http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka-s-r/research/ithaka-s-r-library-survey-2010

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LIBRARY ASSESSMENT

  • 1. LIBRARY ASSESSMENT Jennifer Rutner, Senior Analyst, Ithaka S+R Pratt Institute Human Information Behavior September 22, 2011
  • 2. Senior Analyst, Ithaka S+R School: BA in Religious Studies, 2002 MLIS from Pratt, 2005 Enrolled in Quantitative Methods for the Social Sciences at Columbia, 2010-? Work: Assessment & Planning Librarian, Columbia University Libraries, 2006-2011 Chair, ACRL Assessment Committee, 2011
  • 4. Assessment “To assess, in general, is to determine the importance, size, or value of; to evaluate. Library staff assess operations by collecting, interpreting, and using data to make decisions and improve customer service.” ARL Spec Kit #303, Library Assessment, December 2007
  • 5. What we talk about when we talk about “assessment” Quality assurance User ROI/Value research Evaluation assessment Impact
  • 6. Culture of Assessment A Culture of Assessment is an organizational environment in which decisions are based on facts, research and analysis, and where services are planned and delivered in ways that maximize positive outcomes and impacts for library clients. A Culture of Assessment exists in organizations where staff care to know what results they produce and how those results relate to customer expectations. Amos Lakos: www.usc.edu/.../locations/leavey/news/conference/presentations/presentations_9-16/Assessment/UCLA_Lakos.ppt
  • 9. Why assess? Stuff I know Stuff I know I don't know Stuff I don't know I don't know
  • 10. How is data used in libraries? • Strategic planning + management • Decision making • Program evaluation • Advocacy • Budgeting • Regular service improvements
  • 11.
  • 12. Assessment Mission (CUL) “Serve library users and staff through the gathering, analysis, and application of high-quality, actionable information to guide library decision making.”
  • 13. The Research Process Establish Gather Information Environmental research available Needs scan questions information (unknowns)* Assign Establish Test tools Develop tools methodology priorities Conduct Decision IRB Analysis assessment making
  • 14. The Assessment Process Brainstorming Information Priority Methodology Formal Outcome Need Question “I want to know…”
  • 16. Surveys Use random sampling to generalize to the broader population. Set questions, with no opportunity for follow-up. Allows for statistical analysis.
  • 17. Questionnaires Evaluation tool: How was it? Exploratory tool: What do you do? Preferences tool: What do you want? Reporting tool: What did you do? Analysis stops at descriptive statistics.
  • 18. Response Rate vs. Representativeness “It ain’t response rate.” 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% % of population % of respondents 10.00% 0.00%
  • 19. Focus Groups “Researchers attempt to capture peoples explanations” • Answering “how?” “why?” and “what?” questions – open ended question • Look at a topic up-close, rather than get a panoramic view of the entire issue Focus groups can uncover insights and perspectives that are not retrievable by other methods, from a small group of participants.
  • 20. Focus Groups Standard – Uses a rigid set of questions Guided – Uses a set of topics to explore, but the question wording is flexible Exploratory – The most informal, questions arise through the course of the conversation about the topic
  • 21. Ethnography Methodologies – Work study – Photo essays – Dream-catcher workshops – Mapping diaries – Pilot projects – Interviews
  • 22. Observation Wait, watch, write. Head Count+ • Sections of the library • Type of seating • Group vs. individual • Food/drink • Technology
  • 23. Way Finding: 3D Usability How do users navigate space? – Provide task – Record steps to completion – Record completion rate – Record challenges
  • 24. Learning Outcomes • Rubrics What are we teaching? • Pre- and post-tests • Minute Papers – What’s one useful thing What are they learning? you learned today? – What’s one thing you’re still confused about? How does this impact their academic success?
  • 25. Usability Studies Methods Evaluates • Card sort • Ease of use • Heuristiv evaluation • Efficiency of use • Paper prototyping • Memorability • Personas • Error frequency and • Task analysis severity • Work-study • Subjective satisfaction www.usability.gov
  • 26. ROI “For every dollar invested in the library, the college/university/school/ community/business received X dollars in return.” “For every dollar invested in the library, the library produces X services, which can be valued at Y.”
  • 27. Institutional Review Board (IRB) • Protect human subjects. Protocols include: • Ensure research is • Research questions and ethical. hypothesis • Ensure research • Subject profiles complies with federal • Study procedures and state laws. • Recruitment materials • Report on findings
  • 29. LibQual+ Survey 2009 www.libqual.org “22 questions and a box” Affect of Service Information Control Library as Place Comments?
  • 30. LibQual+ Items Affect of Service Information Control AS-1 Employees who instill confidence in users IC-1 Making electronic resources accessible from my AS-2 Giving users individual attention home or office AS-3 Employees who are consistently courteous IC-2 A library Web site enabling me to locate information AS-4 Readiness to respond to users' questions on my own AS-5 Employees who have the knowledge to answer user IC-3 The printed library materials I need for my work questions IC-4 The electronic information resources I need AS-6 Employees who deal with users in a caring fashion IC-5 Modern equipment that lets me easily access AS-7 Employees who understand the needs of their users needed information AS-8 Willingness to help users IC-6 Easy-to-use access tools that allow me to find things on my own AS-9 Dependability in handling users' service problems IC-7 Making information easily accessible for independent use Library as Place IC-8 Print and/or electronic journal collections I require LP-1 Library space that inspires study and learning for my work LP-2 Quiet space for individual activities LP-3 A comfortable and inviting location Local Questions LP-4 A getaway for study, learning, or research Providing help when and where I need it LP-5 Community space for group learning and group Making me aware of library services study Availability of subject assistance Ability to navigate library Web pages Access to archives, special collections
  • 31. Response: Representativeness Response by status across Status % of % of the University matches the responses population population distribution Undergraduates 40.03% 32.38% very closely. Graduates 53.21% 55.21% Faculty 6.78% 12.40% Greatest difference: 8% This is representative data! http://www.libqual.org/documents/admin/Representativeness.pdf
  • 32. Response: Representativeness Response by discipline across the University matches the population distribution nearly perfectly. E.g. We’re not missing anyone! http://www.libqual.org/documents/admin/Representativeness.pdf
  • 33. Reading LibQual+ Charts Desired Superiority Gap Perceived/Reality Zone of Tolerance Adequacy Gap Minimum
  • 34. Undergraduate Students 9 8 7 6 5 4 AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9 IC-1 IC-2 IC-3 IC-4 IC-5 IC-6 IC-7 IC-8 LP-1 LP-2 LP-3 LP-4 LP-5
  • 35. Graduate Students 9 8 7 6 5 4 AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9 IC-1 IC-2 IC-3 IC-4 IC-5 IC-6 IC-7 IC-8 LP-1 LP-2 LP-3 LP-4 LP-5
  • 36. Faculty Responses 9 8 7 6 5 4 AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9 IC-1 IC-2 IC-3 IC-4 IC-5 IC-6 IC-7 IC-8 LP-1 LP-2 LP-3 LP-4 LP-5
  • 37. Library Staff 9 8 7 6 5 4 AS-1 AS-2 AS-3 AS-4 AS-5 AS-6 AS-7 AS-8 AS-9 IC-1 IC-2 IC-3 IC-4 IC-5 IC-6 IC-7 IC-8 LP-1 LP-2 LP-3 LP-4 LP-5
  • 38. Following up… FACULTY PERCEPTION OF JOURNAL COLLECTIONS
  • 39. The Infamous IC-8 “The print and/or electronic journal collections I require for my work.”
  • 40. ARL Libraries 2009 Figure 3: LibQUAL+ 2009, ARL Libraries Faculty 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 AS - 1 AS - 2 AS - 3 AS - 4 AS - 5 AS - 6 AS - 7 AS - 8 AS - 9 IC-1 IC-2 IC-3 IC-4 IC-5 IC-6 IC-7 IC-8 LP - 1 LP - 2 LP- 3 LP - 4 LP - 5
  • 42. Have perceptions changed? Figure 5: LibQUAL+ 2006-09, Faculty Ratings of Journal Collections, ARL Libraries 9 M=8.61, SD=0.07 M=8.57, SD=0.13 M=8.56, SD=0.10 M=8.58, SD=0.10 8 M=7.52, SD=0.15 M=7.51, SD=0.21 M=7.44, SD=0.17 M=7.52, SD=0.14 7 M=7.15, SD=0.39 M=6.77, SD=0.40 M=7.01, SD=0.25 M=6.96, SD=0.35 6 5 4 2006 2007 2008 2009
  • 43. Is there a difference in scores from year to year? (ANOVA) • 2006-2009 adequacy gaps from each ARL institution. • P-value = 0.119, which is not deemed statistically significant. Faculty were no more or less dissatisfied with journal collections in 2009.
  • 44. Journals and Overall Satisfaction Figure 8: LibQUAL+ 2009, Correlation of Faculty Satisfaction with Journal Collections (IC-8) and Overall Library Service, 21 Libraries 9 r =0.71 8 7 6 5 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0
  • 45. IC Item 2006 2007 2008 2009 Standard Mean Deviation (by (by question) question) IC-1 0.44 0.61 0.44 0.55 0.08 0.51 IC-2 0.71 0.55 0.61 0.42 0.12 0.57 IC-3 0.86 0.42 0.31 0.73 0.26 0.58 IC-4 0.71 0.67 0.4 0.61 0.14 0.60 IC-5 0.72 0.49 0.27 0.45 0.19 0.48 IC-6 0.73 0.58 0.42 0.12 0.26 0.46 IC-7 0.81 0.46 0.40 0.67 0.19 0.59 IC-8 0.80 0.60 0.55 0.71 0.11 0.67
  • 46. What else should we be watching? Figure 6: LibQUAL+ 2006-09, Information Control Adequacy Gaps Over Time 0.2 0.1 0 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 IC6 IC7 IC8 2006 (n=37 ) -0.1 2007 (n=19) -0.2 2008 (n=14) 2009 (n=21) -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 -0.6 -0.7
  • 47. What do our faculty say? Support “What would be great for faculty would be if when things are not available, there was one source in the library, extraordinarily skilled at tracking down items. […] These people would be specialists in working the electronic and journal capabilities.”
  • 48. What do our faculty say? Search and Online Access “I think just having free text search, like Google book search, would be something that would be very, very useful to have. I still feel like we are living 20 years behind where the rest of the world is in terms of being able to search these databases and large collections of books that we have.”
  • 49. What do our faculty say? Work-Arounds “I just buy them individually from my research funds, so it’s coming out of my research money.”
  • 50. What do our faculty say? Quick List “If I was to give a suggestion, maybe to have discipline-specific pointers that could help each discipline find things. […] It’s more of an interface issue than a collections issue.”
  • 51. What do our faculty say? Resources “The size of the collection is not as important as getting the current collection working as smooth as possible. Before, when we used to go to the library, we got service.”
  • 52. What do our faculty say? Print vs. Electronic “A few years ago, I wouldn’t have said that. But, I guess things have changed.”
  • 54. The 2CUL Project “Columbia and Cornell University Libraries are pleased to join forces in a transformative and enduring partnership between our two great library systems that enables us to pool resources to provide content, expertise, and services that are impossible to accomplish acting alone.” http://2cul.org/
  • 55. Research Procedures Spring 2010 • Ethnographic Training • Focus groups (5 total) Summer + Fall 2010 • Interviews (45 total) – 90 minutes, individual • Post-questionnaire (paper) Winter 2010-11 $ • Analysis and reporting
  • 56. 870 pages of transcripts.
  • 57. Code Tree Code Level The Research + The First The Student Institution + The Library Writing Profession Department Institutional Space Coursework Personal Space Librarians Funding Exams + Preparation Job Search Previous Experience Collections Dept. Requirements + Expectations Prospectus + Preparation Second Personal Expectations Culture + Community Discovery Services Writing Process + Advising Revision Self-determination Library Space Publishing Teaching Defense + Preparation Personal Life Information Technology Attrition Management Challenges Third Successes Opportunities Fourth
  • 58. Time from BA graduation Through Expected PhD Completion Graduation from undergrad to start of PhD Start of PhD to candidacy Candidacy to PhD expected graduation
  • 59. Humanities PhD Student Study Questionaire Please rate your overall satisfaction with the following at CU: Library Spaces 3 6 8 5 1 1 (Columbia only) Library Collections 24 16 2 3 Library Services 21 19 3 2 Very Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Advising Very Dissatisfied 10 8 2 1 3 (Columbia only) n/a Funding 14 22 2 2 5 Grad Program 14 24 2 3 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  • 60. Time Spent in the Library by Frequency and Duration 10 9 8 7 6 No. of Students 5 4 3 2 1 0 1< 1 -2 hrs 2 - 4 hrs 4 - 6 hrs 6 - 8 hrs 8+ Daily Weekly Monthly
  • 61. Activities in the Library by Status Post-Exam Pre-Exam other meet colleagues consult librarian computers research w. non-library… research w. library… office hours read write browse 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Students
  • 62. Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire Have you visited any non-CU libraries to use their collections for dissertation research? 5 10 Yes No n/a 30
  • 63. Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire Do you receive financial support from CU for the academic year? 4 2 Yes No n/a 39
  • 64. Humanities PhD Student Study Questionnaire Do you have an outside job that provides income? 5 6 Yes No n/a 34
  • 65. Findings: Provide Space "The thing that has been the best for me is having a space to work. I got more done last year when I had my locked carrel than I had gotten done in years before or since, because it was a dedicated space in which I could keep all of my sources [...]."
  • 66. Findings: Foster Community “It’s having community. Belonging to your community, having friends that are doing this and feeling that you have something worthwhile to say that other people are recognizing it.”
  • 67. Findings: Provide Access to Deep Research Collections “I have to say that I have had every resource that I have needed from the library. I really can’t say, ‘Here I am in the sixth year because you didn’t buy that set of resources for me and I don’t have the materials to work with, so how can you expect me produce work?’”
  • 68. Findings: Provide Research, Information Management, and Teaching Expertise Assistance “[…] maybe sitting down with an advanced research reference librarian . . . might be in my best interest as I go into the writing stage of my paper, just so that I can make sure I am not saying something that has already been said or duplicating research, or that I am not missing something that is cutting-edge and that's really important to my argument.”
  • 69. Findings: Developing Scholarly Identity “I had to tell my committee in an email, I plan on having a draft of the first chapter to you by June. If I don't, please get on my case… So, I actually found that I needed to make deadlines for myself and then tell them so that they knew, and even though they wouldn't care, my pride was at stake at that point.”
  • 71. Mission ITHAKA is a not-for-profit organization that helps the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. We pursue this mission by providing innovative services that aid in the adoption of these technologies and that create lasting impact. .
  • 72. Our Services • Ithaka S+R is a strategic consulting and research service that focuses on the transformation of scholarship and teaching in an online environment, with the goal of identifying the critical issues facing our community and acting as a catalyst for change. • JSTOR is a research platform that enables discovery, access, and preservation of scholarly content. • Portico is a digital preservation service for e-journals, e-books, and other scholarly e-content.
  • 73. Ithaka S+R Surveys 2009 Faculty Survey 2010 Library Director Survey 3,025 Faculty responses 239 Library Directors responded 8.6% of population 13% of population Focus on research institutions 9 Carnegie Classification Levels: – 79 responses are doctoral Conducted 2000, 2003, 2006, – 66 are master’s 2009, 2012 – 94 are baccalaureate Ithaka S+R Staff: Roger Schonfeld, Ross Housewright, Matt Long
  • 74. The Role of the Library: Comparison with Faculty How important to you is it that your college or university library provide each of the functions below? (Percentage answering very important.) Teaching Facilitator Undergraduate Information Literacy Teacher Research Supporter Buyer Archive Gateway 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Faculty Members Library Directors Note: Faculty member data are from Ithaka S+R Faculty Survey 2009.
  • 75. Digital vs. Print Spending “What percentage of your library’s materials budget is spent on the following items?” Now Five years from Now 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Journals Books All other items
  • 76. Digital vs. Print Spending Journals Books Directors predict a Directors predict a 106% 46% drop in spending on drop in spending on print journals in the print books in the next 5 years… next 5 years. …bringing budget shares to: …bringing budget shares to: 12% Print / 88% Digital 54% Print / 46% Digital
  • 77. Print to Electronic Transition: Publishing “I am completely comfortable with journals (that I use regularly/ that my library subscribes to) ceasing their print versions and publishing in electronic-only form.” Library Directors Faculty Members Agree 70% 39% Agree Neither agree Neither agree nor disagree 22% 30% nor disagree Disagree 8% 32% Disagree
  • 78. Print to Electronic Transition: Existing Collections “Within the next five years, the use of (online or digitized journals/ electronic versions of scholarly monographs) will be so prevalent among faculty and students that it will not be necessary to maintain library collections of hard-copy… … Journals.” … Books.” Agree 54% 7% Agree Disagree 13% 59% Disagree
  • 79. Library Spending Priorities If you received a 10% increase in your library's budget next year in addition to the funds you already expect to receive, in which of the following areas would you allocate the money? (Please check up to three areas in the following list that you would invest in.)
  • 80. Library Spending Priorities Online or digital journals Tools for discovery (OPACs, indices,… Staff for reference and user services/… Facilities expansions and renovations Other digital resources Electronic versions of scholarly… Staff in management/administration of… 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% If you received a 10% increase in your library's budget next year in addition to the funds you already expect to receive, in which of the following areas would you allocate the money?
  • 81. Library Staffing Priorities Supporting faculty instruction and student… Providing reference Percentage services ranking this Purchasing/ licensing item as 1 digital resources Percentage Building or maintaining ranking this local discovery resources item as 2 Supporting the research projects of faculty… Developing and maintaining special… 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Ideally, how would you prioritize your staff resources in the following areas? Please rank the items by order of importance.
  • 82. Discovery: A Declining Role for the Library? 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Library Directors Faculty Members 30% 20% 10% 0% 2006 "Now" "5 years from now" Percentage answering that it is very important that the library serve as a "gateway"
  • 83. User Needs Assessment In the past 2 years, has your library regularly solicited feedback about services or collections from library users in any of the following ways? (Please check all that apply.) 94% Informal discussions with faculty and students or emails soliciting feedback 71% Locally developed polls or surveys 49% Focus groups or test sessions 37% Cross-institutional polls or survey (such as Libqual+) 16% Structured Interviews 10% Ethnographic studies 8% With the help of outside consultants 6% Other Only 13% do not have a formal means to assess user needs.
  • 84. Library Strategies 35% of respondents agreed that “My library has a well-developed strategy to meet changing user needs and research habits.”
  • 86. challenges • Lack tradition of using data for improvement • No assessment advocate within organization • Library staff lack research methodology abilities • Weak analysis and presentation of data • Inability to identify actionable data • Library “culture” is skeptical of data • Leadership does not view as priority/provide resources • Library organizational structure is “silo-based” • Staff do not have sufficient time Turning Results into Action: Using Assessment Information to Improve Library Performance, Steve Hiller (University of Washington) , Stephanie Wright (University of Washington)
  • 88. jobs
  • 90. References About Assessment • “Value of Academic Libraries: A Comprehensive Review and Report,” Megan Oakleaf: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/value/val_report.pdf • Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research by Richard Krueger and Mary Anne Casey • ARL SPEC Kit #303 on Library Assessment, December 2007 • Keys to Effective, Sustainable, and Practical Assessment Steve Hiller, Martha Kyrillidou, and Jim Self http://www.arl.org/arldocs/stats/statsevents/laconf/2006/HillerSelf.ppt • www.libraryassessment.info (blog) • Columbia Assessment Program: https://www1.columbia.edu/sec/cu/libraries/bts/assessment/index.html Interesting Studies • Studying Students, The Undergraduate Research Project at the University of Rochester http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/digital/Foster-Gibbons_cmpd.pdf • For fun: http://www.coolinfographics.com/ • Cornell University Libraries ROI: http://research.library.cornell.edu/value • Ellsevier/UIUC ROI: http://www.slidefinder.net/t/library_strategic_investment/illinois_roi_study/1313459 • University of Arizona), Learning in an Online Environment: Assessment of an Online Information Literacy Credit • Course, Yvonne Mery, Jill Newby, Ke Peng: http://libraryassessment.org/bm~doc/2010_lac_poster.pdf • University of Chicago: Wayfinding Revisited: Improved Techniques for Solving Usability Problems in Physical Spaces Agnes Tatarka, David K. Larsen • LibQual+ Survey Literature: www.libqual.org/Publications • 2CUL Humanities PhD Study: Conferences • Library Assessment Conference Proceedings: http://libraryassessment.org • Northumbria Conference Proceedings: http://www.lib.sun.ac.za/Northumbria7/Programme.htm Ithaka S+R • http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka-s-r/research/faculty-surveys-2000-2009 • http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka-s-r/research/ithaka-s-r-library-survey-2010