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Kirkpatrick's Four-Level
Training Evaluation
Model
“Capacity Building Interventions: How do we know what difference we are
making?”
Speaker: Maram Barqawi, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist
Water Management Initiative (WMI)
COP: June 5 2018
Capacity Building via Training
Participant Training is:
The transfer of knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs), as well as ideas and
sector context, through structured learning and follow-up activities to
solve job performance problems or fill identified performance gaps.
ADS Chapter 253
Evaluating Training
Evaluating training is
recommended as a
best practice, and it
aligns with USAID’s
policy on evidence-
based decision-making.
ADS Chapter 253
If you deliver training, then you probably know how important it is to measure
its effectiveness. After all, you don't want to spend time or money on training
that doesn't provide a good return
The four levels are:
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training
Evaluation Model
Each level is
important and has an
impact on the next
level. As you move
from one level to the
next,
Level 1: Reaction
This level measures how your trainees (the people being trained), reacted to the
training. Obviously, you want them to feel that the training was a valuable experience,
and you want them to feel good about the instructor, the topic, the material, its
presentation, and the venue.
Why?
• Gives us valuable feedback that helps us to evaluate the program.
• Tells trainees that the trainers are there to help them do their job better and that
they need feedback to determine how effective they are.
• Provides trainers with quantitative information that can be used to establish
standards of performance for future programs.
How?
• Satisfaction Survey
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Level 1: Reaction measures:
• CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:measure participants satisfaction with the
training.
• Taking this program was worth my time.
• ENGAGEMENT: measure involvement and contribution of participants.
• My learning was enhanced by the facilitator.
• RELEVANCE: measure participants opportunity to apply what they
learned in training on the job.
• What I learned in this class will help me on the job.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Level 2: Learning
At level 2, you measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their
knowledge increased as a result of the training?
When?
• After training conducted
How?
• By evaluating both before and after the training program.
• Before training commences, test trainee to determine their knowledge, skills and attitude.
• After training is completed, test trainee for second time to determine if there is any
improvement.
• By comparing both the result, it can be determined whether learning is successful or not.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Level 2: Learning measures:
• Knowledge “I know it” : measured primarily with formative exercises during the
session or a quiz near the end.
• Skills “I can do it right now.” : measured with activities and demonstrations during
the session that show that participants can perform the skill
• Attitude “I believe this will be worthwhile to do on the job.” : measured with Rating
Scale Questions
• Confidence “I think I can do it on the job.” : measured with Rating Scale Questions
• Commitment “I intend to do it on the job.”: measured with Rating Scale Questions
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Level 3: Behavior
At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have changed their behavior, based on
the training they received. Specifically, this looks at how trainees apply the information.
How?
• Use a control group if practical,
• Evaluate both before and after the program,
• Survey and/or interview: one or more of the following:
• Trainees,
• Immediate supervisor,
• others who often observe their behavior.
• Repeat the evaluation at appropriate times,
• Consider cost versus benefits.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Allow time for
behavior
change to take
place
Level 3: Behavior
Examples for interviews questions.
• Did the trainees put any of their learning to use?
• Are trainees able to teach their new knowledge, skills, or attitudes to other people?
• Are trainees aware that they've changed their behaviour?
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
Level 4: Results
At this level, you analyze the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that
you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the
employees, or good for the bottom line.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
When?
If your programs aim at tangible results rather
than teaching management concepts, theories,
and principles, then it is desirable to evaluate in
terms of results.
How?
• Search for evidences
Level 4: Result
Examples for interviews questions.
• What results have you seen since attending this training?
• Please give an example of the success you have achieved since attending this training.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
WMI experience
• 2.2.2 Number of people who have improved understanding of critical water
scarcity issues facing Jordan, including the cost of water and importance of
conservation
• Lessons learned:
• Representative sample
• Easy to analyze questions (Limited open-ended)
Q&A
Thank you
Speaker: Maram Barqawi, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist
Water Management Initiative (WMI)
Maram.Barqawi@Jordan-wmi.org

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Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model

  • 1. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model “Capacity Building Interventions: How do we know what difference we are making?” Speaker: Maram Barqawi, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist Water Management Initiative (WMI) COP: June 5 2018
  • 2. Capacity Building via Training Participant Training is: The transfer of knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs), as well as ideas and sector context, through structured learning and follow-up activities to solve job performance problems or fill identified performance gaps. ADS Chapter 253
  • 3. Evaluating Training Evaluating training is recommended as a best practice, and it aligns with USAID’s policy on evidence- based decision-making. ADS Chapter 253
  • 4. If you deliver training, then you probably know how important it is to measure its effectiveness. After all, you don't want to spend time or money on training that doesn't provide a good return The four levels are: Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model Each level is important and has an impact on the next level. As you move from one level to the next,
  • 5. Level 1: Reaction This level measures how your trainees (the people being trained), reacted to the training. Obviously, you want them to feel that the training was a valuable experience, and you want them to feel good about the instructor, the topic, the material, its presentation, and the venue. Why? • Gives us valuable feedback that helps us to evaluate the program. • Tells trainees that the trainers are there to help them do their job better and that they need feedback to determine how effective they are. • Provides trainers with quantitative information that can be used to establish standards of performance for future programs. How? • Satisfaction Survey Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 6. Level 1: Reaction measures: • CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:measure participants satisfaction with the training. • Taking this program was worth my time. • ENGAGEMENT: measure involvement and contribution of participants. • My learning was enhanced by the facilitator. • RELEVANCE: measure participants opportunity to apply what they learned in training on the job. • What I learned in this class will help me on the job. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 7. Level 2: Learning At level 2, you measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their knowledge increased as a result of the training? When? • After training conducted How? • By evaluating both before and after the training program. • Before training commences, test trainee to determine their knowledge, skills and attitude. • After training is completed, test trainee for second time to determine if there is any improvement. • By comparing both the result, it can be determined whether learning is successful or not. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 8. Level 2: Learning measures: • Knowledge “I know it” : measured primarily with formative exercises during the session or a quiz near the end. • Skills “I can do it right now.” : measured with activities and demonstrations during the session that show that participants can perform the skill • Attitude “I believe this will be worthwhile to do on the job.” : measured with Rating Scale Questions • Confidence “I think I can do it on the job.” : measured with Rating Scale Questions • Commitment “I intend to do it on the job.”: measured with Rating Scale Questions Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 9. Level 3: Behavior At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have changed their behavior, based on the training they received. Specifically, this looks at how trainees apply the information. How? • Use a control group if practical, • Evaluate both before and after the program, • Survey and/or interview: one or more of the following: • Trainees, • Immediate supervisor, • others who often observe their behavior. • Repeat the evaluation at appropriate times, • Consider cost versus benefits. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model Allow time for behavior change to take place
  • 10. Level 3: Behavior Examples for interviews questions. • Did the trainees put any of their learning to use? • Are trainees able to teach their new knowledge, skills, or attitudes to other people? • Are trainees aware that they've changed their behaviour? Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 11. Level 4: Results At this level, you analyze the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model When? If your programs aim at tangible results rather than teaching management concepts, theories, and principles, then it is desirable to evaluate in terms of results. How? • Search for evidences
  • 12. Level 4: Result Examples for interviews questions. • What results have you seen since attending this training? • Please give an example of the success you have achieved since attending this training. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model
  • 13. WMI experience • 2.2.2 Number of people who have improved understanding of critical water scarcity issues facing Jordan, including the cost of water and importance of conservation • Lessons learned: • Representative sample • Easy to analyze questions (Limited open-ended)
  • 14. Q&A Thank you Speaker: Maram Barqawi, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist Water Management Initiative (WMI) Maram.Barqawi@Jordan-wmi.org

Editor's Notes

  1. Automated Directives System ADS Chapter 253 Participant Training and Exchanges for Capacity Development
  2. ADS Chapter 253 Participant Training and Exchanges for Capacity Development The Agency’s Evaluation Policy (January 2011) emphasize using strong performance monitoring and evaluation practices in order to apply learning gained from evidence and analysis to USAID programs. Given that Participant Training contributes to achieving development results, Sponsoring Units should consider the implications of ADS 201 and thoughtfully apply corresponding performance monitoring and evaluation requirements. For more information, Sponsoring Units should consult with the Office of Learning, Evaluation, and Research in the Bureau for Policy, Planning, and Learning.
  3. Donald Kirkpatrick, Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin and past president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), first published his Four-Level Training Evaluation Model in 1959, in the US Training and Development Journal. The model was then updated in 1975, and again in 1994, when he published his best-known work, "Evaluating Training Programs." The model was created by Donald Kirkpatrick in 1959. It is a four level training evaluation model. It helps trainers to measure the effectiveness of their training in an objective way. Kirkpatrick’s model is a worldwide standard for evaluating the effectiveness of training.
  4. Level 1: Reaction This level measures how your trainees (the people being trained), reacted to the training. Obviously, you want them to feel that the training was a valuable experience, and you want them to feel good about the instructor, the topic, the material, its presentation, and the venue. It's important to measure reaction, because it helps you understand how well the training was received by your audience. It also helps you improve the training for future trainees, including identifying important areas or topics that are missing from the training. Level 1 Reaction Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Evaluation on this level measures how those who participate in the program react to it, also called customer satisfaction . Why it is important to measure reaction ? Definition First, it gives us valuable feedback that helps us to evaluate the program. Second, it tells trainees that the trainers are there to help them do their job better and that they need feedback to determine how effective they are. Finally, reaction sheets can provide trainers with quantitative information that can be used to establish standards of performance for future programs. Online assessment that can be graded by delegates/evaluators. Interviews Can be done immediately after the training ends. Are the participants happy with the instructor(s)? Did the training meet the participant’s needs? Are the attendee’s happy with the educational tools employed (e.g., PowerPoint, handouts etc) Printed or oral reports provided by delegates/evaluators to supervisors at the participants’ organizations. “Smile sheets”. Comment forms determined by subjective individual reaction to the training course. Post-training program questionnaires. Verbal responses that can be taken into consideration and considered. Especially encourage written comments Try to get honest responses and feedbacks
  5. Level 1: Reaction This level measures how your trainees (the people being trained), reacted to the training. Obviously, you want them to feel that the training was a valuable experience, and you want them to feel good about the instructor, the topic, the material, its presentation, and the venue. It's important to measure reaction, because it helps you understand how well the training was received by your audience. It also helps you improve the training for future trainees, including identifying important areas or topics that are missing from the training. Level 1 Reaction Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Evaluation on this level measures how those who participate in the program react to it, also called customer satisfaction . Why it is important to measure reaction ? Definition First, it gives us valuable feedback that helps us to evaluate the program. Second, it tells trainees that the trainers are there to help them do their job better and that they need feedback to determine how effective they are. Finally, reaction sheets can provide trainers with quantitative information that can be used to establish standards of performance for future programs. Online assessment that can be graded by delegates/evaluators. Interviews Can be done immediately after the training ends. Are the participants happy with the instructor(s)? Did the training meet the participant’s needs? Are the attendee’s happy with the educational tools employed (e.g., PowerPoint, handouts etc) Printed or oral reports provided by delegates/evaluators to supervisors at the participants’ organizations. “Smile sheets”. Comment forms determined by subjective individual reaction to the training course. Post-training program questionnaires. Verbal responses that can be taken into consideration and considered. Especially encourage written comments Try to get honest responses and feedbacks
  6. Level 2: Learning At level 2, you measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their knowledge increased as a result of the training? When you planned the training session, you hopefully started with a list of specific learning objectives: these should be the starting point for your measurement. Keep in mind that you can measure learning in different ways depending on these objectives, and depending on whether you're interested in changes to knowledge, skills, or attitude. It's important to measure this, because knowing what your trainees are learning and what they aren't will help you improve future training. Measurement and evaluation is simple and straightforward for any group size. You may use a control group to compare. Exams, interviews or assessments prior to and immediately after the training. Observations by peers and instructors Strategies for assessment should be relevant to the goals of the training program. A distinct clear scoring process needs to be determined in order to reduce the possibility of inconsistent evaluation reports. Interview, printed, or electronic type examinations can be carried out. An interview can be carried out before and after the assessment, though this is time-consuming and unreliable
  7. Level 2: Learning At level 2, you measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their knowledge increased as a result of the training? When you planned the training session, you hopefully started with a list of specific learning objectives: these should be the starting point for your measurement. Keep in mind that you can measure learning in different ways depending on these objectives, and depending on whether you're interested in changes to knowledge, skills, or attitude. It's important to measure this, because knowing what your trainees are learning and what they aren't will help you improve future training. Measurement and evaluation is simple and straightforward for any group size. You may use a control group to compare. Exams, interviews or assessments prior to and immediately after the training. Observations by peers and instructors Strategies for assessment should be relevant to the goals of the training program. A distinct clear scoring process needs to be determined in order to reduce the possibility of inconsistent evaluation reports. Interview, printed, or electronic type examinations can be carried out. An interview can be carried out before and after the assessment, though this is time-consuming and unreliable
  8. Level 3: Behavior At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have changed their behavior, based on the training they received. Specifically, this looks at how trainees apply the information. It's important to realize that behavior can only change if conditions are favorable. For instance, imagine you've skipped measurement at the first two Kirkpatrick levels and, when looking at your group's behavior, you determine that no behavior change has taken place. Therefore, you assume that your trainees haven't learned anything and that the training was ineffective. However, just because behavior hasn't changed, it doesn't mean that trainees haven't learned anything. Perhaps their boss won't let them apply new knowledge. Or, maybe they've learned everything you taught, but they have no desire to apply the knowledge themselves. This can be carried out through observations and interviews. Evaluations have to be subtle until change is noticeable, after which a more thorough examination tool can be used. Were the learned knowledge and gained skills used? Surveys and close observation after some time are necessary to evaluate significant change, importance of change, and how long this change will last. Online evaluations tend to be more challenging to integrate. Examinations are usually more successful when incorporated within present management and training methods at the participant’s workplace. Quick examinations done immediately following the program are not going to be reliable since individuals change in various ways at different times. 360-degree feedback is a tool that many businesses use, but is not necessary before starting the training program. It is much better utilized after training since participants will be able to figure out on their own what they need to do different. After changes have been observed over time then the individual’s performance can be reviewed by others for proper assessment Assessments can be developed around applicable scenarios and distinct key efficiency indicators or requirements relevant to the participant’s job. Observations should be made to minimize opinion-based views of the interviewer as this factor is far too variable, which can affect consistency and dependability of assessments. Taking into consideration the opinion of the participant can also be too variable of a factor as it makes evaluation very unreliable, so it is essential that assessments focus more defined factors such as results at work rather than opinions. Self-assessment can be handy, but only with an extensively designed set of guidelines.
  9. Level 3: Behavior At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have changed their behavior, based on the training they received. Specifically, this looks at how trainees apply the information. It's important to realize that behavior can only change if conditions are favorable. For instance, imagine you've skipped measurement at the first two Kirkpatrick levels and, when looking at your group's behavior, you determine that no behavior change has taken place. Therefore, you assume that your trainees haven't learned anything and that the training was ineffective. However, just because behavior hasn't changed, it doesn't mean that trainees haven't learned anything. Perhaps their boss won't let them apply new knowledge. Or, maybe they've learned everything you taught, but they have no desire to apply the knowledge themselves. This can be carried out through observations and interviews. Evaluations have to be subtle until change is noticeable, after which a more thorough examination tool can be used. Were the learned knowledge and gained skills used? Surveys and close observation after some time are necessary to evaluate significant change, importance of change, and how long this change will last. Online evaluations tend to be more challenging to integrate. Examinations are usually more successful when incorporated within present management and training methods at the participant’s workplace. Quick examinations done immediately following the program are not going to be reliable since individuals change in various ways at different times. 360-degree feedback is a tool that many businesses use, but is not necessary before starting the training program. It is much better utilized after training since participants will be able to figure out on their own what they need to do different. After changes have been observed over time then the individual’s performance can be reviewed by others for proper assessment Assessments can be developed around applicable scenarios and distinct key efficiency indicators or requirements relevant to the participant’s job. Observations should be made to minimize opinion-based views of the interviewer as this factor is far too variable, which can affect consistency and dependability of assessments. Taking into consideration the opinion of the participant can also be too variable of a factor as it makes evaluation very unreliable, so it is essential that assessments focus more defined factors such as results at work rather than opinions. Self-assessment can be handy, but only with an extensively designed set of guidelines.
  10. Level 4: Results At this level, you analyze the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. Level 4 Results Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Results can be defined as the final results that occurred because the participants attended the program. When is result evaluation worthy to do Definition If your programs aim at tangible results rather than teaching management concepts, theories, and principles, then it is desirable to evaluate in terms of results. It should be discussed with the participant exactly what is going to be measured throughout and after the training program so that they know what to expect and to fully grasp what is being assessed. Use a control group Allow enough time to measure / evaluate No final results can be found unless a positive change takes place. Improper observations and the inability to make a connection with training input type will make it harder to see how the training program has made a difference in the workplace. The process is to determine which methods and how these procedures are relevant to the participant’s feedback. For senior individuals in particular, yearly evaluations and regular arrangements of key business targets are essential in order to accurately evaluate business results that are because of the training program.
  11. Level 4: Results At this level, you analyze the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. Level 4 Results Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Results can be defined as the final results that occurred because the participants attended the program. When is result evaluation worthy to do Definition If your prorams aim at tangible results rather than teaching management concepts, theories, and principles, then it is desirable to evaluate in terms of results. It should be discussed with the participant exactly what is going to be measured throughout and after the training program so that they know what to expect and to fully grasp what is being assessed. Use a control group Allow enough time to measure / evaluate No final results can be found unless a positive change takes place. Improper observations and the inability to make a connection with training input type will make it harder to see how the training program has made a difference in the workplace. The process is to determine which methods and how these procedures are relevant to the participant’s feedback. For senior individuals in particular, yearly evaluations and regular arrangements of key business targets are essential in order to accurately evaluate business results that are because of the training program.
  12. Satisfaction and participant reaction. ... Knowledge acquisition. ... Behavioural application. ... Measurable business improvement. ... Return on investment (ROI)