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Training & Development ppt

Training – Introduction – Definition – Scope – Objectives – Benefits of Training – Designing of effective Training – Opportunities and Challenges for Training – Learning – Training – Development – Education – Meaning – Concepts – Differences Need Assessment – Reasons for analyzing the Training Needs – Identification of Training Needs – Steps to conduct a Need Assessment – TNA Model – Organizational Analysis – Operational Analysis – Person Analysis – Gather data for TNA Training Design – Introduction – Perspective for Designing training – Building a Training Design – Learning Objectives – Components and Methods – Training Process – Key factors in designing – General features of good demonstration – Training of Trainers programs – Skills of an effective Trainer Methods of Training – On-the-Job – Off-the-Job – Management Games, Case study method, Role play method – In-basket Exercises, Laboratory training – Experiential Learning Techniques – Brain storming, Syndicate method, Discussion method, Outward Bound Learning, Sensitivity Training in Organization – A practical tool – The Fish Bowl Exercise - E-Learning and use of Technology as Training Training Evaluation – Introduction – Reasons for evaluating training – Outcomes used in the evaluation of the training programs – Factors determining the outcomes of Evaluation – Evaluation Techniques and Instruments – Resistance to training evaluation – Future of Training and Development

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Training & Development ppt
Training – Introduction – Definition – Scope – Objectives – Benefits of Training – Designing of effective
Training – Opportunities and Challenges for Training – Learning – Training – Development – Education –
Meaning – Concepts – Differences
Need Assessment – Reasons for analyzing the Training Needs – Identification of Training Needs – Steps to
conduct a Need Assessment – TNA Model – Organizational Analysis – Operational Analysis – Person
Analysis – Gather data for TNA
Training Design – Introduction – Perspective for Designing training – Building a Training Design – Learning
Objectives – Components and Methods – Training Process – Key factors in designing – General features of
good demonstration – Training of Trainers programs – Skills of an effective Trainer
Methods of Training – On-the-Job – Off-the-Job – Management Games, Case study method, Role play method
– In-basket Exercises, Laboratory training – Experiential Learning Techniques – Brain storming, Syndicate
method, Discussion method, Outward Bound Learning, Sensitivity Training in Organization – A practical tool –
The Fish Bowl Exercise - E-Learning and use of Technology as Training
Training Evaluation – Introduction – Reasons for evaluating training – Outcomes used in the evaluation of the
training programs – Factors determining the outcomes of Evaluation – Evaluation Techniques and Instruments
Topic Overview-(Syllabus)
BY
MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET..
Asst Professor
Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
Training & Development ppt
TRAINING
Training is Expensive. Without Training, it is more
Expensive
Training is a set of activities.
It is the systematic process of providing an
opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs.
Training provides an opportunity for learning.
Training is the process of altering employee behavior
& attitudes in a way that increases their probability of
goal attainment.” It involves changing of- skill,
knowledge and attitude.
T.Manoj kumar
Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
SCOPE OF TRAINING
The scope of training depends upon the
categories of employees to be trained. As
we all know that training is a continuous
process and not only needed for the newly
selected personnel but also for the existing
personnel at all levels of the organisation.
• 1. Knowledge
• 2. Skills acquisition
• 3. Attitude formation
• 4. Ethical Values
• 5. Analytical Reasoning
T.Manoj kumar
Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
Ad

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Training & Development ppt

  • 2. Training – Introduction – Definition – Scope – Objectives – Benefits of Training – Designing of effective Training – Opportunities and Challenges for Training – Learning – Training – Development – Education – Meaning – Concepts – Differences Need Assessment – Reasons for analyzing the Training Needs – Identification of Training Needs – Steps to conduct a Need Assessment – TNA Model – Organizational Analysis – Operational Analysis – Person Analysis – Gather data for TNA Training Design – Introduction – Perspective for Designing training – Building a Training Design – Learning Objectives – Components and Methods – Training Process – Key factors in designing – General features of good demonstration – Training of Trainers programs – Skills of an effective Trainer Methods of Training – On-the-Job – Off-the-Job – Management Games, Case study method, Role play method – In-basket Exercises, Laboratory training – Experiential Learning Techniques – Brain storming, Syndicate method, Discussion method, Outward Bound Learning, Sensitivity Training in Organization – A practical tool – The Fish Bowl Exercise - E-Learning and use of Technology as Training Training Evaluation – Introduction – Reasons for evaluating training – Outcomes used in the evaluation of the training programs – Factors determining the outcomes of Evaluation – Evaluation Techniques and Instruments Topic Overview-(Syllabus)
  • 3. BY MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET.. Asst Professor Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
  • 5. TRAINING Training is Expensive. Without Training, it is more Expensive Training is a set of activities. It is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs. Training provides an opportunity for learning. Training is the process of altering employee behavior & attitudes in a way that increases their probability of goal attainment.” It involves changing of- skill, knowledge and attitude. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 6. SCOPE OF TRAINING The scope of training depends upon the categories of employees to be trained. As we all know that training is a continuous process and not only needed for the newly selected personnel but also for the existing personnel at all levels of the organisation. • 1. Knowledge • 2. Skills acquisition • 3. Attitude formation • 4. Ethical Values • 5. Analytical Reasoning T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 7. Objectives of Training 1. Increased Productivity Training takes the current capabilities of the workers of a brand, polishes it and makes them learn and devise new and effective methods of doing the same thing, in a repeated manner. 2. Quality Improvement Improving the quality of the product is obviously one of the main objectives of training and development since it’s not like those times when customers weren’t such quality conscious. Today’s customer knows what’s better for him and what’s not. Simply said, those old methods of some sweet talk and business won’t work for much long 3. Learning time Reduction Reducing the learning time is also one of the main objectives of training and development. But this scenario can also be supported by the usage of proper learning material and experienced instructors who prefer real-life experience than cramming T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 8. Objectives of Training 4. Safety First Providing the knowledge, for using the equipment in a proper way and creating the life-friendly product, also belongs to one of the major objectives of training and development. The higher, the employees are better at handling equipment, the better it is both for the company and for the workers. 5. Labour Turnover Reduction Training ensures that the company doesn’t need to turn over its workforce again and again because it prepares the employees to face any situation which proves helpful in bringing in the feeling of workers. Therefore, the workforce feels safe and secure at a particular job. 6. Keeping yourself Updated with Technology Newer technologies are rolling in and we could continue to list it down but we haven’t got time for that. Training and education to the employees keep them updated with the latest of the additions to the technologies, methods, techniques and processes. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 9. Benefits/Advantages of Training 1. Leads to improved profitability and or more positive attitudes towards profits orientation 2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organisation 3. Improves the morale of the workforce 4. Helps people identify with organisational goals 5. Helps create a better corporate image 6. Fasters authenticity, openness and trust 7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinates 8. Aids in organisational development 9. Learns from the trainee 10. Helps prepare guidelines for work T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 10. Opportunities and Challenges/Issues in Training 1. Aligning training with business strategy Changing business environment People in all levels of organization should make day to day decisions that supports business strategy Tapping the intelligence of the experts, i.e “employees” 2. Changing demographics Major demographics shift have occurred North America & Europe-20% working population is above 55 years India will remain youngest country for a while So Training should focus on building bridge between older managers & younger subordinates Baby Boomers (Born after Second world war – 1946 -1964, aged between 52 and 70 in April 2016) Age, gender, race, ethnicity, nationality
  • 11. 3. Knowledge Workers Knowledge occurred through or during should benefit employees by providing equal knowledge in the area they have obtained training Defines these individuals as "high level employees who apply theoretical and analytical knowledge, acquired through formal education, to develop new products or services". 4. Advances in technology • Training executives must develop strategies for utilizing the available technology in a ways that meet their business need • Tools such as blogs,twitter,facebook,myspace and LinkedIn offer ways to enhance • Some traditional training that occurs in a classroom and even earlier types of electronic training. • Technology development is in rapid pace so adapting it and developing the right talent is challenge for trainers. Opportunities and Challenges/Issues in Training T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 12. Opportunities and Challenges/Issues in Training 5.. Quality Training must be seen as an integral part of the organization’s performance improvement system Quality improvement is a key component of most continuous process High –quality products and services are necessary to stay in business in today’s competitive markets ISO Certification process Pre audit - Assessing how one is doing now Process mapping - Documenting the way things are done Change - Developing processes to improve the way things are done to a desired level of quality Training - Training in the new processes Post audit - Assessing how one is doing now after the change and continuing the improvement process Example : Infosys T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 13. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES/IS SUES IN TRAINING LEGAL ISSUES • EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/EQUITY • LIABILITY FOR INJURY OR ILLNESS • CONFIDENTIALITY • COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 14. Training Process Model A Training Process Model Triggering Event - Occurs when a person with authority to take action recognizes that Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) is less than the Expected Organizational Performance (EOP). T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 15. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 16. TRAINING PROCESS MODEL 1.Analysis Phase Often referred to as a Training Needs Analysis (TNA).Here both Training and Non-Training Needs are identified  An effective training system begins with the identification of the organisation’s training needs.These needs will create a Performance Gap (AOP is Less than EOP)  Eg: Profit shortfalls, Sales coming down, Low customer satisfaction, Low market share, Excessive scrap, Labour turnover etc.  Another type is future oriented (Introduction of automation)  Once the Performance Gap exists, the cause must be determined.  The cause might be inadequate KSAs of employees. – This is one among the reasons.  After cause is identified ,then it should be eliminated  The other reasons are motivation issues, faulty equipments etc. (Non-training needs)  Separate KSA from Non-KSA Causes.  Performance gaps caused by KSA deficiencies are identified as Training needs T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 17. TRAINING PROCESS MODEL 2. Design Phase Development of training objectives that provide specific direction for what will be trained and how. These provide directions for what will be trained and how. They specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved. Another part of design process is how the organization constraints will be addressed. Finally identifying factors needed for the training program t o facilitate training and its transfer back to the job are the major outcomes of design phase. 3. Development Phase It is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet the training objectives. It consists of the order, timing, methods, materials, equipments, media, facilities etc. Obtaining or creating all the things needed to implement training program is a part of this stage. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 18. TRAINING PROCESS MODEL 4. Implementation Phase All the training aspects are put together here. Dry Run and Pilot study. Determine any modification necessary 5. Evaluation Phase a) Process Evaluation - Did the trainer follow the exact training process suggested? How well the a training process is achieved its objectives. Eg: Role play means it is Role play.Were they properly used? Collecting and analyzing the data b) Outcome Evaluation – Is the evaluation conducted at the end of training to determine the effects of training on the trainee, the job and organization Combination of Process Evaluation & Outcome evaluation serve as a power tool for improving programs T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 20. Learning Permanent change in cognition (Understanding and thinking) that results from experience and that directly influences behaviour. Outcomes-Knowledge, Skills & Ablities. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 21. Learning Knowledge is a organized body of facts, principles, procedures and information occurred over time. Declarative knowledge: is a person’s store of factual information about a subject. Facts are verifiable blocks of information such as legal requirement for hiring, safety rules etc Evidence of factual knowledge exists when the leaner can recall or recognize specific blocks of information. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 22. Learning Procedural Knowledge : At a higher level is the person’s understanding of how and when to apply the facts that have been learned It assumes some degree of factual knowledge. Ex: Employment interviewing process. Procedural knowledge allows trainees to understand the underlying rationale and relationship surrounding the potential course of action so they can apply their factual knowledge appropriatel.y T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 23. Learning Highest level of knowledge is strategic knowledge This is used for planning, monitoring and revising goal directed activity. It requires acquisition of the two lower of knowledge (facts & procedures) Strategic knowledge consist of person’s awareness of what he knows and internal rules he has learned for accessing the relevant facts and procedures to be applied towards achieving some goal. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 24. Learning Skills: A gap separate knowing those things from actually being able to do them. Skill means capacity needed to perform a set of job. A person’s skill level is demonstated by how well she is able to carry out specific actions, such as operating a piece of equipment, communicating effectively or implementing a business strategy T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 25. Learning Levels of skill acquisition: 1) Compilation 2) automaticity When a person is learning a skill or has recently learned it ,then he is in compilation stage After a person has learned a skill and used it often, then she has reached automaticity stage. At this stage he/she can perform things without thinking of it. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 26. Learning Attitude Are employees belief and opinion. Beliefs and opinions the person holds about object or events create positive or negative feelings about the object or events Ex: Opinion about Supervisor Attitude affects motivation Motivation reflected in the goals of people chose to pursue and the effort they put in achieving those goals. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 27. Nature and Characteristics of Learning Learning is the change in behaviorLearning Learning is a continuous life long processLearning Learning is a universal processLearning Learning is purposive and goal directedLearning Learning involves reconstruction of experiencesLearning Learning is the product of activity and environmentLearning Learning is transferable from one situation to anotherLearning Learning helps in attainment of teaching learning objectivesLearning Learning helps in the proper growth and developmentLearning Learning helps in the balanced development of the personalityLearning T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 28. Development Development Refers to the learning of KSA In other words, training provides the opportunity for learning and development is the result of learning. This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 29. Education Education is the process of increasing the general knowledge and understanding of employees. It is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject or theme. Education is typically differentiated from training & development by the types of KSAs developed, which are more general in nature. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 30. Difference between Training & Development Point of Differences Training Development Meaning Training means imparting skills and knowledge for doing a particular job Development visualizes growth of an employee in all respects Purpose Training increases the job skills Development shapes attitude Targeted audience It is used to impart specific skills among operative workers and employees It is associated with the overall growth of the executives Perspective It has a short term perspective It has a long term perspective Nature Training is job centered in nature Development is career oriented in nature Role of trainer In training, the role of trainer or supervisor is important Development is self driven. The executives have to be internally motivated for self development Develop Training seeks to develop skills already possessed by workers Development seeks to develop hidden qualities and talents of person Methods used Training use On the job Training methods such as Apprenticeship, Vestibule etc Development use Off the job Training methods such as lecture, brain storming, role play etc
  • 31. Training Policy Training Policy A good training policy includes 1. This policy depicts the top management’s philosophy regarding training of employees. 2. This training policy includes the rules and regulations, procedure, budget, standards and conditions regarding training. 3. This policy depicts the intention of the company to train and develop its personnel. 4. It provides guidelines for training programme.
  • 32.  Need Assessment  Reasons for analyzing the  Training Needs –  Identification of Training Needs  Steps to conduct a Need Assessment  TNA Model  Organizational Analysis – Operational Analysis – Person Analysis –  Gather data for TNA BY MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET.. Asst Professor Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
  • 33. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS TNA is a systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required. Performance improvement is the focus of training. When the Actual Organisational Performance (AOP) is less than Expected Organisational Performance (EOP), the difference is referred to as Organisational Performance Gap (OPG). The answer to this is to conduct TNA. PG = EP - AP 1. Increase the chances that time and money spent on training is spent wisely. 2. Determine the benchmark for evaluation of training 3. Increase the motivation of participants 4. Align the training activities with the company’s strategic plans. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 35. Need For Training 1. No one is a perfect fit at the time of hiring and some training and development must take place 2. Installation of new equipment or techniques 3. Change in working methods or products produced 4. Labor shortage necessitating the upgrading of some employees T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 36. 5. Promotion or transfer of individual employees 6. Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could be a pool of talent from which to promote them 7. Reduces constant supervision 8. Improves quality 9. Increase efficiency Need For Training T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 37. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS A good TNA ensures that 1. Only those who need the training attend 2. To provide the data to show trainees why the training will be useful to them 3. Consider the employees who do not need training but are sent by their supervisor (lack of interest) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 38. Reasons for analyzing the Training Needs 1. TNA helps to determine whether resources required are available or not 2. To plan the budget of the company 3. To identify areas where training is required 4. To find out the alternate action where training may not be appropriate T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 39. Training Need Analysis Trigger Event Organizational Analysis Operational Analysis Personal Analysis T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 40. Identification of Training Needs There are numerous source places to look for Organization performance Gap (OPG) First data source-Organizational goals, objectives & budgets Second data source-Labour inventory-Ex: No.of Senior Employees Third data source-Organization climate indicators-Ex: Absenteeism Proactive TNA- For the ongoing problem(gap) or after the problem has occurred. Reactive TNA-Expected to happen in future T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 41. Training Need Analysis Three levels of Analysis Organizational analysis: Looks at the internal environment of the organization. Influences that could affect the employees performance-to determine its fit with the organizational goals & objectives. Operational analysis : Examine specific jobs to determine the requirements necessary to get the job done. This process is called task analysis or job analysis. All tasks are identified & KSA required to do the bare identified Person analysis : Examines who can do the job & whether they posses required KSA. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 43. Organizational Analysis Organizational analysis focus on the strategies of the organization, resources in the organization, allocation of these resources & total internal environment. Internal environment includes an examination of structures, policies and procedures, job design, workflow processes and other factors that affects employees ability to meet the job performance. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 44. Organizational Analysis i) Mission and Strategies The organizational analysis helps the analyst align the training with the organizational mission & strategies A company’s mission & strategies also indicate priority for training. Training resources are always finite so decisions must be made as to where to spend the training budget. Ex: “Quality is job one” at Ford, analyst should know that development of KSA relating to quality should receive priority. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 45. Organizational Analysis ii) Capital Resources A company’s finances, equipments and facilities are consider to be capital resources. During strategic planning decisions are to be made as to where money should be spent. This will help to determine priorities for the HRD department. Another concern for HRD is its own budget. The decision whether to use external consultant or internal staff depends on number & nature of issue not the least which it cost. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 46. Organizational Analysis Human Resources It includes a general strategic need assessment and a more specific training need assessment. First at the strategic level HRD provides top management with the assessment of current employees ability and potential to support various strategies Within this top management knows its employees capabilities and can factor those capabilities into strategic decision making: Ex : Maruti T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 47. Organizational Analysis Organizational environment : A organizational environment is made up of various structures ( workflow, division of labour, pay system & reward policies ) The environment analysis tells whether theses structures are aligned with the aligned with the performance objectives of the unit in OPG have identified. Identifying lack of alignment early and aligning the environment factors with the objectives of training will help to ensure the training is complete, the new skills will transfer to the job. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 48. Organizational Analysis Collect data : Once the gap in performance identified in a specific department or location, the cause of the gap needs to be determined. Identify the potential individuals need to be interviewed Should not assume training is needed to alleviate the gap. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 50. Operational Analysis The operational analysis determines what is required of employees to be effective Job analysis would be done to identify the expected organization performance The most frequently used process includes questioning employees and their supervisors T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 51. Operational Analysis For analyzing the job the following steps will be useful 1) What is the job : The first step is to determine what job is to analyzed. 2) Where to collect data : there are many sources. Job description & specification are one such sources. It provides basic understanding of the job & its basic requirements. 3) Who to ask : Incumbents (who is currently performing the job) & supervisors 4) Who should select the incumbents : The selection process should carried out by analyst not by the supervisor or manager. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 53. Operational Analysis or Job Analysis 5) How many to ask :It is determined by the method of data gathering and the amount of time available 6) How to select : Through representative sampling . From these data, the company was able to refocus its selection procedures to include the KSA necessary at the time to hire and to provide its training department with a clear picture of the training necessary. 7) What to Ask about : 1) Worker oriented job analysis 2) Task oriented analysis T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 54. Worker oriented job analysis : Focuses on the KSA that are required on the job Task Oriented job analysis : Identifies the various work activities required to perform the job. Operational Analysis or Job Analysis T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 55. Personal Analysis or Job Analysis Personal analysis will identify those incumbents who are not meeting performance requirements & why Here each employees is examined is examined to determine if they have necessary KSAs to meet the performance expectation. After identifying they will be sent for training T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 56. Personal Analysis Sources of data collection 1) Performance Appraisal Supervisors are the ones who often responsible for rating the incumbents Things to be followed for better supervisor rating system a) Have appraisal relevant to the job b) Be sure the supervisor have access to relevant information. c) Provide supervisors incentives to complete the rating properly
  • 57. Personal Analysis- Performance Appraisal Methods 2) Self rating : Providing rating of oneself performance Most individuals tend to overrate themselves So proper implementation of combination of both Self Rating & Supervisor rating system would give a better benefit 3) 360 degree performance review : Here employees rates himself on number of dimensions & receives rating on these dimensions. Generally here more sources are used to gather information . 4) Cognitive Test : Measures person’s job knowledge. General time limit is set to answer the question. Sometimes extra time is also provided T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 58. Personal Analysis- Performance Appraisal Methods 5) Declarative Knowledge test: if the job requires some sort of factual knowledge then this kind of test should be conducted. Multiple choice tests are often used. 6) Procedural knowledge test : Here the learners begins to develop meaningful ways of organizing information into mental models. Paired comparison Test are used to identify how the person sees the relationship between the two things. 7) Testing strategic knowledge : Deals with the ability to develop and apply cognitive strategies used in problem solving. Probed protocol analysis are used here T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 59. Personal Analysis- Performance Appraisal Methods 8) Skill test or behavioral test : Measures skills and are important means of developing employees training needs Work samples which are simply work situations designed to reflect what actually happens in the workplace. Simulator technique : Equipment simulator,role plays, business games and so on can be used to determine a person’s skill in a particular situation 9) Attitudinal surveys with proper scales are conducted to determine attitudinal measures T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development Personal Analysis-Performance Appraisal Methods
  • 60. Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment 1. Identify problems and needs Organisational Performance Gap 2. Determine the Design of Needs Analysis - Who, What methods, When 3. Collect data - Survey, Interview, and Observation 4. Analyze data - Research on data 5. Provide feedback - Report for next program T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 61. 1) Identify problems and needs An effective training system begins with the identification of the organization's training needs. These needs will create a Performance Gap (AOP is Less than EOP) Eg: Profit shortfalls, Sales coming down, Low customer satisfaction, Low market share, Excessive scrap, Labour turnover etc. Another type is future oriented (Introduction of automation) Once the Performance Gap exists, the cause must be determined. The cause might be inadequate KSAs of employees. – This is one among the reasons. After cause is identified ,then it should be eliminated Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 62. Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment 2) Determine the Design of Needs Analysis Development of training objectives that provide specific direction for what will be trained and how. These provide directions for what will be trained and how. They specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved. It is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet the training objectives. It consists of the order, timing, methods, materials, equipment's, media, facilities etc. Obtaining or creating all the things needed to implement training program is a part of this stage T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 63. 3) Collection data Observation Data should be collected from different sources that includes i) Supervisor Performance Appraisal ii) Own performance data ( Productivity,absenteeism,Wastage made, customer complaints etc) iii) Work sampling iv) Interviews/Questionarie v) Job knowledge test vi) Skill test vii) Assessment centers viii) Organization goals ix) Labor inventory x) Job description & Specification Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 64. 4)Analyze Data Making research on data. Understanding the data and deciding the practical implication. This helps to understand various job related features of the employees. At this stage employees skill level or capabilities are understood. Their performance evaluated based on a devised standard. Sometimes modern technology and tools are used for the analysis of data. Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 65. 5) Provide Feedback After analyzing the data related to the employees performance proper training decision will be taken. Performance gap (PG) will be identified and the reasons for the performance gap will be derived. Then solution for the performance gap will be given as a training program for existing employees or for the hiring the new employees. Steps to conduct Training Need Assessment T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 66. Gathering data for Training need analysis (TNA) Data Sources 1) Supervisor performance appraisal: Useful if done specifically for TNA 2) Own performance data (productivity, absenteeism, product quality ,customer complaint) : This data shows who is not meeting performance standards but not why Easy to analyze and quantify for the purposes of determining actual performance 3) Observation –Work sampling More subjective technique but provides both employee behavior and results of the behavior. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 67. 4) Interview/Questionnaires Used here to focus on employees’s perception of her training needs and attitudes Needs to be sure employee believes it is in her best interest to be honest. 5) Job knowledge Tests : Shows specific job related knowledge of employees. 6) Skill Test (Role play, case study, Business games, In basket) Certain knowledge , skills and attitudes are demonstrated in these techniques Development of scoring criteria is important. Gathering data for Training need analysis (TNA) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 68. 7) Assessment centers : Combination of several of the above technique into an intensive assessment program Although expensive, these are very good as they use multiple raters 8) Job Description : This source outlines the job’s typical duties and responsibilities 9)Job specification : These are specified tasks required for each job Gathering data for Training need analysis (TNA) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 69. 10) Organization goals This source suggests where training emphasis should be placed 11) Objective & Budget: This source provides information on both standards and direction 12) Labor Inventory : This source helps HRD identify where training is needed because of retirement, turnover, age etc. 14) Other Sources include : Costs of labor, Quality of product and wastages made. Gathering data for Training need analysis (TNA) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 70. The TNA MODEL INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT TRIGGERING EVENT Operational Analysis (EP) Person Analysis (AP) Organisationa l Analysis Identify Performance Gap PG = (EP-AP) Training Needs Non-Training Needs T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 71. Training Need Analysis Model -Input Organizational analysis: Looks at the internal environment of the organization. Influences that could affect the employees performance-to determine its fit with the organizational goals & objectives. Operational analysis : Examine specific jobs to determine the requirements necessary to get the job done. This process is called task analysis or job analysis. All tasks are identified & KSA required to do the bare identified Person analysis : Examines who can do the job & whether they posses required KSA. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 72. Data should be collected from different sources that includes i) Supervisor Performance Appraisal ii) Own performance data ( Productivity,absenteeism,Wastage made, customer complaints etc) iii) Work sampling iv) Interviews/Questionarie v) Job knowledge test vi) Skill test vii) Assessment centers viii) Organization goals ix) Labor inventory x) Job description & Specification Training Need Analysis Model-Input T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 73. In the process phase, the operational analysis provides information on expected performance(EP). Expected performance (EP) is the level of performance expected in a particular job. Personal analysis provides information on actual performance(AP). Actual performance (AP) is the current level of performance by an individual on a particular job When AP is lower than EP, a more specific performance gap is identified. As noted in the model , the specific performance gap is the difference is the difference between EP and employee’s AP Training Need Analysis Model-Process T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 74. The output includes both Training Needs and Non-Training Needs Training Needs - Training needs are dealt with by designing appropriate training programs Non-Training Needs - It includes no gap in required KSAs Causes of Non-Training Needs i. Performance consequence incongruence Good performer is assigned difficult job ii. Inadequate or Inappropriate Feedback Supervisors dislike giving negative feedback iii. Barriers to Performance Receiving material too late, using worn out machinery and being constantly interrupted Supervisors need to be trained not the Employees Training Need Analysis Model-Output T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 75.  Training Design – Introduction – Perspective for Designing training – Building a Training Design – Learning Objectives – Components and Methods – Training Process – Key factors in designing –  Social Learning Theory-Elaboration Theory- Gagne Briggs Model- Expectency Theory  General features of good demonstration – Training of Trainers programs – Skills of an effective Trainer BY MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET.. Asst Professor Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
  • 76. Training Design – Introduction The design phase of training is a process of identifying set of specification that will be used in the development phase for creating modules. It is a process of identifying the set of specifications that will be used in the development phase for creating the training modules. It creates the guidelines that need to be followed when creating the content, delivery process and materials to be used for the training. It answers the following questions. Why is training needed? Who will be trained? What are the training objectives? What methods will be used? When and where will training take place? What are the guidelines to be followed
  • 78. Organizational Constrains Before developing the objectives, the Organizational Constrains should be addressed. Time allotted for the training Number of trainees to be trained at the same time Timings of the training – regular hours or overtime Voluntary or mandatory training Location of the training - Internal / External Financial resources required
  • 79. Organizational Constrains Organizational priorities Budgets generally are limited. So choices must be made about who gets trained and what type of training they receive. One way of making these decision is to use strategic direction of organization to set priorities. Even if the organization does not have a clear strategic plan in place, the top managers in human resource can establish priorities by meeting with senior executives. The technological sophistication of the organization affect the type of training that can be offered.
  • 80. Organizational Constrains Budgeting for Training The budgeting process presented here is from the perspective of the HRD department that charges its customer (dept in organizations) for the services that HRD provides. In fact in some cases they are expected to market their services outside and inside the organization. Generally the budgeting process is carried by bidding on a project.
  • 81. Organizational Constrains Estimation of budget includes the following cost i. Development Costs: Costs related with the development of the Training Program. (TNA, Piloting of the Training, Materials used for designing) ii. Direct Costs: Costs directly attributable for the delivery of the training. (Trainer Fee, Rent, Materials and Equipments, Food and Beverages etc) iii. Indirect Costs: Costs incurred if the training were cancelled (Marketing, Administrative, Clerical support etc) iv. Participant Compensation: Remuneration for the high level executive participants v. Evaluation Costs: Costs associated with the evaluation of the training program. (Testing cost)
  • 82. Organizational Constrains ii) Trainee population : If the TNA identifies two or more subgroups with the same learning objectifies but different knowledge, skills and attitude. It is difficult to develop a single training program to meet all their needs. Sometimes that trainees hold negative feeling about a particular training technique So the organization constrains affects the training process and impact on the training objectives T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 83. Training Objectives Developing Training Objectives It refers to all the objectives that are developed for the training program. • These objectives are used to design the training program. • It refers to what the learner is expected to achieve as a result of training. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 84. Training Objectives There are four Types of Training Objectives: Trainee Reaction Objectives - Objectives set for how trainees should feel about the training and their learning environment Learning Objectives Describes the KSA that trainees are expected to acquire throughout the training program Transfer of Training Objectives Describes the changes in job behaviour that are expected to occur as a result of transferring KSA Organizational Outcome Objectives Describes the outcomes that the organization can expect from the changes in the trainees’ job behavior T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 85. Learning Objective Learning Objective : Learning can be observed only through the influence of its behavior. Thus when writing learning objective only think not only what is learned but also how it is demonstrated. Components & Methods of Learning (Training) Objectives Desired outcome : What should be expected to occur? Conditions : Under what conditions is the outcome expected to occur? Standards : What criteria signify that the outcome is acceptable? T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 87. Learning Objective Desired Outcome : The desired behavior must be worded clearly & Unambiguously. It is usually an action verb that the trainees are able to do as a result of training. Ex: Unclear Objective Statement : Employees will be able to cut electrical wires (ambiguous) clear Objective Statement: Employees will be able to cut electrical wires of any size and sort them into piles .This statement indicates what the learner would need to do at the end of training. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 88. Learning Objective ii) Conditions : Explaining the conditions under which the behavior must occur further clarifies what is required. It includes the tools, equipment's and place Objective without condition specified ; “ The trainee will able to differentiate between computer chips that are within specification and that are outside specification” Objective with condition specified : “The trainee will able to differentiate between computer chips that are within specification and that are outside specification by using a Ohmmeter and a chart & record them using a software package”. So providing conditions will make the objective even clearer. Also the objective should consist of the reference material. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 89. Learning Objectives iii) Standards :Standards are criteria of acceptability for performance Three potential standards are i. Accuracy - No error ii. Quality- 99% significance level iii. Speed - Completing the work within in 15 minutes Ex: Good learning objective includes behavior, condition & Standard. Using a standard climbing harness and spikes -Condition Trainee must climb a standard Telephone Pole of 10 Meters- Behavior Within 5 minutes following the safety procedures-Standards So write out the desired behavior, add conditions under which the conditions must be performed and finally specify the standards that are going to be used. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 90. Training Design Perspective for Designing Training Depending on the role and the status as a trainer one could design training in several different contexts. i. One could be a HR Training Manager ii. One could be an Institutional Trainer asked to design a training course iii. One could be involved in a department’s function Building a Training Design Planning a Training Design session involves 1. Establishing learning objectives based upon identified training needs 2. Identifying the components to be included in the session 3. Assembling specific methods and activities in a coherent design T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 91. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee A) Individual Differences in KSAs: May due to different factors like 1. Increased ethnically-disadvantaged sections of the society 2. When there is difference in the workforce in terms of age, gender 3. New technology & government legislation is making it easier for people with disablity. Sometimes best selection process are not successful. So the design of the training might able to address the issues that would prevent them from being successful. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 92. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee Differences in Learning Styles based on Felder –Silverman model i) Sensing Versus Vs Intuitive Learner Sensing learners don’t like training that doesn’t connect closely to practical application, so prefers problem solving & facts Intuitive leaners often prefers discovering possibilities and relationships like innovation & dislike repetition ii) Sequential Vs Global learners Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following from the previous one. Global learners are not able to absorb details until they understand the big picture. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 93. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee iii) Active vs Reflective learners : Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it-discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about new information before applying it. They will process the information before applying it. So a trainer should design the training program accordingly and use combination of methods during the training to make the trainees to learn. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 94. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee B) Motivation of Trainee Training should be designed not only to provide KSAs but also to motivate trainees to learn those KSAs and apply them to the job. i) Self-Efficacy : Is the feeling we have about our ability to successfully complete the training. So self-efficacy can be improved through Expectancy theory implications a) Supervisors and peers tell the trainee that they are confident the/she can complete the training successfully. b) Provide the trainee opportunity to interact with older supervisor who already have completed the training. c) Provide the trainee about the clear objectives of training to reduce anxiety.. Thus by explaining the positive outcomes & its effect on their performance increases the motivation of the trainees to complete the training successfully. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 95. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee Implication from classical conditioning Classical conditioning takes places without awareness. Ex: We salivate when we smell something. Similarly emotional responses can be conditioned. Trainee Vs School Environment Vs Bad Experience Trainee Vs office Environment Vs Stress Therefore some situations are associated with pleasant and unpleasant emotional conditional. So designing the training in a pleasant situation Makes the trainees physically and emotionally comfortable. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 96. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee Implication from operant conditioning If a particular behavior is immediately followed by a reward the behavior is likely to be repeated also punishment decreases likelihood of the behavior happening again. Know the things your trainees will see as rewarding and those that will seen as punishing. Plan to reward for the efforts of employees and give them proper feed back T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 97. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee Goal setting demonstrates that specific, challenging goals result in higher motivation levels than do no goals. So design the training program in a way that should have individual and group goals. Goal Orientation Learning goal orientation: Persistence when having problems doing a complex task Performance goal orientation: Focuses on the end result . They prefer easier task. So motivate employees to exhibit learning goal orientation. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 98. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design 1. Social Learning Theory(Eliminating Distraction and Attracting Attention) Proposed by Albert Bandura People can learn new information and behavior by watching other people via observation, imitation and modeling. It is known as observational learning Thus learning environment & process should be structured. Attention distracters need to be removed & creature comforts should be implemented. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 99. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design Necessary Conditions A) Eliminating Distraction : The rooms should be at comfortable temperature Walls should be neutral with pleasant colors without distracting objects The room should have no view outside with windows at proper location Chairs should not be so comfortable Proper breaks should be scheduled & refreshment should be provided. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 100. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design B) Attracting Attention : Explain the trainee about the nature of training and job related benefits State the learning objectives Inform them that refreshments are available Techniques of highlighting the important points should be built (Ex: video) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 101. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design C) Retention - Remembering what was attended (Ability to store the information) An individual goes through four stages in the process of retaining something is taught a) Activation of Memory b) Symbolic Coding c) Cognitive Organization d) Symbolic rehearsal D) Behavioral Reproduction Transformation of learning into actual behavior T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 102. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design Elaboration Theory/Macro Theory It is based on a holistic alternative to the part/whole sequencing that is usually followed in training. Sequencing • Sequencing is the process of how to group and order the content of training. It is further classified into a) Topical Sequencing b) Spiral Sequencing T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 103. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design . Topical Sequencing –It requires the complete learning of one topic before moving to the next task Topic A Topic B Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 104. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design Spiral Sequencing – It requires the learning the basics of the first task, then the basics from the second task and so on. Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Module 1 Module 1Module 1 Module 2 Module 2Module 2 T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 105. Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Training Design . The Gagne-Briggs Model / Micro Theory This theory provides nine events of instruction to be followed. 1. Gain attention 2. Inform the learner of the goal or objective 3. Activate motivation to learn 4. Stimulate recall of prior relevant knowledge 5. Present material to be learned 6. Provide guidance for learning 7. Elicit the performanced 8. Provide feedback 9. Assess performance 10. Enhance retention and transferT.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 106. Facilitation of Transfer Transfer of training refers to how much of what is learned in training transfers to the job. Transfer can result in the following transfer outcomes. Positive Transfer: a higher level of jib performance Zero Transfer : No change in job performance Negative Transfer : A lower level of job performance T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 107. Facilitation of Transfer I. Massed Vs Spaced Practice Massed – Long, Continuous practice over a single session (4 hours training continuous in one day) Spaced – Short, broken down regular practice over a couple of days (Daily one hour for 4 days) ii. Whole Learning Vs Part Learning Whole learning – Tasks are interrelated – High task organization – Learning of driving skill (pressing down the clutch, changing the gear, changing the steering wheel, seeing the road etc) Part learning - Tasks are separated – Low task organization – Raising a car with a lever, checking the tire pressure, changing the rubber tube) T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 108. Facilitation of Transfer How to increase Transfer i. Practice – Over learning ii. Maximize similarity iii. Understand general principles iv. Support from all levels v. Opportunity to perform on the job vi. Feedback and reinforcement vii. Vary the situation – Behavioral aspects T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 109. Demonstration A demonstration is a visual display of how to do something or how something works. Whether demonstrating how to do something or demonstrating how somethings works. The demonstration is most useful when your training objectives are to increase knowledge & skills. The most effective demonstration provides each trainee with resources i.e equipments,materials, etc needed to do what is being demonstrated. Each trainee is able to copy the demonstration process immediately after watching. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 110. Demonstration Features of Good Demonstration 1) Visible Tell the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what the trainee will be showing them. This focuses their attention on the critical aspect of the task 2) Describing in stage Demonstrate the task , what you are doing while you are doing. 3) Used in conjunction with real materials Use the real material & equipment for demonstration & explain why each part of the task should be performed T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 111. Demonstration 4. Encouraging After the trainee completes the demonstration, it is time for the trainee to try out 5. Intervening Trainer must give the trainee an opportunity to do the task & describe what he is doing & why 6. Provide Feedback Trainer should provide feedback ,both positive & negative. 7. Practice Allocate sometime and give opportunity to other learner to practice T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 112. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 113. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 114. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 115. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 116. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 117. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 118. Skills of an Effective Trainer (Trainer Like Qualities) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 119. SKILLS OF AN EFFECTIVE TRAINER (TRAINER LIKE QUALITIES) TLQ T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 120. DESIGN PHASE-SUMMARY The Design Phase INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Training Needs Learning Theory Develop Training Objectives Determine Factors Facilitating Learning & Transfer Identify Alternative Method of Instruction Organisational Constraints Evaluation Objectives
  • 121.  On-the-Job – Off-the-Job  Management Games, Case study method, Role play method  In-basket Exercises, Laboratory training – Experiential Learning Techniques  Brain storming, Syndicate method, Discussion method,  Outward Bound Learning,  Sensitivity Training in Organization – A practical tool – The Fish Bowl Exercise –  E-Learning and use of Technology as Training BY MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET.. Asst Professor Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
  • 122. UNIT-4 TRAINING METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING OFF THE JOB TRAINING
  • 123. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 124. On-the-job training Method  Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour.  These methods do not cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job  Training is given on the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is learning while earning T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 125. On-the-job training Method 1 Coaching 2. Mentoring 3. Job Rotation 4. Job Instruction Technology 5. Apprenticeship 6. Understudy T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 126. On-the-job training Method 1. Coaching: Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. 2.Mentoring The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like coaching. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 127. On-the-job training Method 3. Job Rotation: It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 128. On-the-job training Method 4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT):  It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help.  The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’.  This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 129. On-the-job training Method 5. Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill . This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 130. On-the-job training Method 6. Understudy: In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 131. Off-the-job Training Methods Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include: T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 132. Off-the-job Training Methods 1. Lectures and Conferences: Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 133. Off-the-job Training Methods 2. Vestibule Training: Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new (learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on specific jobs in a special part of the plant. An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions. After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual workshop. This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of initial nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method was used to train a large number of workers in a short period of time. It may also be used as a preliminary to on-the job training T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 134. Off-the-job Training Methods 3. Simulation Exercise Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role playing, and in-basket training. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 136. 3. (a) Management Games: Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and reasoning capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make decisions lacking complete information, communication and leadership capabilities. Use of management games can encourage novel, innovative mechanisms for coping with stress. Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subject.These games help to appreciate management concepts in a practical way T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 137. 3.(b) Case Study: Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee centered activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting. A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for the development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving, and increases the trainees” enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to learn. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 138. 3.(c) Role Playing: Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person. It emphasizes the “real- world” side of science and challenges students to deal with complex problems with no single “right” answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project. In particular, role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course content, but other perspectives on it T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 139. 3. (d) In-basket training: In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business papers which may include e-mail SMSs, reports, memos, and other items. Now the trainer is asked to prioritise the decisions to be made immediately and the ones that can be delayed. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 140. Continuation of Inbasket Training In this technique, the trainee or interviewee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role.The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete the in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions.The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably. A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in baskets in which each trainee receives a different but organized set of information. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information required to make a suitable decision.
  • 141. Continuation of Inbasket Training  Scoring  As a means of providing the satisfaction of a specific measure of performance, a simple scoring system may be developed during the discussion. For example, the group might use “5” to indicate an extremely good answer, and “1” to indicate a very poor one with others slotted in between. Assessors can score the candidates on the following; the importance given to each point will vary according to the behaviour’s required for the job. • How well the candidate has identified the ‘Key’ issue of the item. • Candidate interpretation of the information provided. • Ease and speed with which the interviewee has arrived at their decision. • The way in which the information has been evaluated. • How effective the actions / decisions are in dealing with the presented problem. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 142. 4. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training.This training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioural flexibility. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is the ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 143. 5.Transactional Analysis: It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behaviour of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. As by transactional analysis every person will exhibit three ego states in them such as child, adult & parent These three ego states are irrespective of age & gender Ex : Sometimes when elder brother/sister when taking care of their younger sibling they may exhibit parent ego state T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 144. Continuation of Transactional analysis This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is known as a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego (system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviours states of an individual). This will be taught or demonstrated to trainee to make aware of the behaviour of other people they might feel & handle in the working environment T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 145. Syndicate method is a participative method which basically consists of dividing up the participants into number of groups for the purpose of discussion, in exercise, or work on a project. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 146. Process  Preparation of subject/issues.  Subject/issues should be informed to all the participants.  Formation of group and chairperson selection.  Observation during the discussion and stimulate each and every members for active participation  Collection of the reports after the completion of time.  Report presentation.  Discussion/question on every report .  Conclusion of the reports should be linked up with the subject matter. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 147. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 148. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 149. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 150. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 151. Discussion Discussion is important to learning in all disciplines because it helps students process information rather than simply receive it. Leading a discussion requires skills different from lecturing. The goal of a discussion is to get students to practice thinking about the course material
  • 152. Discussion Steps in Discussions • Develop a Clear Goal for the Discussion • Problematize the Topic • Select a Discussion Format • Choose a Method to Assign Students to Groups • Choose a Debriefing Method
  • 153. Challenges in Discussion Getting Started Attendance Losing Control Discussion Monopolizers Controversial Topics T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 154. Fish Bowl Exercise T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 155. Fish Bowl Exercise The general idea is that rather than a large group having an open discussion about something, which can be difficult to handle and often only benefits a few active participants, a smaller group (ideally 3 – 6 people) is isolated to discuss while the rest of the participants (maximum of 50 people) sit around the outside and observe without interrupting. Facilitation is focused on the core group discussion Less people = easier to facilitate. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 156. Fish Bowl Exercise Fishbowls are useful for ventilating “hot topics” or sharing ideas or information from a variety of perspectives can help bring transparency to the decision-making process and increase trust and understanding about complex issues. Although largely self-organizing once the discussion gets underway, the fishbowl process usually has a facilitator or moderator T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 157. Fish Bowl Exercise • Four to five chairs are arranged in an inner circle. • This is the fishbowl. The remaining chairs are arranged in concentric circles outside the fishbowl. • A few participants are selected to fill the fishbowl, while the rest of the group sit on the chairs outside the fishbowl. • In an open fishbowl, one chair is left empty. In a closed fishbowl, all chairs are filled. The moderator introduces the topic and the participants start discussing the topic T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 159.  Training Evaluation – Introduction  Reasons for evaluating training  Outcomes used in the evaluation of the training programs  Factors determining the outcomes of Evaluation – Evaluation Techniques and Instruments –Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model - Formative & Summative Evaluation-Philips ROI Model-Kaufman Five Level Model- Anderson Model  Resistance to training evaluation – Future of Training and Development  OrganizationDevelopment-Characters- Process BY MANOJ KUMAR.T B.Tech,MBA,NET.. Asst Professor Sri Kaliswari Institute of Management and Technology
  • 160. Importance of Training Evaluation • Training is a very costly and time consuming process. It is essential to determine its effectiveness in terms of achievement of specific training objectives. • Individuals like to know how much they learnt or how well they are doing. The sooner employees know the results of a quiz or test, the sooner they can assess their progress. • The sooner employees receive positive feedback from the trainer, the less time they will waste.
  • 161. Importance of Evaluation Evaluation of training would provide useful information about the effectiveness of training as well as about the design of future training programmes. It will enable an organization to monitor the training programme and also to modify its future programmes of training. The evaluation of training also provides useful data on the basis of which relevance of training and its integration with other functions of human resource management can be examined. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 162. Types Of Evaluation The two types of outputs from the evaluation phase are Process evaluation & Outcome Evaluation Process Evaluation : Process Evaluation compares the developed training to what actually takes place in the training program. Outcome Evaluation : Determines how well training objectives has been accomplished. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 163. Resistance to training Evaluation Training Managers can come up with a surprising number of reasons for not evaluating training. The reason are as follows 1) There is nothing to evaluate For some companies training is simply a reward for good performance or something mandated so everyone has to attend. 2) No one really cares about evaluating training This explanation usually means that no one specifically asked for, demanded or otherwise indicated a need for assessment of training outcome. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 164. Resistance to training Evaluation 3) Evaluation is threat to job This point indicates fear of result is the on e of the important reason behind people not having evaluation system. When people thing of evaluation they often connect with the single final output at a part that represents success or failure. Naturally no manager is ready to document a failure program when it happens. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 165. Outcome used in the evaluation of training program To determine how well the training met or meeting its goals, it is necessary to examine various outcome measures. The outcome ordered are as follows. 1) Reaction Outcome These are measures of trainee’s perception, emotions and subjective evaluation and are important because favorable reactions create motivation to learn. This outcomes tells whether the training ongoing is interesting or boring High reaction indicate from trainees indicate that the attention was most likely and obtained. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 166. Outcome used in the evaluation of training program 2) Learning Outcome These outcomes are measured by how well the learning objectives and purpose were achieved. Employees KSA were measured to determine whether they were adequate for job performance. The outcome should be similar that of decided in the design stage. 3) Job Behavior Outcome These are the measure of the degree to which the learned behavior has transferred to the job. It can be done only after completion of training. The degree to which the job behavior improves place a role on how much the training will improve the organization result T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 167. Outcome used in the evaluation of training program 4) Organizational Results At this level of income organization performance gap is identified. Some examples of organization results are A. High levels of scrap are being produced. B. Employees are quitting in record number. C. Sales figures are dropping. D. The number of rejects from the quality control is rising. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 168. EVALUATION MODELS 1) The Kirkpatrick Taxonomy Model • Kirkpatrick Taxonomy is one of the most widely used methods for evaluating the effectiveness of corporate training programs. • Developed and designed by Don Kirkpatrick, the framework offers a comprehensive four-level strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of any training course or program. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 169. Evaluation Models The four levels used in this are T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 170. EVALUATION MODELS Level 1: Reaction This is the level where you gauge how the participants responded to the training given to them. To be able to identify if the conditions for learning were present, you can ask the participants to complete a short survey or feedback forms and gauge their reactions to training. Level 2: Learning In the second stage, the idea is to understand what the participants learned from the training. In most cases, practical tests or short quizzes before and after the training are used to assess this. Level 3: Behavior This is the stage that takes place a while after the training. In this stage, you try to assess whether the participants actually put what they learned into practice in their job roles. This can be done either by asking participants to complete self-assessments or by asking their supervisor to formally assess them. Level 4: Results In the last stage, you need to evaluate whether the training met the stakeholders’ expectations by determining the return on the expectations, also known as ROE T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 171. EVALUATION MODELS 2) The Phillips ROI Model Very similar to the Kirkpatrick model in approach, the Phillips ROI model has an extra step, which is to evaluate the program’s return on investment (ROI) by measuring the difference between training cost and training results. Here is the step by step procedure to calculate ROI as per this method – • Collect the pre-training data The first step here is to collect pre-program data as a baseline measure that allows you to compare metrics before and after training. • Collect the post-training data The next step is to collect post-training data through varied sources such as participants, organizational performance records, team/peer group, participants’ supervisors, and other internal/external groups. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 172. EVALUATION MODEL • Isolate the effects of a training program At this stage, determine whether results discovered are actually due to the training program. Identify all the key factors that might have contributed to the performance improvement • Convert the data to monetary gains Once you’ve isolated the effect of the program, you need to convert the data to monetary values and compare it to the overall program costs • Calculate the return Use the formula below to calculate the return. In case the training results exceed the cost, it is an indication of a positive training ROI. Whereas if the cost of training is more than the results, enterprises need to change their approach. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 173. EVALUATION MODEL 3) Summative and Formative Evaluation • A thorough evaluation can give you the best insight into the drawbacks of your training. So, it is also important to know how to assess a training program both while it’s being developed (formative evaluation), and after it has been delivered. (summative evaluation) How to Conduct a Formative Evaluation? • The steps to conduct a formative evaluation are – • Reviewing the training materials with one or a group of trainees • Using the material in a situation similar to that of an actual training program to see the impact of the material • Holding group discussions with the trainees to gain feedback • Assessing the material with managers and supervisors who oversee trainees T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 174. Evaluation Models How to Conduct a Summative Evaluation? • Some of the steps to conduct a summative evaluation are – • Testing trainees on how well they grasped the information provided • Asking trainees for their opinion about the training program after it has been delivered • Measuring changes in production and quality of work that has been accomplished post-training • Conducting surveys or interviews with each trainer to gain a better understanding of what they learned T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 175. Evaluation Models 4) Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation Kaufman’s Levels of Learning Evaluation is one of the other popular types of training evaluation methods that build on or reacts to Kirkpatrick’s model. The levels and considerations of this method are as below – T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 176. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 177. Evaluation Models Level 1- Input and Process The first level of Kaufman’s evaluation method is broken down into two parts. Level 1a is the “Enabling” evaluation, designed to evaluate the quality and availability of physical, financial and human resources. This is an input level. Level 1b, “Reaction,” evaluates the efficiency and acceptability of the means, methods and processes of the proposed training program. Test subjects are asked how they feel about the instruction. Level 2 and 3 - Micro Levels Levels 2 and 3 are classified as micro levels designed to evaluate individuals and small groups. Level 2, “Acquisition,” evaluates the competency and mastery of the test group/individual in a classroom setting. Level 3, “Application,” evaluates the success of the test group/individual’s utilization of the training program. Test subjects are monitored to determine how much and how well they implement the knowledge they gained within the organization. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 178. Evaluation Models Level 4 - Macro Level “Organization Output” is level 4 in Kaufman’s method of evaluation. This level is designed to evaluate the results of the contributions and payoffs of the organization as a whole as a result of the proposed training program. Success is measured in terms of the organization's overall performance and the return on investments. Level 5 - Mega Level In the final level of Kaufman’s method of evaluation, “Societal Outcomes,” the contributions to and from the client and society as a whole are evaluated. Responsiveness, potential consequences and payoffs are gauged to determine the success of implementing the proposed training program. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 179. EVALUATION MODELS Anderson's Model of Learning Evaluation • Yet another type of training evaluation method, the Anderson model, helps businesses to keep their business strategy a priority. There are three stages to the Anderson Model – • Stage 1: Evaluating your current training programs against the business’ strategic priorities. • Stage 2: The stage of measuring the contribution of training to strategic business results. • Stage 3: At this stage, you find the most relevant approaches for your company and decide whether the ROI is worthwhile. • If you’re not satisfied with the results of ROI measurement in stage 3, it’s time to make improvements to your training programs. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 180. Reasons for Evaluating Training 1. To justify the existence of training department by showing how it contributes to the organization's objectives and goals. 2. To decide whether to continue or discontinue training program 3. To gain information on how to improve future training programs T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 181. Organizational Development Kurt Lewin is the founding father of OD, a German-American Psychologist. Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today. Organization development (OD) is the study of successful Organizational Change and performance. Organization development is a deliberately planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and/or efficiency and/or to enable the organization to achieve its strategic goals. T.Manoj kumar Asst Professor, SKIMT Training and Development
  • 182. Organizational Development OD relies on information from personality theory, learning theory, motivation theory, group dynamics, power, leadership and organizational design. Organisational Development is a planned, systematic process of organisational change based on behavior science research and theory It is based on the principles regarding the behavior of individuals and groups in organizations.
  • 184. Characteristic of Organization Development 1. Planned change - Also called change intervention 2. Comprehensive change - OD involves total system 3. Emphasis on workgroups - OD efforts are oriented towards individuals and groups 4. Long range change - OD takes months/years to implement 5. Participation of a change agent - The services of outside expert (Do it yourself is discouraged)
  • 185. Characteristic of Organization Development 6. Emphasis on interventions - Techniques by change agents 7. Collaborative management - No traditional management (No - Do what I say) 8. Organisational culture - Particular culture to particular organisation 9. Action Research - The process of identifying the organisation’s specific problems, gathering and analyzing organisational data and taking action to solve problems
  • 187. Organization Development-Process The organizational development process is “based on the action research model opens in new window which begins with an identified problem or need for change,” according to HR People. It is cyclical, which means that it can be repeated as many times as necessary until the desired result is achieved. The following are the four core steps of the organizational development process. DIAGNOSIS • The first step in the organizational development process is identifying problems that could interfere with organizational effectiveness. HR People notes that it “can also begin when leadership has a vision of a better way and wants to improve the organization.” • This step also involves understanding the causes. It may be completed through interviewing or surveying members of the organization or business. According to Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice opens in new window, this step involves examining an organization’s:Mission,Goals,Policies,Structures and technologies,Climate and culture,Environmental factors,Desired outcomes
  • 188. ACTION PLANNING • The next step involves creating an actionable strategy to address the problems diagnosed previously. It is a good idea to come up with multiple plan options and then identify the most effective one to implement. This can involve testing various solutions and assessing whether a chosen plan is achievable. INTERVENTION • During the intervention stage, leaders implement the strategy planned in the previous step. It is important to closely monitor progress and adhere closely to the action plan. Depending on the identified problem, interventions might include professional development, team building or structural interventions, HR People says. EVALUATION • Once intervention has begun, stakeholders should track the impact of the changes by gathering and analyzing relevant data. Business leaders can then determine whether the intervention was successful or if other action plans should be created to address the problem. • The four steps of the organizational development process help organizations “better absorb disruptive technologies, market opportunities, and ensuing challenges and chaos” so they can improve from the inside out, Boundless explains Organization Development-Process
  • 189. REFERENCES P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker, EffectiveTraining: Systems, Strategies and Practices Pearson India Education Services Pvt.Ltd
  • 190. mail id : manothamu@gmail.com WhatsApp :+919150860613