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Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC
Irish Studies: making library data work harder
American Conference for Irish Studies. University of Notre Dame, 1 April 2016
@LorcanD
1. Making data work
harder
2. Distant reading –
a short interlude
3. Mapping the collective
Irish Studies collection
Overview …
• Dublin Public Libraries
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
A Google blog post from 2012
describes the Knowledge
Graph that supports searching
for the things, people and
places that Google knows
about and provides
suggestions for relevant
related things.
The Graph powers the Google
Knowledge Card in search
results
The knowledge graph
Things …
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Lissadell_House
String …
Timothy Burke
presentation to LC WGFBC
• tools that recognize existing clusters of knowledge; if you find a book using lcsh, you
probably already know it existed. tool that recognizes the conversation the book was in.
those that were written after the book came out and have continued the conversation.
• tools that know lines of descent; chronology of publications; later readers determine
connection between texts
• tools that find unknown connections (full text search; topic maps?)
• tools that produce serendipity -- hidden connections.
• tools that inform me of authority
• tools that know about real world usage (those who bought x bought y; how many people
checked this out?)
• tools that know about the sociology of knowledge; the pedigrees of authors: who were
they trained by, how long ago; how trustworthy is this institution?
[Report: Karen Coyle, http://www.kcoyle.net/bib_futures.html#burke]
Things not strings (or records)
Three benefits acc to Google:
1. Find the right thing
2. Get the best summary
3. Go deeper and broader
Linked data (Tim Berners-Lee):
1. All kinds of conceptual things, they have names
now that start with HTTP.
2. If I take one of these HTTP names and I look it up
[..] I will get back some data in a standard format
which is kind of useful data that somebody might
like to know about that thing, about that event.
3. When I get back that information it's not just got
somebody's height and weight and when they
were born, it's got relationships. And when it has
relationships, whenever it expresses a
relationship then the other thing that it's related
to is given one of those names that starts with
HTTP.
367 Million bibliographic records
2.3 Billion holdings set
Faceted Application of Subject Terminology
8 Facets
1.7 Million Authority records
VIAF (Virtual International Authority File)
(derived from 44 data sources, chiefly national authority files)
31 Million clusters
214.9 Million worksets
Workset with largest number of manifestations (7.9K):
Don Quixote / Miguel de Cervantes
Links from FAST, VIAF and WorldCat
Important note:
Our analysis is based on the data in
WorldCat and related resources listed here.
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
The biblio-graph maps researcher
interests more clearly?
A case to be made …
Distant reading:
A short interlude
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
It includes all casual, sentimental, and
prejudiced value-judgments, and all the
literary chit-chat which makes the
reputations of poets boom and crash in an
imaginary stock exchange. That wealthy
investor Mr. Eliot, after dumping Milton on
the market, is now buying him again;
Donne has probably reached his peak and
will begin to taper off; Tennyson may be in
for a slight flutter but the Shelley stocks
are still bearish. This sort of thing cannot
be part of any systematic study, for a
systematic study can only progress:
whatever dithers or vacillates or reacts is
merely leisure-class gossip.
http://northropfrye-theanatomyofcriticism.blogspot.com/
Northrop
Frye
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
Place in literary imagination
Weight in
global library
system
inscribing Dublin in the
global cultural record
Source: Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library.
(19--?). Large scale plan of Dublin. Retrieved from
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9dfbe99e-f18e-55ae-e040-e00a18063f22
James Joyce 65,401
Maeve Binchy 37,804
Roddy Doyle 14,591
Benjamin Black 14,483
Tana French 12,219
Marian Keyes 10,005
Anne Enright 8,771
Edward Rutherfurd 6,453
Charles Lucas 5,933
Declan Hughes 4,400
*titles associated with geographic subject heading “Ireland”
fix popular
understanding
of Ireland?
Irish cultural identity in the global
library system
… most widely held authors avg. libraries per title*
Kate Thompson (1956- ) 181
Frank Delaney (1942-) 111
Karen Marie Moning (1964-) 111
Robert Fitzroy Foster (1949-) 107
Maeve Binchy (1940-2012) 97
Peter Tremayne (1943-) 88
William Trevor (1928-) 85
Morgan Llywelyn (1937-) 85
Edna O’Brien (1930-) 84
Bibliographic data is underused in
literary research?
Scale offers new opportunities?
The collective Irish
Studies Collection
A preliminary view
Irish Studies - making library data work harder
418,000 publications
About Ireland …
10 million global holdings
Average holdings
Ireland: 24
Scotland: 15
New Zealand: 8Image: University of Texas Libraries
https://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/ireland_1808.jpg
Image: Wikimedia Commons
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg
Global diffusion of publications about Ireland
Top 10 largest national holdings outside of Ireland
1 US
2 UK
3 Canada
4 Australia
10 France
9 Japan8 China
7 Netherlands
6 New Zealand
5 Germany
Irish Diaspora: 2013
UK
USA
Australia
Canada
Spain
Germany
South Africa
France
New Zealand
Source: Irish Times
Trinity College Dublin
University of Oxford
University College Dublin
Boston College
University College Cork Harvard University (HCL)
Cornell University
University of Notre Dame
New York Public Library
University of Cambridge
Largest institutional collections of
materials about Ireland
(by OCLC symbol, national libraries excluded)
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
James Joyce
13,652 global holdings
Kim
Rudyard Kipling
8,932 global holdings
Dubliners
James Joyce
8,457 global holdings
Angela’s Ashes
Frank McCourt
8,167 global holdings
Ulysses
James Joyce
8,078 global holdings
Oscar Wilde
Richard Ellmann
6,004 global holdings
‘Tis
Frank McCourt
5,761 global holdings
Whitethorn Woods
Maeve Binchy
5,415 global holdings
Heart and Soul
Maeve Binchy
5,125 global holdings
Most popular works about Ireland &
the Irish
Teacher Man
Frank McCourt
4,989 global holdings
14,922 total
musical
recordings
Musical recordings related to/about
Ireland: Topics
Boston College
University of Mississippi
University of Notre Dame
New York Public Library
New York University
Brown University
Bowling Green State
University
University of Missouri,
Kansas City
University of Limerick
Minuteman Library
Network
Largest institutional collections of
musical recordings about Ireland
(by OCLC symbol, national libraries excluded)
Charlie
Lennon (1938-)
Works in WorldCat: 41
66%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
BOSTON COL
BROWN UNIV
UNIV OF LIMERICK
CORK CITY LIBR
UNIV OF MISSISSIPPI
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
UNIV OF NOTRE DAME
NEW YORK UNIV
C/W MARS
BIBLIOMATION, INC
Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
Ireland England Vendors
A measure of the market
for Irish music in libraries
Éamon De Valera (1882-1975)
Related Works in WorldCat: 193
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11192051
Ireland England USA
Many major cultural figures have a small
distributed unevenly across the global library system
bibliographic footprint
33%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
NATIONAL LIBR OF IRELAND
BOSTON COL
TRINITY COLL DUBLIN
BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE COLLECTIONS
BRITISH LIBR
UNIV OF LIMERICK
UNIV OF KANSAS
NEW YORK PUB LIBR
UNIV OF NOTRE DAME
HARVARD UNIV
Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais (1879-1916)
Related Works in WorldCat: 249
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Patrick_Pearse.jpg
Ireland England USA
Strong concentrations of material at institutions with related
research interests or heritage connections . . .
26%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
TRINITY COLL DUBLIN
NATIONAL LIBR OF IRELAND
BOSTON COL
UNIV COL DUBLIN
UNIV OF NOTRE DAME
HARVARD UNIV
UNIV COL, CORK
BRITISH LIBR
BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE COLLECTIONS
MAYNOOTH UNIV
Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
Source: Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library. (1913). W. B. Yeats,
Dublin, January 24th, 1908. Retrieved from
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-c494-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
… but strongest collections
are not necessarily where
one might predict.
Ireland England USA
W. B. Yeats (1865-1939)
Related Works in WorldCat: 3,137
25%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
UNIV OF N CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL
NEW YORK PUB LIBR
BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE…
INDIANA UNIV
BRITISH LIBR
NORTHWESTERN UNIV
EMORY UNIV
YALE UNIV LIBR
BOSTON COL
WAKE FOREST UNIV
Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
Top ten most comprehensive collections related to rebellions of 1641,
1798, 1803 and 1916 are distributed across 15 institutions and 4 countries
US:
Boston College
Claremont Colleges
Florida Atlantic U
Harvard
Library of Congress
NYPL
U Central Florida
U Illinois
U Kentucky
U New Hampshire
U Notre Dame
Yale
Canada:
Carleton U, Memorial U, U Ottawa
UK:
British Library
Cambridge U
Edinburgh U
King’s College London
National Library of Scotland
Ireland:
National Library of Ireland
Trinity College Dublin
U College Dublin
U College Cork
Mapping Library Coverage of Irish
Rebellions
Regional concentrations of excellence become more evident
Mapping Library Coverage of Irish
Rebellions
New England repositories provide broad coverage of multiple rebellions
Boston College, Harvard, the
University of New Hampshire and Yale
have substantial coverage for several
Irish rebellions
Mapping Library Coverage of Irish
Rebellions
Repositories in the Midwest are centers of excellence for literature on
Emmet’s Rebellion (1803).
Notre Dame has good coverage for Easter
Rising, Emmet’s Rebellion and Rebellion of
1798; University of Illinois has good coverage
of Emmet’s Rebellion
Mapping Library Coverage of Irish
Rebellions
If Rebellion of 1641 is a focus, Newfoundland is the destination of choice.
Memorial University holds 46% of the published
literature on the Rebellion of 1641
Mapping Library Coverage of Irish
Rebellions
An Irish studies collective collection …
points to ponder
• Rareness is common: relatively small overlap across library
collections; collecting decisions not uniform.
• Only 10% of works about Ireland have more than 100 holdings
• So … scale adds scope and depth: aggregation across individual
collections creates a rich and diverse long tail.
• Unexpected local strengths vis-à-vis collective collection
uncovered and highlighted: e.g., Bowling Green/musical
recordings about Ireland
• This means … coverage requires cooperation: increasing coverage of
Irish studies materials requires increasing scale of cooperation.
• Top 10 largest collections of materials about Ireland cover only
45% of total resource
• Top 500 collections about Ireland required to cover 80% of total
resource
The best example of an activity
that can be done most
appropriately in a networked
context is curation
John P Wilkin …
https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/79053
The biblio-graph maps researcher
interests more clearly?
A case to be made …
Bibliographic data is underused in
literary research?
Scale offers new opportunities?
The best example of an activity
that can be done most
appropriately in a networked
context is curation
John P Wilkin …
Colleagues interested in
providing feedback –
get in touch with me
Prepared to made data
available
data under research
license.
Open to ‘large scale’
collaborative research
suggestions from ACIS, ….
Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC
Created with a lot of help from my friends at OCLC:
Thom Hickey, Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, Jeff Mixter, Diane Vizine-Goetz,
Bruce Washburn.
@LorcanD
Thank you …

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Irish Studies - making library data work harder

  • 1. Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC Irish Studies: making library data work harder American Conference for Irish Studies. University of Notre Dame, 1 April 2016 @LorcanD
  • 2. 1. Making data work harder 2. Distant reading – a short interlude 3. Mapping the collective Irish Studies collection
  • 4. • Dublin Public Libraries
  • 7. A Google blog post from 2012 describes the Knowledge Graph that supports searching for the things, people and places that Google knows about and provides suggestions for relevant related things. The Graph powers the Google Knowledge Card in search results The knowledge graph
  • 12. Timothy Burke presentation to LC WGFBC • tools that recognize existing clusters of knowledge; if you find a book using lcsh, you probably already know it existed. tool that recognizes the conversation the book was in. those that were written after the book came out and have continued the conversation. • tools that know lines of descent; chronology of publications; later readers determine connection between texts • tools that find unknown connections (full text search; topic maps?) • tools that produce serendipity -- hidden connections. • tools that inform me of authority • tools that know about real world usage (those who bought x bought y; how many people checked this out?) • tools that know about the sociology of knowledge; the pedigrees of authors: who were they trained by, how long ago; how trustworthy is this institution? [Report: Karen Coyle, http://www.kcoyle.net/bib_futures.html#burke]
  • 13. Things not strings (or records) Three benefits acc to Google: 1. Find the right thing 2. Get the best summary 3. Go deeper and broader Linked data (Tim Berners-Lee): 1. All kinds of conceptual things, they have names now that start with HTTP. 2. If I take one of these HTTP names and I look it up [..] I will get back some data in a standard format which is kind of useful data that somebody might like to know about that thing, about that event. 3. When I get back that information it's not just got somebody's height and weight and when they were born, it's got relationships. And when it has relationships, whenever it expresses a relationship then the other thing that it's related to is given one of those names that starts with HTTP.
  • 14. 367 Million bibliographic records 2.3 Billion holdings set Faceted Application of Subject Terminology 8 Facets 1.7 Million Authority records VIAF (Virtual International Authority File) (derived from 44 data sources, chiefly national authority files) 31 Million clusters 214.9 Million worksets Workset with largest number of manifestations (7.9K): Don Quixote / Miguel de Cervantes Links from FAST, VIAF and WorldCat Important note: Our analysis is based on the data in WorldCat and related resources listed here.
  • 18. The biblio-graph maps researcher interests more clearly? A case to be made …
  • 21. It includes all casual, sentimental, and prejudiced value-judgments, and all the literary chit-chat which makes the reputations of poets boom and crash in an imaginary stock exchange. That wealthy investor Mr. Eliot, after dumping Milton on the market, is now buying him again; Donne has probably reached his peak and will begin to taper off; Tennyson may be in for a slight flutter but the Shelley stocks are still bearish. This sort of thing cannot be part of any systematic study, for a systematic study can only progress: whatever dithers or vacillates or reacts is merely leisure-class gossip. http://northropfrye-theanatomyofcriticism.blogspot.com/ Northrop Frye
  • 24. Place in literary imagination Weight in global library system inscribing Dublin in the global cultural record Source: Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. (19--?). Large scale plan of Dublin. Retrieved from http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9dfbe99e-f18e-55ae-e040-e00a18063f22 James Joyce 65,401 Maeve Binchy 37,804 Roddy Doyle 14,591 Benjamin Black 14,483 Tana French 12,219 Marian Keyes 10,005 Anne Enright 8,771 Edward Rutherfurd 6,453 Charles Lucas 5,933 Declan Hughes 4,400
  • 25. *titles associated with geographic subject heading “Ireland” fix popular understanding of Ireland? Irish cultural identity in the global library system … most widely held authors avg. libraries per title* Kate Thompson (1956- ) 181 Frank Delaney (1942-) 111 Karen Marie Moning (1964-) 111 Robert Fitzroy Foster (1949-) 107 Maeve Binchy (1940-2012) 97 Peter Tremayne (1943-) 88 William Trevor (1928-) 85 Morgan Llywelyn (1937-) 85 Edna O’Brien (1930-) 84
  • 26. Bibliographic data is underused in literary research? Scale offers new opportunities?
  • 27. The collective Irish Studies Collection A preliminary view
  • 29. 418,000 publications About Ireland … 10 million global holdings Average holdings Ireland: 24 Scotland: 15 New Zealand: 8Image: University of Texas Libraries https://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/ireland_1808.jpg
  • 30. Image: Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg Global diffusion of publications about Ireland Top 10 largest national holdings outside of Ireland 1 US 2 UK 3 Canada 4 Australia 10 France 9 Japan8 China 7 Netherlands 6 New Zealand 5 Germany Irish Diaspora: 2013 UK USA Australia Canada Spain Germany South Africa France New Zealand Source: Irish Times
  • 31. Trinity College Dublin University of Oxford University College Dublin Boston College University College Cork Harvard University (HCL) Cornell University University of Notre Dame New York Public Library University of Cambridge Largest institutional collections of materials about Ireland (by OCLC symbol, national libraries excluded)
  • 32. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man James Joyce 13,652 global holdings Kim Rudyard Kipling 8,932 global holdings Dubliners James Joyce 8,457 global holdings Angela’s Ashes Frank McCourt 8,167 global holdings Ulysses James Joyce 8,078 global holdings Oscar Wilde Richard Ellmann 6,004 global holdings ‘Tis Frank McCourt 5,761 global holdings Whitethorn Woods Maeve Binchy 5,415 global holdings Heart and Soul Maeve Binchy 5,125 global holdings Most popular works about Ireland & the Irish Teacher Man Frank McCourt 4,989 global holdings
  • 33. 14,922 total musical recordings Musical recordings related to/about Ireland: Topics
  • 34. Boston College University of Mississippi University of Notre Dame New York Public Library New York University Brown University Bowling Green State University University of Missouri, Kansas City University of Limerick Minuteman Library Network Largest institutional collections of musical recordings about Ireland (by OCLC symbol, national libraries excluded)
  • 35. Charlie Lennon (1938-) Works in WorldCat: 41 66% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% BOSTON COL BROWN UNIV UNIV OF LIMERICK CORK CITY LIBR UNIV OF MISSISSIPPI LIBRARY OF CONGRESS UNIV OF NOTRE DAME NEW YORK UNIV C/W MARS BIBLIOMATION, INC Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections Ireland England Vendors A measure of the market for Irish music in libraries
  • 36. Éamon De Valera (1882-1975) Related Works in WorldCat: 193 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11192051 Ireland England USA Many major cultural figures have a small distributed unevenly across the global library system bibliographic footprint 33% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% NATIONAL LIBR OF IRELAND BOSTON COL TRINITY COLL DUBLIN BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE COLLECTIONS BRITISH LIBR UNIV OF LIMERICK UNIV OF KANSAS NEW YORK PUB LIBR UNIV OF NOTRE DAME HARVARD UNIV Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
  • 37. Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais (1879-1916) Related Works in WorldCat: 249 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Patrick_Pearse.jpg Ireland England USA Strong concentrations of material at institutions with related research interests or heritage connections . . . 26% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% TRINITY COLL DUBLIN NATIONAL LIBR OF IRELAND BOSTON COL UNIV COL DUBLIN UNIV OF NOTRE DAME HARVARD UNIV UNIV COL, CORK BRITISH LIBR BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE COLLECTIONS MAYNOOTH UNIV Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
  • 38. Source: Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library. (1913). W. B. Yeats, Dublin, January 24th, 1908. Retrieved from http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-c494-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99 … but strongest collections are not necessarily where one might predict. Ireland England USA W. B. Yeats (1865-1939) Related Works in WorldCat: 3,137 25% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% UNIV OF N CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL NEW YORK PUB LIBR BRITISH LIBR REFERENCE… INDIANA UNIV BRITISH LIBR NORTHWESTERN UNIV EMORY UNIV YALE UNIV LIBR BOSTON COL WAKE FOREST UNIV Top 10 Most Comprehensive Collections
  • 39. Top ten most comprehensive collections related to rebellions of 1641, 1798, 1803 and 1916 are distributed across 15 institutions and 4 countries US: Boston College Claremont Colleges Florida Atlantic U Harvard Library of Congress NYPL U Central Florida U Illinois U Kentucky U New Hampshire U Notre Dame Yale Canada: Carleton U, Memorial U, U Ottawa UK: British Library Cambridge U Edinburgh U King’s College London National Library of Scotland Ireland: National Library of Ireland Trinity College Dublin U College Dublin U College Cork Mapping Library Coverage of Irish Rebellions
  • 40. Regional concentrations of excellence become more evident Mapping Library Coverage of Irish Rebellions
  • 41. New England repositories provide broad coverage of multiple rebellions Boston College, Harvard, the University of New Hampshire and Yale have substantial coverage for several Irish rebellions Mapping Library Coverage of Irish Rebellions
  • 42. Repositories in the Midwest are centers of excellence for literature on Emmet’s Rebellion (1803). Notre Dame has good coverage for Easter Rising, Emmet’s Rebellion and Rebellion of 1798; University of Illinois has good coverage of Emmet’s Rebellion Mapping Library Coverage of Irish Rebellions
  • 43. If Rebellion of 1641 is a focus, Newfoundland is the destination of choice. Memorial University holds 46% of the published literature on the Rebellion of 1641 Mapping Library Coverage of Irish Rebellions
  • 44. An Irish studies collective collection … points to ponder • Rareness is common: relatively small overlap across library collections; collecting decisions not uniform. • Only 10% of works about Ireland have more than 100 holdings • So … scale adds scope and depth: aggregation across individual collections creates a rich and diverse long tail. • Unexpected local strengths vis-à-vis collective collection uncovered and highlighted: e.g., Bowling Green/musical recordings about Ireland • This means … coverage requires cooperation: increasing coverage of Irish studies materials requires increasing scale of cooperation. • Top 10 largest collections of materials about Ireland cover only 45% of total resource • Top 500 collections about Ireland required to cover 80% of total resource
  • 45. The best example of an activity that can be done most appropriately in a networked context is curation John P Wilkin … https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/79053
  • 46. The biblio-graph maps researcher interests more clearly? A case to be made … Bibliographic data is underused in literary research? Scale offers new opportunities? The best example of an activity that can be done most appropriately in a networked context is curation John P Wilkin … Colleagues interested in providing feedback – get in touch with me Prepared to made data available data under research license. Open to ‘large scale’ collaborative research suggestions from ACIS, ….
  • 47. Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC Created with a lot of help from my friends at OCLC: Thom Hickey, Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, Jeff Mixter, Diane Vizine-Goetz, Bruce Washburn. @LorcanD Thank you …

Editor's Notes

  1. Top – James Joyce Library, University College Dublin. I noted that I graduated with a degree in English Language and Literature from UCD. Bottom – the Brazen Head (left) is the oldest pub in Dublin Ireland. This has inspired the Brazen Head (right) in Dublin, Ohio, where OCLC HQ is.
  2. Finders are experimental work-based systems developed by OCLC Research. This shows works ranked by library holdings.
  3. The Knowledge Graph that Google began promoting in 2012 is often noted as a model of the power of linked data. Recently, as Knowledge Panels have appeared with more frequency in search engine results, they have been pointed to as exemplars of that power, with libraries, archives and museums aspiring to be reflected in those highlighted views, and with some library systems emulating that type of focus on working in the data.
  4. Google ‘knows about’ Eva Gore-Booth.
  5. Google ‘knows about’ Sr Patrick Dun’s Hospital and the Slade School of Fine Art.
  6. However, Google does not ‘know about’ this famous poem about the sisters – it can find it but it does not present details about it, related things, etc.
  7. Interesting list from Timothy Burke, Professor of History at Swarthmore, about tools he would like to see when doing research.
  8. Google’s knowledge graph benefits compared to Tim Berners-Lee’s characteristics of linked data.
  9. Data sources we work with in OCLC Research. WorldCat is the best proxy we have for the print scholarly record.
  10.   EntityJS is an OCLC Research prototype for searching across, exploring, and interacting with Linked Data. Using OCLC’s linked data as a starting point, EntityJS provides a way to expand search results to discover not only bibliographic items but also entities associated with bibliographic items such as People, Places, Events, Subjects and Organizations. The application pulls data from a variety of sources such as WorldCat.org, OCLC Works, VIAF, FAST, DBpedia, Wikidata.org and GeoNames. These diverse but connected resources support an entity-oriented discovery experience, a departure from the record-oriented view common in most library systems.   EntityJS is helping us better understand what kinds of data processes and system architectures will work well for RDF Triples ... the basic subject-predicate-object relationships of Linked Data. It provides OCLC researchers with a human-friendly interface for testing discovery and navigation of Linked Data resources, and is part of a testbed for experimenting with user-contributed Linked Data.
  11. Distant reading – reading at a scale above the individual text. Library-scale. Corpus-scale. ….
  12. WorldCat identities provides a glancable profile of an author’s publications. Interesting to see what this says about the author’s reception/reputation/etc.
  13. By aggregating library holdings data, we can see the impact of individual authors in shaping our cultural understanding of ‘place’. Rather than simply counting the publications associated with Dublin and these authors, we computed the aggregate library holdings for their works. This provides a measure of the ‘weight’ of these works and authors in the published record: thousands of libraries around the world have acquired this content. Data based on co-occurrence of author name (VIAF ID) and Dublin geographic heading (FAST ID) in February 2016 WorldCat snapshot.
  14. We can analyze aggregated library data to identify “important” authors based on their publication record and their relative success in gaining library shelf-share. Here, we have divided the total library holdings for each author by the number of titles (related to Ireland) that they have published. An author with just two best-selling publications will do better in a ranked list like this than a scholar who has published a dozen titles that are not widely collected. So the list is not a measure of the intrinsic merits of individual authors or titles, but a view of how successful they have been in penetrating the global library market. In general, lists like this will favor authors whose works are widely collected by public libraries. This is an important dimension of cultural production and the dissemination of national identity. For many readers in the US, Ireland is genuinely a fiction.
  15. To identify materials about Ireland, the WorldCat database was scanned to identify all records that contained at least one FAST subject heading that included a string constituting a direct reference to Ireland: i.e., “Ireland” or “Irish”. Headings referencing “Northern Ireland” were filtered out. All FAST subject facets were analyzed: topical, geographic, chronological, personal names, corporate names, events, form, and genre. These headings constituted a core set of Ireland-related subject headings. Any WorldCat record containing one of these subject headings, or a Geographic Area Code of “e-ie” (Ireland), was retained. The next step was to extract all of the FAST headings in WorldCat that co-occurred with the core Ireland-related headings. These were ranked by frequency of occurrence (i.e., number of records in which each heading co-occurred with a core Ireland-related heading). All of the headings that co-occurred ten or more times with one of the core Ireland-related headings were reviewed to assess whether they were also Ireland-related. Given the list of subject headings that survived the review, a second scan of WorldCat was performed to identify all records that contained any of these headings, regardless of whether or not they co-occurred with one of the core Ireland-related headings. The resulting record set was then merged with the first record set produced by the core Ireland-related headings alone, for a total of 417,988 records.   The publications represented by these records account for more than 10 million holdings in library collections worldwide.   Similar analyses done for Scotland and New Zealand indicate that, on average, Ireland-related materials are more widely held than Scottish- or New Zealand-related materials.
  16. This map shows the largest national concentrations of Ireland-related publications outside of Ireland, as represented by their presence in domestic library collections. The ranking is based on each country’s total holdings of the 417,988 publications identified as being about Ireland. The ranking of the ten largest concentrations correlates with a recent ranking of the most common destinations of the Irish diaspora.  
  17. The largest institutional collections of Irish-related publications (national libraries excluded). The ranking is based on each institution’s total holdings of the 417,988 publications identified as being about Ireland.
  18. Most popular works about Ireland and the Irish, ranked by total global library holdings. Each work consists of all related publications that have been explicitly cataloged as being “about Ireland”.
  19. Word cloud built from the most frequently-occurring subject headings associated with musical recordings about Ireland.
  20. The largest institutional collections of Irish-related musical recordings (national libraries excluded). The ranking is based on each institution’s total holdings of the 14,922 musical recordings identified as being about Ireland.
  21. Library data in WorldCat is mostly about decisions that have already been made – acquisitions that were made in the past. But in some cases, the concentration of holdings associated with vendors to the library community tells us something about the continued market interests in a topic. To measure comprehensiveness, we first extract all the library holdings associated with a given author or subject identifier. We then calculate the total number of works associated with the heading, and compute the percentage of works held by individual libraries. Libraries are then ranked according to the breadth of their holdings (their “coverage”) related to the topic or author of interest. More information on the methods behind this work is available here: http://outgoing.typepad.com/outgoing/2013/05/centers-and-coverage.html
  22. It is important to recognize that our measure of coverage relies on the availability of a FAST or VIAF heading in the bibliographic record. For example, if a library holds works by or about De Valera that have been cataloged in such a way that his name cannot be “controlled” to a VIAF identifier, those holdings will be excluded from the ranked list. Most libraries do not catalog their collections using FAST and VIAF identifiers; OCLC relies on machine processing routines to map local descriptors (names, subjects) to identifiers. Our “coverage” analysis is only possible because of the efforts that are made to organize and enrich the aggregated data.
  23. Pearse studied for a time at University College Dublin and this may account in part for the library’s relatively high coverage. The strength of coverage at Trinity College Dublin and the National Library likely reflect manuscript and archival holdings in addition to published works. It is important to recognize that institutions that appear to have similar coverage may have very different collections related to Pearse. For example, Boston College may cover a different ~25% of the literature than is available at TCD. In general, however, when we see a ‘plateau’ in coverage across multiple institutions it is an indicator that multiple libraries have acquired the same ‘core’ literature – a microform set, for example, or a series of Collected Works. We make no attempt in this analysis to compare the covered content (titles) across different institutions. Thus the ‘quality’ of coverage may be very different from the numerical advantage of holding a greater share of the literature. One can easily imagine that libraries with relatively low coverage might have exceptionally well curated collections, with a small number of works but a large degree of coherence.
  24. The bulk of UNC Yeats collection was acquired as a commemorative gift to the library to mark 5 millionth volume. The library’s very strong coverage was achieved in a fell swoop, and not as a deliberate curatorial effort over many years. An inescapable artefact of this approach to computing coverage is the fact that libraries that have catalogued resources as part of a Yeats-related collection (items with Yeats provenance but which are not by or about the poet, for example) will rise to the top.
  25. Geographic locations of the top ten collections related to four different Irish rebellions. To produce this map, we extracted ‘coverage’ data for four different Irish rebellions using FAST event identifiers. We then compiled the top ten most comprehensive collections for each of the rebellions and plotted their locations based on the libraries physical address. Some locations will have coverage for only one of the rebellions; others will have coverage for multiple rebellions.
  26. Beyond institutional strengths, one can see regional concentrations of excellence – here the color spectrum of the heat map indicates the average regional ‘coverage’ of the literature. The red zones have a high degree of coverage (at one or more institutions) for literature related to Irish rebellions. This map relies on the same underlying data as the previous ‘location’ map, but it aggregates the coverage into regional averages. The red areas will have on average 40% or more of the related literature; blue areas will have only about 20%. Because the map aggregates data for four different subject areas, the averages are computed across all of the rebellions. So a region that has superior coverage of Emmet’s rebellion but relatively limited coverage of the Easter Rising, will tend to have a yellow profile.
  27. In New England, there are several repositories that hold substantial collections related to multiple rebellions – from a practical point of view, this could be useful information for planning a research trip.
  28. In the Midwest, there is a smaller concentration of institutions with broad coverage of the literature, but there is a shared pattern of collecting around the rebellion of 1803. This pattern is revealed by the data – whether or not there is any deliberate coordination of collecting activity at Notre Dame and the University of Illinois, we can see a convergence of library investment reflected in holdings.
  29. Some regions have broad coverage of literature on multiple rebellions, in multiple libraries. Others have a single institution with exceptionally good coverage of a single rebellion – this is true for Memorial University, which has the best coverage of the Rebellion of 1641.