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KALINGA INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL
TECHNOLOGY
Cloud Computing
3 Credit School of Computer Engineering
Virtualization
Unit-III
2
Virtualisation: Concept
3
 Virtualization is a technique, which allows
to share a single physical instance of a
resource or an application among multiple
customers and organizations.
 It does by assigning a logical name to a
physical storage and providing a pointer
to that physical resource when demanded.
 Virtualization in cloud computing allows
you to run multiple applications and OS
on the same server, thereby providing for
efficient resource utilization and reducing
Virtualization
Architecture
4
With the help of Virtualization multiple
operating systems and applications can run on
same Machine and its same hardware at the
same time increasing the utilization and
flexibility of hardware.
The machine on which the virtual machine is
going to be build is known as Host Machine
and that virtual machine is referred as a Guest
Machine.
Hypervisor
5
 The hypervisor is a firmware or low-level program
that acts as a Virtual Machine Manager.
 Hypervisor is a form of virtualization software
used in Cloud hosting to divide and allocate the
resources on various pieces of hardware.The
program which provide partitioning, isolation or
abstraction is called virtualization hypervisor.
 Hypervisor is a hardware virtualization
technique that allows multiple guest operating
systems (OS) to run on a single host system at
the same time. A hypervisor is sometimes also
called a virtual machine manager(VMM).
 There are two types of hypervisor:
Type 1 and Type 2
Types of Hypervisors
6
 Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the
system hardware. They are often referred to as a
"native" or "bare metal" or "embedded"
hypervisors in vendor literature. It dose not
require any base server operating system.It has
direct access to hardware resources
 Type 2 hypervisors run on a host operating
system that provides virtualization services,
such as I/O device and memory management.
Software installed on an operating system. These
are often referred to as “Hosted Architecture"
hypervisors in vendor literature.
Type-1 Hypervisor
7
Hypervisors
Type 1 and Type 2
Features of Type-1 and 2 Hypervisor
9
Type-1 Hypervisor:
 provides better performance
 provides greater flexibility
 Servers that run Type 1 hypervisors are often single-
purpose servers that offer no other function.
 Type 1 hypervisors are production hypervisors or
hypervisors that run VMs offering services to users.
 support hardware virtualization.
Type-2 Hypervisor:
 Less efficient
 Less flexible
 offer a series of different services.
 rarely used in production.
 perform software virtualization.
Virtualization
Types of Virtualization
11
 Hardware Virtualization
 Software Virtualization
 Memory Virtualization
 Storage Virtualization
 Data Virtualization
 Network Virtualization
 Desktop Virtualization
Hardware Virtualization
12
Hardware virtualization also known as server
virtualization runs on the concept that an
individual independent segment of hardware
or a physical server, may be made up of
multiple smaller segments of hardware or
servers, essentially consolidating multiple
physical servers into virtual servers that run
on a single primary physical server.
Hardware
Virtualization:
Subtyp
es
 Full Virtualization –
• The underlying hardware is fully simulated.
• Guest software does not require any
modifications.
 Para-virtualization –
• The hardware is not simulated instead the
guest software run their own isolated
domains.
 Emulation Virtualization –
• The virtual machine simulates the hardware
and becomes independent of it.
13
Full virtualization is a common and cost-
effective type of virtualization, which is
basically a method by which computer service
requests are separated from the physical
hardware that facilitates them.
With full virtualization, operating systems and
their hosted software are run on top of virtual
hardware.
It differs from other forms of virtualization
(like paravirtualization and hardware-assisted
virtualization) in its total isolation of guest
operating systems from their hosts.
Full virtualization
Full virtualization is fulfilled by the use of both binary
translation and direct execution.
In full virtualization, the guest OS is completely
isolated by the virtual machine from the virtualization
layer and hardware.
Microsoft and Parallels systems are examples of full
virtualization..
Fig.
Para-virtualization
Paravirtualization is the category of CPU virtualization which
uses hypercalls for operations to handle instructions at
compile time.
In paravirtualization, guest OS is not completely isolated but
it is partially isolated by the virtual machine from the
virtualization layer and hardware.
VMware and Xen are some examples of paravirtualization..
Fig.
14
Full Virtualization Emulation
Para Virtualization
Hardware
Virtualization:
Subtypes
Software Virtualization
15
•Software Virtualization involves the
creation and operation of multiple
virtual environments on the host
machine.
• It is used to enable a complete
computer system in order to allow
the guest operating system to run.
•For instance, letting LINUX OS to run
as a guest that is natively using a
Microsoft Windows OS.
Software Virtualization
:Subtypes
16
 Operating System Virtualization –
hosting multiple OS on the native
OS
 Application Virtualization –
hosting individual applications in a
virtual environment separate from the
native OS
 Service Virtualization –
hosting specific services related
to a particular application.
Memory Virtualization
•Physical memory across different ser vers i s
aggregated into a single virtualized memory pool.
•It provides the benefit of an enlarged contiguous
working memory.
•For instance, as some OS such as Microsoft Windows
OS allows a portion of your storage disk to serve as an
extension of your RAM.
17
Memory Virtualization:
Subtypes
18
 Application-level control – Applications access
the memory pool directly.
 Operating system level control – Access to
the memory pool is provided through an
operating system.
Storage Virtualization
•19
•Multiple physical storage devices are
grouped together, which then appear as
a single storage device.
•This provides various advantages such
as homogenization of storage across
storage devices of multiple capacity and
speeds, reduced downtime, load
balancing and better optimization
of performance and speed.
•Partitioning your hard drive into
Storage Virtualization:
Subtypes 20
1. Block
Virtualization –
Virtualisation on
block level means
that storage
capacity is made
available to the
operating system
or the applications
in the form of
virtual disks.
2. File Virtualization
Virtualisation on file
level means that the
virtualisation entity
provides virtual
storage to the
operating systems or
applications in the
form of files and
directories
Storage Virtualization:
Subtypes
Data Virtualization
21
•It lets us to easily
manipulate data, as
the data is
presented as an
abstract layer
completely
independent of
data structure and
database systems.
•Decreases data input
and formatting
errors.
Network Virtualization
22
 In network virtualization, multiple sub-
networks can be created on the same
physical network, which may or may not
is authorized to communicate with each
other.
 This enables restriction of file movement
across networks and enhances security,
and
allows better monitoring and
identification of data usage.
 It also increases reliability as a disruption
in one network doesn’t affect other
Network Virtualization
:Subtypes
23
 Internal network:
Enables a single
system to function
like a network
 External
network:
Consolidation of
multiple
networks into a
single one, or
Desktop Virtualization
•24
•This is perh a p s t h e m o s t c o m m o n
fo r m o f virtualization for any regular
IT employee.
•The user’s desktop is stored on a remote
server, allowing the user to access his
desktop from any device or location.
•Employees can work conveniently from the
comfort of their home. Since the data
transfer takes place over secure protocols,
any risk of data theft is minimized.
25
Types of Virtualization:
At a Glanc
e
Benefits of Virtualization
26
 Easily outsource your hardware and eliminate any
energy costs associated with its operation.
 the efficiency, security and cost advantages.
 Run operating systems where
the physical hardware is unavailable.
 Easier to create new machines, backup machines,
etc.
 Software testing using “clean” installs of operating
systems and software
 Emulate more machines than are physically
available.
 Timeshare lightly loaded systems on one host.

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Virtualization: A Key to Efficient Cloud Computing

  • 1. KALINGA INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Cloud Computing 3 Credit School of Computer Engineering
  • 3. Virtualisation: Concept 3  Virtualization is a technique, which allows to share a single physical instance of a resource or an application among multiple customers and organizations.  It does by assigning a logical name to a physical storage and providing a pointer to that physical resource when demanded.  Virtualization in cloud computing allows you to run multiple applications and OS on the same server, thereby providing for efficient resource utilization and reducing
  • 5. With the help of Virtualization multiple operating systems and applications can run on same Machine and its same hardware at the same time increasing the utilization and flexibility of hardware. The machine on which the virtual machine is going to be build is known as Host Machine and that virtual machine is referred as a Guest Machine.
  • 6. Hypervisor 5  The hypervisor is a firmware or low-level program that acts as a Virtual Machine Manager.  Hypervisor is a form of virtualization software used in Cloud hosting to divide and allocate the resources on various pieces of hardware.The program which provide partitioning, isolation or abstraction is called virtualization hypervisor.  Hypervisor is a hardware virtualization technique that allows multiple guest operating systems (OS) to run on a single host system at the same time. A hypervisor is sometimes also called a virtual machine manager(VMM).  There are two types of hypervisor: Type 1 and Type 2
  • 7. Types of Hypervisors 6  Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the system hardware. They are often referred to as a "native" or "bare metal" or "embedded" hypervisors in vendor literature. It dose not require any base server operating system.It has direct access to hardware resources  Type 2 hypervisors run on a host operating system that provides virtualization services, such as I/O device and memory management. Software installed on an operating system. These are often referred to as “Hosted Architecture" hypervisors in vendor literature.
  • 10. Type 1 and Type 2
  • 11. Features of Type-1 and 2 Hypervisor 9 Type-1 Hypervisor:  provides better performance  provides greater flexibility  Servers that run Type 1 hypervisors are often single- purpose servers that offer no other function.  Type 1 hypervisors are production hypervisors or hypervisors that run VMs offering services to users.  support hardware virtualization. Type-2 Hypervisor:  Less efficient  Less flexible  offer a series of different services.  rarely used in production.  perform software virtualization.
  • 13. Types of Virtualization 11  Hardware Virtualization  Software Virtualization  Memory Virtualization  Storage Virtualization  Data Virtualization  Network Virtualization  Desktop Virtualization
  • 14. Hardware Virtualization 12 Hardware virtualization also known as server virtualization runs on the concept that an individual independent segment of hardware or a physical server, may be made up of multiple smaller segments of hardware or servers, essentially consolidating multiple physical servers into virtual servers that run on a single primary physical server.
  • 15. Hardware Virtualization: Subtyp es  Full Virtualization – • The underlying hardware is fully simulated. • Guest software does not require any modifications.  Para-virtualization – • The hardware is not simulated instead the guest software run their own isolated domains.  Emulation Virtualization – • The virtual machine simulates the hardware and becomes independent of it. 13
  • 16. Full virtualization is a common and cost- effective type of virtualization, which is basically a method by which computer service requests are separated from the physical hardware that facilitates them. With full virtualization, operating systems and their hosted software are run on top of virtual hardware. It differs from other forms of virtualization (like paravirtualization and hardware-assisted virtualization) in its total isolation of guest operating systems from their hosts.
  • 17. Full virtualization Full virtualization is fulfilled by the use of both binary translation and direct execution. In full virtualization, the guest OS is completely isolated by the virtual machine from the virtualization layer and hardware. Microsoft and Parallels systems are examples of full virtualization..
  • 18. Fig.
  • 19. Para-virtualization Paravirtualization is the category of CPU virtualization which uses hypercalls for operations to handle instructions at compile time. In paravirtualization, guest OS is not completely isolated but it is partially isolated by the virtual machine from the virtualization layer and hardware. VMware and Xen are some examples of paravirtualization..
  • 20. Fig.
  • 21. 14 Full Virtualization Emulation Para Virtualization Hardware Virtualization: Subtypes
  • 22. Software Virtualization 15 •Software Virtualization involves the creation and operation of multiple virtual environments on the host machine. • It is used to enable a complete computer system in order to allow the guest operating system to run. •For instance, letting LINUX OS to run as a guest that is natively using a Microsoft Windows OS.
  • 23. Software Virtualization :Subtypes 16  Operating System Virtualization – hosting multiple OS on the native OS  Application Virtualization – hosting individual applications in a virtual environment separate from the native OS  Service Virtualization – hosting specific services related to a particular application.
  • 24. Memory Virtualization •Physical memory across different ser vers i s aggregated into a single virtualized memory pool. •It provides the benefit of an enlarged contiguous working memory. •For instance, as some OS such as Microsoft Windows OS allows a portion of your storage disk to serve as an extension of your RAM. 17
  • 25. Memory Virtualization: Subtypes 18  Application-level control – Applications access the memory pool directly.  Operating system level control – Access to the memory pool is provided through an operating system.
  • 26. Storage Virtualization •19 •Multiple physical storage devices are grouped together, which then appear as a single storage device. •This provides various advantages such as homogenization of storage across storage devices of multiple capacity and speeds, reduced downtime, load balancing and better optimization of performance and speed. •Partitioning your hard drive into
  • 27. Storage Virtualization: Subtypes 20 1. Block Virtualization – Virtualisation on block level means that storage capacity is made available to the operating system or the applications in the form of virtual disks.
  • 28. 2. File Virtualization Virtualisation on file level means that the virtualisation entity provides virtual storage to the operating systems or applications in the form of files and directories Storage Virtualization: Subtypes
  • 29. Data Virtualization 21 •It lets us to easily manipulate data, as the data is presented as an abstract layer completely independent of data structure and database systems. •Decreases data input and formatting errors.
  • 30. Network Virtualization 22  In network virtualization, multiple sub- networks can be created on the same physical network, which may or may not is authorized to communicate with each other.  This enables restriction of file movement across networks and enhances security, and allows better monitoring and identification of data usage.  It also increases reliability as a disruption in one network doesn’t affect other
  • 31. Network Virtualization :Subtypes 23  Internal network: Enables a single system to function like a network  External network: Consolidation of multiple networks into a single one, or
  • 32. Desktop Virtualization •24 •This is perh a p s t h e m o s t c o m m o n fo r m o f virtualization for any regular IT employee. •The user’s desktop is stored on a remote server, allowing the user to access his desktop from any device or location. •Employees can work conveniently from the comfort of their home. Since the data transfer takes place over secure protocols, any risk of data theft is minimized.
  • 34. Benefits of Virtualization 26  Easily outsource your hardware and eliminate any energy costs associated with its operation.  the efficiency, security and cost advantages.  Run operating systems where the physical hardware is unavailable.  Easier to create new machines, backup machines, etc.  Software testing using “clean” installs of operating systems and software  Emulate more machines than are physically available.  Timeshare lightly loaded systems on one host.