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Planning an architecture for the 
Internet of Things 
IoT Expo , Nov 5, 2014 
Sumit Sharma 
Director, API Solutions 
sumit.sharma@mulesoft.com
Leading connectivity platform for 
enterprise applications, mobile and IoT 
HQ in San Francisco with offices in New York, Atlanta, London, Rotterdam, Munich, 
Sydney, Singapore, Hong Kong, Buenos Aires, Rio De Janiero 
2 
3,500+ on-premise enterprise deployments 
25,000+ cloud deployments 
50% of the Global 500 
www.mulesoft.com
MuleSoft’s mission 
To connect the world’s 
applications, data and devices
MuleSoft’s mission 
To connect the world’s 
applications, data and devices
Agenda for today’s session 
Business 
drivers of 
IoT 
Architectural 
Patterns in an 
IoT Stack 
All contents Copyright © 2014, MuleSoft Inc. 5
Why plan for an 
IoT stack? 
MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 6
Everything needs to connect 
7 
7 
50,000,000,000+ 
connected devices 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc.
Connecting the physical world to the Web 
8 
8 
Building 
Management 
Healthcare 
Social 
& Local 
Energy Grid 
Personalized 
Insurance 
Logistics & 
Shipping 
Connected 
Car 
Home 
Automation 
Environmental 
Identity & 
Tracking 
Farming 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc.
Architectural patterns 
in an 
IoT stack 
MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 9
At a high level this is the general IoT stack 
App 
Data Processing and 
Platform 
Edge 
Thing / Device
Breaking down the 
IoT stack 
MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 11
The IoT Stack 
Mobile apps 
Mobile aPaaS 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Hardware / Firmware 
API 
Design / Build 
Sensors 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
API runtime 
management 
iPaaS 
Middle-ware 
Websites 
Industry specific 
( e.g., appliances, touch 
console etc.)
IoT Stack: Devices / Things 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 13
Devices: Many chipsets / platforms to choose from. 
( Becoming more and more vertically integrated with 
software stacks).
Big focus on prototyping: 
Lots of tools to cater to the makers and tinkerers 
Integrated SDKs to speed development, testing and optimization.
Dragonboard based on Snapdragon processor ( many more 
like this from many vendors )
Sensors: Smart or Simple 
Smart Sensors 
Simple Sensors 
Receive Notifications 
Send Data / Events 
Onboarding 
Receive Config
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
IoT Stack: Device Edge 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 18
Key charter is to establish and maintain a 
secure, robust, fault-tolerant connection 
between the cloud and the edge devices in 
order to: 
• Collect and aggregate device data 
• Manage the device 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
IoT Stack: Device Edge 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 19
Typically a combination of a localized gateway, and a 
cloud based gateway, at the edge
Reference capabilities for a gateway 
Connectivity 
Routing 
Enable scalable, real-time, dependable, high-performance 
and interoperable data and 
device management related exchanges 
between publishers and subscribers 
Registry 
Software mgmt 
Control Events Actuator 
Aggregation Transformation Provisioning
Device, and Device gateway sprawl is going to be a challenge 
Too many disparate 
ecosystems. Too 
many gateways, 
hubs, protocols, apps.
Solution to the sprawl: A hub of all hubs 
Need interoperability 
between devices/ 
machines so they can 
all talk to each other.
Solution to the sprawl: A hub of all hubs
IoT Stack: Data management and 
intelligence 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 25
Capabilities required for Data Management and 
Intelligence 
• Data collection, storage, and analysis of sensor data 
• Run rules on data streams 
• Trigger alerts 
• Advanced analytics/machine learning 
• Expose HTTP (REST) APIs 
Data, HTTP, 
connectivity 
Real time event 
processing 
Batch processing 
Data enrichment 
Routing and 
Orchestration 
BigData solution 
connectivity 
Pattern Discovery/ 
Model re-training 
Driving Forces 
Identification 
Predictive Analysis
IoT Stack: API lifecycle tooling and platform 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 27
API lifecycle tooling can be split between 
design time and runtime 
Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs 
API 
API runtime 
Design / Build 
management
API lifecycle: Design time capabilities 
Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs 
API spec 
creation 
API design 
lifecycle 
API mocking/ 
modelling 
Reusable API 
patterns 
Deployment 
automation 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management
Outside In API development: What if we could 
whiteboard an API ? Springboard for optimizing “APX” 
API 
Design / Build 
l All contents Copyright 30 © 2014, MuleSoft Inc.
APX Design Lifecycle 
• Modify API design as 
appropriate based on 
developer feedback. 
• Continue to validate 
Validate! 
• Mock up the API 
• Publish interactive console 
• Create Notebook use cases 
• Receive developer feedback 
l All contents Copyright 31 © 2014, MuleSoft Inc. 
Iterate! 
• Identify process and biz reqs 
• Create logical data model 
• Translate into logical service/API 
groupings 
• Model API resource models 
• API operations/methods 
• Request/response payload/codes 
• Create and implement 
orchestration logic for 
backend connectivity 
APX 
Design 
lifecycle 
API 
Design / Build
API lifecycle: Runtime capabilities 
Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs 
Rate limiting / 
Throttling 
API SLA 
management 
Custom policy 
engine 
Multi-tenant org / 
RBAC support 
Deployment 
automation 
API and data 
security 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management
API runtime management 
API runtime 
management 
Developer Portal 
App Developer 
Discover, 
understand, and 
sign-up to use API 
Make ..…" 
app 
API Gateway 
• Rate limit 
• Throttle 
• OAuth2 
• LDAP/AD auth 
• IP whitelisting 
• Transformations 
etc. 
API API API 
Publish, 
Document APIs 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 33
IoT Stack: Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 34
aPaaS capabilities 
OS/DB, Storage, Server, 
Network 
Routing, transform, 
orchestration services 
• Hosted in the cloud 
• Provides platform to build 
applications. 
Design and 
Development tooling 
Web, Database, 
Application Server 
Management and 
analytics tooling 
Administrative portal 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS )
IoT Stack: End applications 
Mobile apps 
Mobile aPaaS 
Websites 
Industry specific 
( e.g., appliances, touch 
console etc.) 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 36
IoT/IoE is a driver of mobile / tablet interfaces 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 37
IoT Stack: iPaaS integration – middleware: 
Don’t forget to integrate! 
Mobile apps 
Mobile aPaaS 
Websites 
Industry specific 
( e.g., appliances, touch 
console etc.) 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management 
Data Management and Intelligence 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Hardware / Firmware 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
iPaaS 
Middle-ware 
iPaaS 
middleware 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 38
iPaaS Capabilities: Don’t forget to 
integrate!
Summary
IoT Stack 
Mobile apps 
Mobile aPaaS 
Industry specific 
( e.g., appliances, touch 
console etc.) 
Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) middleware 
Websites 
API 
Design / Build 
API runtime 
management 
Data Management 
iPaaS 
Device 
Management 
Sensors 
Device 
Hub/Gateway 
All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 41
One final thought: the stack as it exists today is also 
converging… 
App 
Data Processing and 
Platform 
Edge 
Thing / Device
Scenarios where the middleware and edge have converged 
( i.e., MuleSoft Anypoint Edge ) 
AApppsp 
Data Processing 
and Platform 
Edge 
Thing / Device
And there are also scenarios where the app layer is directly 
connected to the Thing/Device layer ( i.e., embedded 
Android, Java, Javascript etc. ) 
Data Processing 
and Platform 
Edge 
Apps 
Thing / Device
Thank you! 
Questions? 
sumit.sharma@mulesoft.com

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IoT architecture

  • 1. Planning an architecture for the Internet of Things IoT Expo , Nov 5, 2014 Sumit Sharma Director, API Solutions sumit.sharma@mulesoft.com
  • 2. Leading connectivity platform for enterprise applications, mobile and IoT HQ in San Francisco with offices in New York, Atlanta, London, Rotterdam, Munich, Sydney, Singapore, Hong Kong, Buenos Aires, Rio De Janiero 2 3,500+ on-premise enterprise deployments 25,000+ cloud deployments 50% of the Global 500 www.mulesoft.com
  • 3. MuleSoft’s mission To connect the world’s applications, data and devices
  • 4. MuleSoft’s mission To connect the world’s applications, data and devices
  • 5. Agenda for today’s session Business drivers of IoT Architectural Patterns in an IoT Stack All contents Copyright © 2014, MuleSoft Inc. 5
  • 6. Why plan for an IoT stack? MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 6
  • 7. Everything needs to connect 7 7 50,000,000,000+ connected devices All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc.
  • 8. Connecting the physical world to the Web 8 8 Building Management Healthcare Social & Local Energy Grid Personalized Insurance Logistics & Shipping Connected Car Home Automation Environmental Identity & Tracking Farming All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc.
  • 9. Architectural patterns in an IoT stack MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 9
  • 10. At a high level this is the general IoT stack App Data Processing and Platform Edge Thing / Device
  • 11. Breaking down the IoT stack MuleSoft Confidential - please do not share/distribute 11
  • 12. The IoT Stack Mobile apps Mobile aPaaS Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Hardware / Firmware API Design / Build Sensors Device Hub/Gateway API runtime management iPaaS Middle-ware Websites Industry specific ( e.g., appliances, touch console etc.)
  • 13. IoT Stack: Devices / Things Sensors Hardware / Firmware All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 13
  • 14. Devices: Many chipsets / platforms to choose from. ( Becoming more and more vertically integrated with software stacks).
  • 15. Big focus on prototyping: Lots of tools to cater to the makers and tinkerers Integrated SDKs to speed development, testing and optimization.
  • 16. Dragonboard based on Snapdragon processor ( many more like this from many vendors )
  • 17. Sensors: Smart or Simple Smart Sensors Simple Sensors Receive Notifications Send Data / Events Onboarding Receive Config
  • 18. Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware IoT Stack: Device Edge Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 18
  • 19. Key charter is to establish and maintain a secure, robust, fault-tolerant connection between the cloud and the edge devices in order to: • Collect and aggregate device data • Manage the device Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware IoT Stack: Device Edge Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 19
  • 20. Typically a combination of a localized gateway, and a cloud based gateway, at the edge
  • 21. Reference capabilities for a gateway Connectivity Routing Enable scalable, real-time, dependable, high-performance and interoperable data and device management related exchanges between publishers and subscribers Registry Software mgmt Control Events Actuator Aggregation Transformation Provisioning
  • 22. Device, and Device gateway sprawl is going to be a challenge Too many disparate ecosystems. Too many gateways, hubs, protocols, apps.
  • 23. Solution to the sprawl: A hub of all hubs Need interoperability between devices/ machines so they can all talk to each other.
  • 24. Solution to the sprawl: A hub of all hubs
  • 25. IoT Stack: Data management and intelligence Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 25
  • 26. Capabilities required for Data Management and Intelligence • Data collection, storage, and analysis of sensor data • Run rules on data streams • Trigger alerts • Advanced analytics/machine learning • Expose HTTP (REST) APIs Data, HTTP, connectivity Real time event processing Batch processing Data enrichment Routing and Orchestration BigData solution connectivity Pattern Discovery/ Model re-training Driving Forces Identification Predictive Analysis
  • 27. IoT Stack: API lifecycle tooling and platform API Design / Build API runtime management Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 27
  • 28. API lifecycle tooling can be split between design time and runtime Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs API API runtime Design / Build management
  • 29. API lifecycle: Design time capabilities Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs API spec creation API design lifecycle API mocking/ modelling Reusable API patterns Deployment automation API Design / Build API runtime management
  • 30. Outside In API development: What if we could whiteboard an API ? Springboard for optimizing “APX” API Design / Build l All contents Copyright 30 © 2014, MuleSoft Inc.
  • 31. APX Design Lifecycle • Modify API design as appropriate based on developer feedback. • Continue to validate Validate! • Mock up the API • Publish interactive console • Create Notebook use cases • Receive developer feedback l All contents Copyright 31 © 2014, MuleSoft Inc. Iterate! • Identify process and biz reqs • Create logical data model • Translate into logical service/API groupings • Model API resource models • API operations/methods • Request/response payload/codes • Create and implement orchestration logic for backend connectivity APX Design lifecycle API Design / Build
  • 32. API lifecycle: Runtime capabilities Rapidly design, deploy and publish APIs Rate limiting / Throttling API SLA management Custom policy engine Multi-tenant org / RBAC support Deployment automation API and data security API Design / Build API runtime management
  • 33. API runtime management API runtime management Developer Portal App Developer Discover, understand, and sign-up to use API Make ..…" app API Gateway • Rate limit • Throttle • OAuth2 • LDAP/AD auth • IP whitelisting • Transformations etc. API API API Publish, Document APIs All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 33
  • 34. IoT Stack: Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) API Design / Build API runtime management Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 34
  • 35. aPaaS capabilities OS/DB, Storage, Server, Network Routing, transform, orchestration services • Hosted in the cloud • Provides platform to build applications. Design and Development tooling Web, Database, Application Server Management and analytics tooling Administrative portal Application PaaS ( aPaaS )
  • 36. IoT Stack: End applications Mobile apps Mobile aPaaS Websites Industry specific ( e.g., appliances, touch console etc.) Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) API Design / Build API runtime management Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 36
  • 37. IoT/IoE is a driver of mobile / tablet interfaces All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 37
  • 38. IoT Stack: iPaaS integration – middleware: Don’t forget to integrate! Mobile apps Mobile aPaaS Websites Industry specific ( e.g., appliances, touch console etc.) Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) API Design / Build API runtime management Data Management and Intelligence Device Management Sensors Hardware / Firmware Device Hub/Gateway iPaaS Middle-ware iPaaS middleware All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 38
  • 39. iPaaS Capabilities: Don’t forget to integrate!
  • 41. IoT Stack Mobile apps Mobile aPaaS Industry specific ( e.g., appliances, touch console etc.) Application PaaS ( aPaaS ) middleware Websites API Design / Build API runtime management Data Management iPaaS Device Management Sensors Device Hub/Gateway All contents Copyright © 2013, MuleSoft Inc. 41
  • 42. One final thought: the stack as it exists today is also converging… App Data Processing and Platform Edge Thing / Device
  • 43. Scenarios where the middleware and edge have converged ( i.e., MuleSoft Anypoint Edge ) AApppsp Data Processing and Platform Edge Thing / Device
  • 44. And there are also scenarios where the app layer is directly connected to the Thing/Device layer ( i.e., embedded Android, Java, Javascript etc. ) Data Processing and Platform Edge Apps Thing / Device
  • 45. Thank you! Questions? sumit.sharma@mulesoft.com