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Gears
Naseel Ibnu Azeez
Asst. Professor, ME
MEA Engineering College
Perinthalmanna
Introduction to gears
Gears are toothed members which transmit power/motion between
two shafts by meshing without any slip. Hence, gear drives are
also called positive drives. In any pair of gears, the smaller one is
called pinion and the larger one is called gear immaterial of which
is driving the other.
The motion and power transmitted by gears is kinematically
equivalent to that transmitted by frictional wheels or discs.
Applications of Gears
• Control gears – long life, low noise, precision gears
• Aerospace gears – light weight, moderate to high load
• Power transmission – long life, high load and speed
• Appliance gears – long life, low noise & cost, low to
moderate load
• Toys and Small Mechanisms – small, low load, low cost
Advantages and Disadvantages of Gear Drive
Advantages
1. It transmits exact velocity ratio.
2. It may be used to transmit large power.
3. It may be used for small centre distances of shafts.
4. It has high efficiency.
5. It has reliable service.
6. It has compact layout.
Disadvantages
1. Since the manufacture of gears require special tools and equipment, therefore it is costlier
than other drives.
2. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibrations and noise during operation.
3. It requires suitable lubricant and reliable method of applying it, for the proper operation of
gear drives.
Classification of Gears
1. According to the position of axes of the shafts
(a) Parallel, (b) Intersecting, and (c) Non-intersecting and non-parallel
2. According to the peripheral velocity of the gears
(a) Low velocity, (b) Medium velocity, and (c) High velocity
The gears having velocity less than 3m/s are termed as low velocity
gears and gears having velocity between 3 and 15 m/s are known as
medium velocity gears.
If the velocity of gears is more than 15 m/s, then these are called
high speed gears.
3. According to the type of gearing
(a) External gearing, (b) Internal gearing, and (c) Rack and pinion
4. According to the position of teeth on the gear surface
(a) Straight, (b) Inclined, and (c) Curved.
Spur gears – tooth profile is parallel to
the axis of rotation, transmits motion
between parallel shafts.
Pinion (small gear)
Gear (large gear)
Internal gears
– teeth are inclined to
the axis of rotation, the angle provides
more gradual engagement of the teeth
during meshing, transmits motion
between parallel shafts.
Helical gears
Types of Gears
Bevel gears – teeth are formed on a
conical surface, used to transfer motion
between non-parallel and intersecting
shafts.
Straight
bevel gear
Spiral
bevel gear
Worm gear sets – consists of a
helical gear and a power screw (worm),
used to transfer motion between non-
parallel and non-intersecting shafts.
Rack and Pinion sets – a special
case of spur gears with the gear
having an infinitely large diameter,
the teeth are laid flat.
Introduction to gears
Types of gears
Nomenclature of Spur Gear Teeth
1. Pitch circle
It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same motion
as the actual gear
2. Pitch circle diameter
It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually
specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.
3. Pitch point
It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles.
4. Pitch surface
It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing gears have replaced at the
pitch circle.
5. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity
It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of
contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. It is usually denoted by φ. The
standard pressure angles are 14.5° and 20°.
6. Addendum
It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth.
7. Dedendum
It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth.
8. Addendum circle
It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the
pitch circle
9. Dedendum circle
It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also called root
circle
10. Circular pitch
It is the distance measured on the circumference of the pitch circle from a
point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth
12. Module
It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimetres to the number of
teeth. It is usually denoted by m.
13. Clearance
It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth,
in a meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is
known as clearance circle
14. Total depth
It is the radial distance between the addendum and the dedendum circle of
a gear. It is equal to the sum of the addendum and dedendum.
15. Working depth
It is radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. It is equal to
the sum of the addendum of the two meshing gears.
16. Tooth thickness
It is the width of the tooth measured along the pitch circle.
17. Tooth space
It is the width of space betwee19. Face of the tooth. It is surface of the tooth
above the pitch surface.
20. Top land
It is the surface of the top of the tooth.
21. Flank of the tooth
It is the surface of the tooth below the pitch surface.
22. Face width
It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis.
23. Profile
It is the curve formed by the face and flank of the tooth.
24. Fillet radius
It is the radius that connects the root circle to the profile of the tooth.
25. Path of contact
It is the path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the beginning
to the end of engagement.
26. Length of the path of contact
It is the length of the common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the
wheel and pinion.
27. Arc of contact
It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to
the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. The arc of contact consists
of two parts
28. Backlash
It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness, as
measured on the pitch circle.
Introduction to gears
Standard Tooth Specifications
Pressure angle
Two mating gears must have the same diametral pitch, P,
and pressure angle, φ.
Pitch
line
Line of centers
Base
circle
Base
circle
Pitch
circle
Pitch
circle
Pressure angle φ
Standard pressure angles, 14.5o
(old), 20o
, and 25o
It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the
point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point.
Design Considerations for a Gear Drive
1. The power to be transmitted
2. The speed of the driving gear
3. The speed of the driven gear or the velocity ratio
4. The centre distance
The following requirements must be met in the design of a gear
drive :
(a) The gear teeth should have sufficient strength so that they will
not fail under static loading or dynamic loading during
normal running conditions
(b) The gear teeth should have wear characteristics so that their
life is satisfactory
(c) The use of space and material should be economical.
(d) The alignment of the gears and deflections of the shafts must
be considered because they effect on the performance of
the gears
(e) The lubrication of the gears must be satisfactory

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Introduction to gears

  • 1. Gears Naseel Ibnu Azeez Asst. Professor, ME MEA Engineering College Perinthalmanna
  • 3. Gears are toothed members which transmit power/motion between two shafts by meshing without any slip. Hence, gear drives are also called positive drives. In any pair of gears, the smaller one is called pinion and the larger one is called gear immaterial of which is driving the other. The motion and power transmitted by gears is kinematically equivalent to that transmitted by frictional wheels or discs.
  • 4. Applications of Gears • Control gears – long life, low noise, precision gears • Aerospace gears – light weight, moderate to high load • Power transmission – long life, high load and speed • Appliance gears – long life, low noise & cost, low to moderate load • Toys and Small Mechanisms – small, low load, low cost
  • 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gear Drive Advantages 1. It transmits exact velocity ratio. 2. It may be used to transmit large power. 3. It may be used for small centre distances of shafts. 4. It has high efficiency. 5. It has reliable service. 6. It has compact layout. Disadvantages 1. Since the manufacture of gears require special tools and equipment, therefore it is costlier than other drives. 2. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibrations and noise during operation. 3. It requires suitable lubricant and reliable method of applying it, for the proper operation of gear drives.
  • 6. Classification of Gears 1. According to the position of axes of the shafts (a) Parallel, (b) Intersecting, and (c) Non-intersecting and non-parallel
  • 7. 2. According to the peripheral velocity of the gears (a) Low velocity, (b) Medium velocity, and (c) High velocity The gears having velocity less than 3m/s are termed as low velocity gears and gears having velocity between 3 and 15 m/s are known as medium velocity gears. If the velocity of gears is more than 15 m/s, then these are called high speed gears.
  • 8. 3. According to the type of gearing (a) External gearing, (b) Internal gearing, and (c) Rack and pinion
  • 9. 4. According to the position of teeth on the gear surface (a) Straight, (b) Inclined, and (c) Curved.
  • 10. Spur gears – tooth profile is parallel to the axis of rotation, transmits motion between parallel shafts. Pinion (small gear) Gear (large gear) Internal gears – teeth are inclined to the axis of rotation, the angle provides more gradual engagement of the teeth during meshing, transmits motion between parallel shafts. Helical gears
  • 11. Types of Gears Bevel gears – teeth are formed on a conical surface, used to transfer motion between non-parallel and intersecting shafts. Straight bevel gear Spiral bevel gear
  • 12. Worm gear sets – consists of a helical gear and a power screw (worm), used to transfer motion between non- parallel and non-intersecting shafts. Rack and Pinion sets – a special case of spur gears with the gear having an infinitely large diameter, the teeth are laid flat.
  • 15. Nomenclature of Spur Gear Teeth
  • 16. 1. Pitch circle It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same motion as the actual gear 2. Pitch circle diameter It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter. 3. Pitch point It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles. 4. Pitch surface It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing gears have replaced at the pitch circle. 5. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. It is usually denoted by φ. The standard pressure angles are 14.5° and 20°. 6. Addendum It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth. 7. Dedendum It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth.
  • 17. 8. Addendum circle It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle 9. Dedendum circle It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also called root circle 10. Circular pitch It is the distance measured on the circumference of the pitch circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth 12. Module It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimetres to the number of teeth. It is usually denoted by m. 13. Clearance It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth, in a meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as clearance circle 14. Total depth It is the radial distance between the addendum and the dedendum circle of a gear. It is equal to the sum of the addendum and dedendum. 15. Working depth It is radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. It is equal to the sum of the addendum of the two meshing gears.
  • 18. 16. Tooth thickness It is the width of the tooth measured along the pitch circle. 17. Tooth space It is the width of space betwee19. Face of the tooth. It is surface of the tooth above the pitch surface. 20. Top land It is the surface of the top of the tooth. 21. Flank of the tooth It is the surface of the tooth below the pitch surface. 22. Face width It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis. 23. Profile It is the curve formed by the face and flank of the tooth. 24. Fillet radius It is the radius that connects the root circle to the profile of the tooth. 25. Path of contact It is the path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the beginning to the end of engagement. 26. Length of the path of contact It is the length of the common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion.
  • 19. 27. Arc of contact It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. The arc of contact consists of two parts 28. Backlash It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness, as measured on the pitch circle.
  • 21. Standard Tooth Specifications Pressure angle Two mating gears must have the same diametral pitch, P, and pressure angle, φ. Pitch line Line of centers Base circle Base circle Pitch circle Pitch circle Pressure angle φ Standard pressure angles, 14.5o (old), 20o , and 25o It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point.
  • 22. Design Considerations for a Gear Drive 1. The power to be transmitted 2. The speed of the driving gear 3. The speed of the driven gear or the velocity ratio 4. The centre distance The following requirements must be met in the design of a gear drive : (a) The gear teeth should have sufficient strength so that they will not fail under static loading or dynamic loading during normal running conditions (b) The gear teeth should have wear characteristics so that their life is satisfactory (c) The use of space and material should be economical. (d) The alignment of the gears and deflections of the shafts must be considered because they effect on the performance of the gears (e) The lubrication of the gears must be satisfactory