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MGF3681: International Management




                      Essay
                    Preparation


www.monash.edu.au
Assignment 1


•   Cross-Cultural Communication
•   Due week 6 on the Friday 5pm - Moodle
•   Worth 40%
•   2,500 – 3,000 words
•   15 Journal Articles
•   Harvard Referencing




                                            www.monash.edu.au
                                                            2
Statement

"Communication is a critical factor in cross-cultural management issues,
particularly those of an interpersonal nature, involving motivation,
leadership, group interactions and negotiation. Culture is conveyed and
perpetuated through communication in one form or another. Culture and
communication are so intricately intertwined that they are, essentially,
synonymous.

By understanding this relationship, managers can move toward
constructive intercultural management. The ability of a manager to
effectively communicate across cultural boundaries will largely
determine the success of international business transactions or the
output of a culturally diverse workforce."

Source: Deresky, H. (2011) International Management Managing Across Borders and
Cultures: Text and Case (7th Ed). Pearson: NJ
                                                                           www.monash.edu.au
                                                                                           3
Task

Using the above introduction of the role of cross-cultural
communication as a starting point, critically evaluate this
statement, providing relevant theory and research to support
your arguments. You are encouraged to use a broad array of
examples to support your arguments.

Your analysis should:
• Identify some of the complex ways that cross-cultural
  differences can manifest themselves in communication.
• Identify possible strategies to alleviate or avoid these
  problems.
• Apply the differences/similarities in several cultures to add
  value to your analysis.
                                                         www.monash.edu.au
                                                                         4
Breaking it Down


• What did the statement say?
   – Relationship between culture and communication
   – Interpersonal Nature (motivation, leadership, etc)
   – Culture is portrayed and perpetuated through
     communication
   – One communication style or another

   – Effective communication across cultures
   – Culturally diverse workforce


                                                   www.monash.edu.au
                                                                   5
Breaking it Down


• What did the question say?
   – Critically evaluate
   – Relevant theory and research
   – Broad array of examples

   – Complex ways communication is in culture
   – Strategies to deal with this
   – Doing this via examples



                                                www.monash.edu.au
                                                                6
Communication and Culture




                            www.monash.edu.au
                                            7
Relevant Theory


• Communication Channel
   – Sender
       > How does culture affect
       > Verbal and Non-Verbal


   – Receiver
       > How does culture affect
       > Verbal and Non-Verbal


• Cultural Noise



                                   www.monash.edu.au
                                                   8
Relevant Theory


• Communication Types
   – Verbal
      >   High v Low Context
      >   Explicit v Implicit Communication
      >   Elaborate Style
      >   Succinct Style
      >   Contextual Style
      >   Personal Style
      >   Affective Style
      >   Instrumental Style




                                              www.monash.edu.au
                                                              9
High v Low Context




                     www.monash.edu.au
                                    10
Relevant Theory


• Communication Types
   – Non-verbal
      >   Kinesics
      >   Proxemics
      >   Material Possessions
      >   Physical Appearance
      >   Paralanguage
      >   Oculesics
      >   Chronemics




                                 www.monash.edu.au
                                                11
Relevant Theory


• Theorists
   – Hofstede
   – Trompennaars
   – Hall




                    www.monash.edu.au
                                   12
Strategies to Deal


• What are the implications for managers?

• How are they going to deal with these different
  cultures?

• Lay out strategies for dealing with these issues.




                                                www.monash.edu.au
                                                               13
Relevant Theory


• Examples
   –   Australia / United States / Brittan
   –   Japan
   –   Brazil
   –   China
   –   Tonga
   –   Vietnam




                                             www.monash.edu.au
                                                            14
Tips for Assignment

1. Read the essay topic carefully
   –   Keep topic next to you while writing.

   –   Make sure you address all aspects of the topic.

   –   Plan your answer.

   –   Don’t lose focus.
       >   Does every paragraph help address the question?

       >   If not, replace it with a better one.

   –   Follow logical structure.
                                                    www.monash.edu.au
                                                                   15
Tips for Assignment (Cont.)

2. Formatting
   –   Size 12 Font Times, Size 11 Calibri

   –   Double spaced

   –   Be consistent

   –   No headings / sub-headings

   –   2 or 3 paragraphs per page

   –   Proof reading / editing is very important


                                                   www.monash.edu.au
                                                                  16
Tips for Assignment (Cont.)

3. Referencing
   –   At least 15 references

   –   Harvard (or APA) style

   –   Only use reliable sources
       >   Do not rely on text books or lecture slides

   –   Integrate references to for arguments

   –   Reference list in alphabetical order

   –   Use Q-manual for guidance
                                                         www.monash.edu.au
                                                                        17
Tips for Assignment (Cont.)

4. Don’t be surprised
   –   Constantly look at referencing sheet

   –   Make sure you address each criteria

   –   Have a general idea of what grade to expect

5. Don’t plagiarise

6. Submit on time



                                                 www.monash.edu.au
                                                                18

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International Management - Essay Preparation

  • 1. MGF3681: International Management Essay Preparation www.monash.edu.au
  • 2. Assignment 1 • Cross-Cultural Communication • Due week 6 on the Friday 5pm - Moodle • Worth 40% • 2,500 – 3,000 words • 15 Journal Articles • Harvard Referencing www.monash.edu.au 2
  • 3. Statement "Communication is a critical factor in cross-cultural management issues, particularly those of an interpersonal nature, involving motivation, leadership, group interactions and negotiation. Culture is conveyed and perpetuated through communication in one form or another. Culture and communication are so intricately intertwined that they are, essentially, synonymous. By understanding this relationship, managers can move toward constructive intercultural management. The ability of a manager to effectively communicate across cultural boundaries will largely determine the success of international business transactions or the output of a culturally diverse workforce." Source: Deresky, H. (2011) International Management Managing Across Borders and Cultures: Text and Case (7th Ed). Pearson: NJ www.monash.edu.au 3
  • 4. Task Using the above introduction of the role of cross-cultural communication as a starting point, critically evaluate this statement, providing relevant theory and research to support your arguments. You are encouraged to use a broad array of examples to support your arguments. Your analysis should: • Identify some of the complex ways that cross-cultural differences can manifest themselves in communication. • Identify possible strategies to alleviate or avoid these problems. • Apply the differences/similarities in several cultures to add value to your analysis. www.monash.edu.au 4
  • 5. Breaking it Down • What did the statement say? – Relationship between culture and communication – Interpersonal Nature (motivation, leadership, etc) – Culture is portrayed and perpetuated through communication – One communication style or another – Effective communication across cultures – Culturally diverse workforce www.monash.edu.au 5
  • 6. Breaking it Down • What did the question say? – Critically evaluate – Relevant theory and research – Broad array of examples – Complex ways communication is in culture – Strategies to deal with this – Doing this via examples www.monash.edu.au 6
  • 7. Communication and Culture www.monash.edu.au 7
  • 8. Relevant Theory • Communication Channel – Sender > How does culture affect > Verbal and Non-Verbal – Receiver > How does culture affect > Verbal and Non-Verbal • Cultural Noise www.monash.edu.au 8
  • 9. Relevant Theory • Communication Types – Verbal > High v Low Context > Explicit v Implicit Communication > Elaborate Style > Succinct Style > Contextual Style > Personal Style > Affective Style > Instrumental Style www.monash.edu.au 9
  • 10. High v Low Context www.monash.edu.au 10
  • 11. Relevant Theory • Communication Types – Non-verbal > Kinesics > Proxemics > Material Possessions > Physical Appearance > Paralanguage > Oculesics > Chronemics www.monash.edu.au 11
  • 12. Relevant Theory • Theorists – Hofstede – Trompennaars – Hall www.monash.edu.au 12
  • 13. Strategies to Deal • What are the implications for managers? • How are they going to deal with these different cultures? • Lay out strategies for dealing with these issues. www.monash.edu.au 13
  • 14. Relevant Theory • Examples – Australia / United States / Brittan – Japan – Brazil – China – Tonga – Vietnam www.monash.edu.au 14
  • 15. Tips for Assignment 1. Read the essay topic carefully – Keep topic next to you while writing. – Make sure you address all aspects of the topic. – Plan your answer. – Don’t lose focus. > Does every paragraph help address the question? > If not, replace it with a better one. – Follow logical structure. www.monash.edu.au 15
  • 16. Tips for Assignment (Cont.) 2. Formatting – Size 12 Font Times, Size 11 Calibri – Double spaced – Be consistent – No headings / sub-headings – 2 or 3 paragraphs per page – Proof reading / editing is very important www.monash.edu.au 16
  • 17. Tips for Assignment (Cont.) 3. Referencing – At least 15 references – Harvard (or APA) style – Only use reliable sources > Do not rely on text books or lecture slides – Integrate references to for arguments – Reference list in alphabetical order – Use Q-manual for guidance www.monash.edu.au 17
  • 18. Tips for Assignment (Cont.) 4. Don’t be surprised – Constantly look at referencing sheet – Make sure you address each criteria – Have a general idea of what grade to expect 5. Don’t plagiarise 6. Submit on time www.monash.edu.au 18