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How to read?
What is reading? 
Reading is a 
complex cognitive 
process
Main reading strategies 
Finding main idea 
(Skimming) 
Identifying supporting 
details (Scanning) 
Underlining and 
highlighting 
Asking questions 
Making connections 
Noting key words 
Summarizing 
Guessing the 
word meaning 
from context 
Inferring 
and 
predicting
Finding main idea 
What is a main idea? 
In written or spoken material the big idea or the most important thought 
expressed by an author about the topic. 
How to recognize the main idea: 
1. The significance of its content or the force with which it is expressed 
2. Summation of the passage’s content 
3. An idea expressed as a well-said, formal-sounding statement and a 
complete thought 
4. If the passage seems to have only one general point, it includes the main 
idea. If it has two or more seemingly equal general point, the relation 
between them includes main idea. 
Where the main idea state? 
The main idea may also be stated in different words and in many location. 
 Beginning a Paragraph 
 In the middle of the Paragraph 
 Ending a Paragraph
Identifying supporting details 
Supporting details are composed of all the fact and secondary ideas that 
an author uses to develop and support the main idea or ideas. 
Many of us impose unnecessary limitations on ourselves. We 
say, or think, we can’t do something without checking. We 
hold ourselves back when we could move ahead. We assume 
that certain good occupations are closed to us when they’re 
really not closed at all. We think we are not as good as the next 
person when we really are. 
Main idea: Many of us limit our potential unnecessarily 
Supporting details: 
• We say we can’t without really knowing 
• We hold back 
• We think we were not good enough for certain jobs 
• We think were not as good as others
Underlining and highlighting
Why Ask Questions? Ask questions 
 What don’t you get? 
 What do you get? 
 What words don’t you 
understand? 
 What other questions do 
you have? 
 What do you wonder 
about as you read? 
Asking questions helps keep 
you focused on the text. 
If your mind wanders, you 
will not understand. Then you 
will be bored. 
If you run into problems, 
things you just don’t 
understand, then you can 
check yourself with a 
question.
Making Connections 
Ask Yourself: 
What do I already know about this? 
Has anything similar ever happened to 
me? 
How would I feel if this happened to 
me? 
Can I relate to the characters? 
Does this story remind me of something?
Infer and Predict 
Good readers are like detectives. 
They use clues to determine what is happening 
in a story. 
This is called INFERENCE! 
Good readers also make educated guesses 
about what may happen later in the story. 
They use the author’s hints to PREDICT 
what will most likely occur.
Noting key words 
• Record the main 
headings as you read. 
Use one or two key 
words for each point. 
When you don’t want to 
mark the text, keep a 
folder of notes you 
make while reading. 
Summarizing 
• Summarizing is a tool 
for understanding 
because it focus on the 
necessary and 
eliminates the 
unnecessary in the 
passage.
Note taking
Steps to create good Summary 
1. Eliminate unnecessary material 
2. Eliminate material which is important but which is redundant 
3. Use a summary word instead of list items (vehicles, 
stationery, strategies) 
4. Use an encompassing word for a series of action or event 
5. If the passage has no topic sentence, create your own
Guessing the word meaning 
from context 
There are 4 main types of context clues: 
• Rewording the word. 
• Giving its Synonym. 
• Giving its Antonym. 
• Giving us Details about the word. 
When babies are born, they always have blue eyes. This is because the 
melanin, the pigment that colors the eyes, is not on the surface of the iris. Instead, 
it is within the creases of the iris. Because there is little melanin on the surface of 
the iris, the eyes appear blue. 
After a few months, the melanin moves to the surface of the iris. It is the 
amount of melanin on the surface that determines a person’s permanent eye color, 
so it is at this point that a baby’s eyes develop the color they will have for a 
lifetime. 
1. The word ‘’pigment’’ in line 2 is closest in the meaning to 
a. skin b. muscle c. tissue d. color 
2. The word ‘’surface’’ in the 2 line 2 is closest in meaning to 
a. top b. inside c. back d. bottom 
3. The word ‘’permanent’’ in line 6 could best be replaced by 
a. changeable b. lasting c. dark d. possible 
4. The word ‘’ point’’ in the 7 could best be replaced by which of the 
following? 
a. Dot b. Era c. Time d. Place
THANK YOU FOR 
YOUR ATTENTION

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How to read effectively

  • 2. What is reading? Reading is a complex cognitive process
  • 3. Main reading strategies Finding main idea (Skimming) Identifying supporting details (Scanning) Underlining and highlighting Asking questions Making connections Noting key words Summarizing Guessing the word meaning from context Inferring and predicting
  • 4. Finding main idea What is a main idea? In written or spoken material the big idea or the most important thought expressed by an author about the topic. How to recognize the main idea: 1. The significance of its content or the force with which it is expressed 2. Summation of the passage’s content 3. An idea expressed as a well-said, formal-sounding statement and a complete thought 4. If the passage seems to have only one general point, it includes the main idea. If it has two or more seemingly equal general point, the relation between them includes main idea. Where the main idea state? The main idea may also be stated in different words and in many location.  Beginning a Paragraph  In the middle of the Paragraph  Ending a Paragraph
  • 5. Identifying supporting details Supporting details are composed of all the fact and secondary ideas that an author uses to develop and support the main idea or ideas. Many of us impose unnecessary limitations on ourselves. We say, or think, we can’t do something without checking. We hold ourselves back when we could move ahead. We assume that certain good occupations are closed to us when they’re really not closed at all. We think we are not as good as the next person when we really are. Main idea: Many of us limit our potential unnecessarily Supporting details: • We say we can’t without really knowing • We hold back • We think we were not good enough for certain jobs • We think were not as good as others
  • 7. Why Ask Questions? Ask questions  What don’t you get?  What do you get?  What words don’t you understand?  What other questions do you have?  What do you wonder about as you read? Asking questions helps keep you focused on the text. If your mind wanders, you will not understand. Then you will be bored. If you run into problems, things you just don’t understand, then you can check yourself with a question.
  • 8.
  • 9. Making Connections Ask Yourself: What do I already know about this? Has anything similar ever happened to me? How would I feel if this happened to me? Can I relate to the characters? Does this story remind me of something?
  • 10. Infer and Predict Good readers are like detectives. They use clues to determine what is happening in a story. This is called INFERENCE! Good readers also make educated guesses about what may happen later in the story. They use the author’s hints to PREDICT what will most likely occur.
  • 11. Noting key words • Record the main headings as you read. Use one or two key words for each point. When you don’t want to mark the text, keep a folder of notes you make while reading. Summarizing • Summarizing is a tool for understanding because it focus on the necessary and eliminates the unnecessary in the passage.
  • 13. Steps to create good Summary 1. Eliminate unnecessary material 2. Eliminate material which is important but which is redundant 3. Use a summary word instead of list items (vehicles, stationery, strategies) 4. Use an encompassing word for a series of action or event 5. If the passage has no topic sentence, create your own
  • 14. Guessing the word meaning from context There are 4 main types of context clues: • Rewording the word. • Giving its Synonym. • Giving its Antonym. • Giving us Details about the word. When babies are born, they always have blue eyes. This is because the melanin, the pigment that colors the eyes, is not on the surface of the iris. Instead, it is within the creases of the iris. Because there is little melanin on the surface of the iris, the eyes appear blue. After a few months, the melanin moves to the surface of the iris. It is the amount of melanin on the surface that determines a person’s permanent eye color, so it is at this point that a baby’s eyes develop the color they will have for a lifetime. 1. The word ‘’pigment’’ in line 2 is closest in the meaning to a. skin b. muscle c. tissue d. color 2. The word ‘’surface’’ in the 2 line 2 is closest in meaning to a. top b. inside c. back d. bottom 3. The word ‘’permanent’’ in line 6 could best be replaced by a. changeable b. lasting c. dark d. possible 4. The word ‘’ point’’ in the 7 could best be replaced by which of the following? a. Dot b. Era c. Time d. Place
  • 15. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION