Teachers need to point out to their students that even they lose focus or “space out” while reading and need to use “fix-up” strategies to repair their understanding.
Reading strategies overview
Karen Silvestri,Instructional Specialist
Reading IS Thinking Active readers“The purpose of reading is ENGAGE with understanding.” the text!
Think about what you read.Develop an awareness of your thinking.Use strategies to help you
1. Connect to the 7. Make Inferences Then Draw Text Conclusions2. Ask Questions 8. Summarize and Synthesize3. Expand Vocabulary 9. Check Your Understanding4. Predict & Prove 10. Build Fluency5. Sense It6. Decide What’s Important
Build a Bridge from the New to the Known Ways to connectText to Self Text to Text Text to World
This reminds me of… This is similar to… The differences are… This part is like… This setting reminds me of… This character makes me think of… I also (name something in the text that also happened to you)…I never (name something in the text that has never happened to you)…
Ask yourself questions as you read!“Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged.When readers ask questions, they clarify understanding andforge ahead to make meaning. Asking questions is at the heartof thoughtful reading.” Harvey and Goudvis What does this mean? What would happen if…? What will happen next? Why did the author
Why….? Why did…? Who is…? What would happen if…? What does this section mean? Do you think that?How is this (detail) like this
“The largerthe reader’s Highlight unknownvocabulary words.(either oral Break confusingor print), the words down.easier it is to Place the word inmake sense its context.of the text.” Keep a list of new
“Research suggests thatwhen students makepredictions theirunderstanding increases andthey are more interested inthe reading material.” Good readers anticipate what’sFielding, Anderson, Pearson,Hanson coming next. When readers predict, they are aware when meaning is breaking down. When an event doesn’t match a prediction, good readers rethink and
I think that… I predict that… I wonder if… I bet that… Reading this part makes me think that this (detail) is about to happen.Since this happened (detail), then I believe the next thing that is going to happen is…
HOW TO PREVIEW READING ASSIGNMENTS Read the title. Check the author and the source of articles and essays. Read the introduction or the first paragraph. Read each boldface (dark print) heading. Read the first sentence under each major heading. Note any typographical aids. Note any graphic aids. Read the last paragraph or summary. Read quickly any end-of-article or end-of-chapter material.
Visualizing: A Tool to Enhance Understanding“Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that enables readersto make the words on a page real and concrete.” Keene and Engage with the text byZimmerman creating pictures in your mind.
“Thoughtfulreaders graspessential ideas and Sort out theimportantinformation when most importantreading. Readersmust differentiate details.between less Highlight theimportant ideasand key ideas that key points in
READING STRATEGY TIP – HIGHLIGHTING Highlight main ideas and only key supporting details. Avoid highlighting complete sentences. Use the 15-25 % rule (highlight no more than 15-25%). Use the highlighter to EMPHASIZE key words. Look for lines that cause you to ask a question Look for lines that you relate to personally Look for lines that strike a chord in you – whether or not you know why! Look for words that confuse you or are unfamiliar.
“Inferring is atThink ahead! the intersection Make a of taking what is known, garnering guess! clues from the Read the text, and thinking ahead toclues and draw make a judgment,
Reading Strategy Tip – Annotating Circle unknown words Mark off definitions with the notation def Mark off examples with the notation ex Number lists of ideas, causes, reasons, or events Place asterisks (*) next to important passages Put question marks next to confusing passages Mark off possible test questions Write comments and notes in the margins Mark off summary statements with the notation sum
Synthesizing is putting togetherseparate parts into a new whole….aprocess akin to working a jigsaw puzzle. What you alreadyHarvey and Goudvis know What you don’t know
READING STRATEGY TIP – SUMMARIZING Highlight or write brief notes on the material. Write one sentence that states the writer’s overall concern or most important idea. Be sure to paraphrase, using your own words rather than those of the author. Review the major supporting information that the author gives to explain the major idea. The amount of detail you include, if any, depends on your purpose for writing the summary. Normally, present ideas in the summary in the same order in which they appeared in the original material. If the writer presents a clear opinion or expresses an attitude toward the subject matter, include it in your summary.
“If confusiondisrupts meaning,readers need tostop and clarify When youtheirunderstanding. start to loseReaders may use avariety of focus, use fix-strategies to “fix up strategies!up”
FIX-UP STRATEGIES Source: Tovani, Cris. Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?A “fix-up” strategy is any strategy used by a reader to help get unstuck when the text becomes confusing.Make a connection between the text and your life, your knowledge of the world, another text.Make a prediction.Stop and think about what you have already read.Ask yourself a question and try to answer it.Reflect in writing about what you have read.
MORE FIX-UP’SUse a highlighter to mark confusing passages.Annotate (notes in the margins).Use sticky notes to write notes on confusing passages or words.Visualize.Retell to someone what you’ve read.Reread.Adjust your reading rate: slow down or speed up.
“Fluency is important because it freesstudents to understand what they read.”Report of the National Reading Panel Active readers are able to read with speed, accuracy, and
STRENGTHENING YOUR COMPREHENSION Analyze the time and place in which you are reading. Rephrase each paragraph in your own words. Read aloud sentences or sections that are particularly difficult. Reread difficult or complicated sections. Slow down your reading rate. Write guide questions next to headings. Write a brief outline of major points. Highlight key ideas. Write notes in the margins (annotate). Determine if you lack background knowledge.