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AFRICA-COCOA CULTIVATION IN
GHANA
Mriganka Ghogle
7th
Marigold
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
• I would like to thank my teacher Ms. Arunima Nandi and Ms. Neha
Jain for giving me the opportunity to make this project. Because of
this project I, am able to understand how Cocoa is made and what
all products can be made by using Cocoa.
• While making this project I also came to know many conditions that
are required for cocoa to be produced and also how it is exported in
the bigger markets. Which country has the highest ratio of
production etc.
• I thank my parents for their guidance and inputs and lastly would like
to once again thank my teacher.
INTRODUCTION
Cocoa is the chief agricultural export of Ghana and Ghana's main cash crop is cocoa .The
world largest irrigation scheme of cocoa is Ivory Coast, Ghana is the second largest cocoa
exporter in the world.Cocoa cultivation is not native to the country; Ghana's cocoa cultivation,
however, is noted within the developing world to be one of the most modeled commodities and
valuables.
Cocoa production occurs in the country's forested areas: Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central
Region, Eastern Region, Western Region, and Volta, where rainfall is 1,000-1,500 millimeters
per year . The crop year begins in October, when purchases of the main crop begin, with a
smaller mid-crop cycle beginning in July.
All cocoa, except that which is smuggled out of the country, is sold at fixed prices to the Cocoa
Marketing Board Although most cocoa production is carried out by peasant farmers on plots of
less than three hectares, a small number of farmers appear to dominate the trade. Some
studies show that about one-fourth of all cocoa farmers receive just over half of total cocoa
income.
With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, primarily
Ghana and Ivory Coast, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in
2018.[9][10] However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing
because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand,
more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor.
HISTORY OF COCOA CULTIVATION
In 1979 the Ghana government-initiated reform of the cocoa sector, focusing on the
government's role in controlling the industry through the Cocoa Marketing Board. The
board was dissolved and reconstituted as the Ghana Cocoa Board (Cocobod).
In the early 1990s, Cocobod continued to liberalize and to privatize cocoa marketing. The
board raised prices to producers and introduced a new system providing greater incentives
for private traders. Until the early 1990s, an estimated 40 hectares continued to be added
to the total area of 800,000 hectares under cocoa production each
year Ghana's cocoa production grew an average of 16% between 2000–03.
Cocoa has a long production cycle, far longer than many other tropical crops, and new
hybrid varieties need over five years to come into production, and a further 10 to 15 years
for the tree to reach its full bearing potential. The reasons for this huge production increase
are varied and in fact Ghana's cocoa yields per hectare are still low by international
standards.
COCOA CULTIVATION IN
GHANA –
GEOGRAPHICAL
FACTOR FAVORING THE
CULTIVATION
1) Cocoa Needs Tropical climate to
grow which is why cocoa can be
grown easily in Ghana due to its
geographical characteristics.
2) Lake Volta is the largest Inland
water body which helps for the
irrigation facility during prolonged
dry period. As the plant needs 90-
100 MM of rainfall every month with
an annual rainfall of 1500-2000 MM.
COCOA CULTIVATION IN
GHANA – ECONOMIC
FACTOR FAVORING THE
CULTIVATION
1) The government tried to increase
Ghana's productivity from 300
kilograms per hectare to
compete with Southeast Asian
productivity of almost 1,000
kilograms per hectare.
2) A major program to upgrade
existing roads and to construct
3,000 kilometers of new feeder
roads was launched to ease the
transportation and sale of cocoa
from some of the more neglected
but very fertile growing areas on
the border with Ivory Coast.
PROCESS OF
COCOA
1) A plant is planted which grows in
a matured Tree.
2) It produces fruits which are
dried, also known as cacao.
3) These dried fruits gives out
multiple small beans called coco
beans.
4) These beans are fine grinded
into Coco powder.
5) Later this power is used to make
different products.
PRODUCTS
MANUFACTUR
ED FROM
COCOA
1) Cocoa Butter
2) Cocoa butter fat and oil
3) Cookies
4) Cadbury chocolate
5) Pies and cakes
COCOA PRODUCTION AND EXPORT
Cocoa
Production
Cocoa
Export
2.9 Million
tones (1995)
-20% (1997)
4.4 Million
tones (2016)
48% (2004)
• First the trend of annual cocoa
production and export in the world
measured in tones and the share
of cocoa production and export
from Ghana as a percentage of
world production and export
between 1995 and 2016.
• The annual production of cocoa in
Ghana has increased by 112%,
from 404 thousand metric tons in
1995 to 859 thousand metric tons
in 2016, representing an average
year-over-year production
increase of 5.3%.
CONCLUSION
• Ghana is a major supplier of the cocoa crop in the world.
• Ghana recorded over 75% average annual cocoa export as a percentage of domestic cocoa
bean output.
• Ghana‘s cocoa export as a percentage of world export has fluctuated and decreased from 13%
in 1995 to 10.9 % in 1997 and 10.4% in 2010 and drastically increased to 19.31% in 2013.
• Cocoa exports from Ghana are made up of five products, classified into: raw, semi-processed
and processed products. Ghana exports cocoa beans, cocoa butter, cocoa powder, cocoa paste
and cocoa husks (shells), with export of the latter commencing in the year 1986.
• In spite of efforts by the government to increase value added in its export of cocoa, less that 20%
of cocoa exports for the period 1995-2013 were processed. This implies that, at least 80% of all
cocoa exports of the country are in the raw form.
• The highest achievement in value addition by quantity so far was in the year 1996, where 33,
496 of all cocoa exports were processed
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Information reference- Geography text book
Images and other information reference- Internet
Parental inputs and self research.

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Geography project

  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • I would like to thank my teacher Ms. Arunima Nandi and Ms. Neha Jain for giving me the opportunity to make this project. Because of this project I, am able to understand how Cocoa is made and what all products can be made by using Cocoa. • While making this project I also came to know many conditions that are required for cocoa to be produced and also how it is exported in the bigger markets. Which country has the highest ratio of production etc. • I thank my parents for their guidance and inputs and lastly would like to once again thank my teacher.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Cocoa is the chief agricultural export of Ghana and Ghana's main cash crop is cocoa .The world largest irrigation scheme of cocoa is Ivory Coast, Ghana is the second largest cocoa exporter in the world.Cocoa cultivation is not native to the country; Ghana's cocoa cultivation, however, is noted within the developing world to be one of the most modeled commodities and valuables. Cocoa production occurs in the country's forested areas: Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central Region, Eastern Region, Western Region, and Volta, where rainfall is 1,000-1,500 millimeters per year . The crop year begins in October, when purchases of the main crop begin, with a smaller mid-crop cycle beginning in July. All cocoa, except that which is smuggled out of the country, is sold at fixed prices to the Cocoa Marketing Board Although most cocoa production is carried out by peasant farmers on plots of less than three hectares, a small number of farmers appear to dominate the trade. Some studies show that about one-fourth of all cocoa farmers receive just over half of total cocoa income. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, primarily Ghana and Ivory Coast, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018.[9][10] However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor.
  • 4. HISTORY OF COCOA CULTIVATION In 1979 the Ghana government-initiated reform of the cocoa sector, focusing on the government's role in controlling the industry through the Cocoa Marketing Board. The board was dissolved and reconstituted as the Ghana Cocoa Board (Cocobod). In the early 1990s, Cocobod continued to liberalize and to privatize cocoa marketing. The board raised prices to producers and introduced a new system providing greater incentives for private traders. Until the early 1990s, an estimated 40 hectares continued to be added to the total area of 800,000 hectares under cocoa production each year Ghana's cocoa production grew an average of 16% between 2000–03. Cocoa has a long production cycle, far longer than many other tropical crops, and new hybrid varieties need over five years to come into production, and a further 10 to 15 years for the tree to reach its full bearing potential. The reasons for this huge production increase are varied and in fact Ghana's cocoa yields per hectare are still low by international standards.
  • 5. COCOA CULTIVATION IN GHANA – GEOGRAPHICAL FACTOR FAVORING THE CULTIVATION 1) Cocoa Needs Tropical climate to grow which is why cocoa can be grown easily in Ghana due to its geographical characteristics. 2) Lake Volta is the largest Inland water body which helps for the irrigation facility during prolonged dry period. As the plant needs 90- 100 MM of rainfall every month with an annual rainfall of 1500-2000 MM.
  • 6. COCOA CULTIVATION IN GHANA – ECONOMIC FACTOR FAVORING THE CULTIVATION 1) The government tried to increase Ghana's productivity from 300 kilograms per hectare to compete with Southeast Asian productivity of almost 1,000 kilograms per hectare. 2) A major program to upgrade existing roads and to construct 3,000 kilometers of new feeder roads was launched to ease the transportation and sale of cocoa from some of the more neglected but very fertile growing areas on the border with Ivory Coast.
  • 7. PROCESS OF COCOA 1) A plant is planted which grows in a matured Tree. 2) It produces fruits which are dried, also known as cacao. 3) These dried fruits gives out multiple small beans called coco beans. 4) These beans are fine grinded into Coco powder. 5) Later this power is used to make different products.
  • 8. PRODUCTS MANUFACTUR ED FROM COCOA 1) Cocoa Butter 2) Cocoa butter fat and oil 3) Cookies 4) Cadbury chocolate 5) Pies and cakes
  • 9. COCOA PRODUCTION AND EXPORT Cocoa Production Cocoa Export 2.9 Million tones (1995) -20% (1997) 4.4 Million tones (2016) 48% (2004) • First the trend of annual cocoa production and export in the world measured in tones and the share of cocoa production and export from Ghana as a percentage of world production and export between 1995 and 2016. • The annual production of cocoa in Ghana has increased by 112%, from 404 thousand metric tons in 1995 to 859 thousand metric tons in 2016, representing an average year-over-year production increase of 5.3%.
  • 10. CONCLUSION • Ghana is a major supplier of the cocoa crop in the world. • Ghana recorded over 75% average annual cocoa export as a percentage of domestic cocoa bean output. • Ghana‘s cocoa export as a percentage of world export has fluctuated and decreased from 13% in 1995 to 10.9 % in 1997 and 10.4% in 2010 and drastically increased to 19.31% in 2013. • Cocoa exports from Ghana are made up of five products, classified into: raw, semi-processed and processed products. Ghana exports cocoa beans, cocoa butter, cocoa powder, cocoa paste and cocoa husks (shells), with export of the latter commencing in the year 1986. • In spite of efforts by the government to increase value added in its export of cocoa, less that 20% of cocoa exports for the period 1995-2013 were processed. This implies that, at least 80% of all cocoa exports of the country are in the raw form. • The highest achievement in value addition by quantity so far was in the year 1996, where 33, 496 of all cocoa exports were processed
  • 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY Information reference- Geography text book Images and other information reference- Internet Parental inputs and self research.