SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A Geography Of
Digital Earth
George Percivall
Digital Earth Office
percivall@gsfc.nasa.gov
14-Nov-01 p1
Digital Earth
•A virtual representation of our planet that
enables a person to explore and interact
with the vast amounts of natural and
cultural information gathered about the
Earth
–multi-resolution
–three-dimensional representation
•Surface of the earth as the organizing
metaphor for a vast amount of data
14-Nov-01 p2
Public
Tools &
Technology
Tools &
Technology
Enabling Citizens
and Communities
Enabling Citizens
and Communities
Interoperability
Interoperability
Collecting Data
Collecting Data
EARTH
EARTH
P
r
i
v
a
t
e
Digital Earth
Digital Resources
Digital Resources
Applications
Applications
14-Nov-01 p3
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Adapted from “A Theory of Computer Semiotics”, Peter Andersen, Cambridge Press, 1997
Definitions from ANSI Dictionary of Information Technology, www.ncits.org
A Geography for Digital Earth
Compression of redundancies
Representation is described
Data with meaning assigned
Integrated model of information
Pragmatic application of knowledge
Goals of multiple stakeholders
A representation subject to interpretation
14-Nov-01 p4
A Geography for Digital Earth
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Decision Support
Phenomena Location
Vladimir and Estragon
Models, Agents,
and Knowledge
Fusion and
Assimilation
Content is King? Where in DE are you?
How big is DE? The world is wired
14-Nov-01 p5
The World is Wired and Wireless
• Internet is Pervasive
–IPV6 - nearly 1,600 addresses/sq-m of the earth
~ 1 per sq inch
• Gilder’s law: Deployed bandwidth triples every year
• Wired bandwidth
–Gigabit Ethernet now, Terabit Ethernet in 2008
–Landsat scene transfer: 1 per sec now, 1000 per sec in 2008
• Wireless bandwidth
–4th generation Wireless: 10 to 100 megabit/second (2010)
–Full motion video on wireless devices
• Deployment will take time
–Necessary for Digital Earth access points in public places like
museums
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
14-Nov-01 p6
The Digital Earth — Varying Scales
e.g.
Land Use
Demographics
Global Climate
Sea Surface Temperature
Digital Elevation
HUMANITY
HUMANITY
e.g.
Food and Fiber
Disaster Preparedness
Biodiversity
Coastal Sensitivity
COUNTRY
COUNTRY
e.g.
Smart Growth
Public Health
Disaster Response
Transportation Planning
Weather
COMMUNITY
COMMUNITY
e.g.
Education
Decision Making
Enhanced Living
Information
INDIVIDUAL
INDIVIDUAL
Vision
Initiative
NASA Program
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
14-Nov-01 p7
• All recorded information:
~ several exabytes
• Most data has geographic
component
• DE ~ an exabyte
Yotta
Zetta
Exa
Peta
Tera
Giga
Mega
Kilo
How big is DE?
A Book
A Book
.Movie
All LoC books
(words) 20 TB
All Books
MultiMedia
Everything!
Recorded
A Photo
A Photo
Data
Archive
NASA
EOSDIS
Digital
Earth
Map
Satellite
Image
www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html
• Archive organization
–Image products in collections
–CEOS Census: millions of collections
–On-line collections: 10’s of thousands
–Collections cataloged
• Need to get data on-line
14-Nov-01 p8
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Moving Digital Earth online
• Progression of Storage Technology
–Disk technology is overtaking tapes
–EOSDIS data moving from tape to disk
–In ten years RAM will cost what disk costs today
• Hurdles to moving online: technical, legal, business
–Technical issues of accessibility - geocoding,
geographic access standards
–“Government commercialization” concerns
–Owners fear intellectual property will be stolen.
–Need for copy-protection & payment schemes
–Privacy Impact Assessment
“Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering,” March 2000, Microsoft Technical Report, MS-TR-99-100
“Data Policy Issues and Barriers to Using Commercial Resources” Rand Doc No: DB-247-NASA/OSTP, 1999
14-Nov-01 p9
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Finding value in DE Data
• Technology will allow us to store every thing
–In only a few years, we will be able save everything,
no information will have to be thrown out
–Human attention is the scarce resource
–Most of this data will never be looked at by a human being
• Domain Semantics
–Needs to have representation with the data, I.e. information
–Geography Markup Language
–Information communities, semantic nets, RDF
• Enables auto-summarization
–Mining based on geographic concepts
–Feature Tracking
–Feature Classification - Feature Type Catalogs
ADaM data mining engine, http://datamining.itsc.uah.edu/environment.html
14-Nov-01 p10
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Is Content King in Digital Earth?
• Economics of a telecommunications medium
–“Content is King” vs. “Commodity Pipelines”
–Broadcast content is most of the data volume
–Point to point communications is most of the dollars
• Content is King in DE
–Professionally developed content from data centers
• Commodity Pipelines prevails in DE
–Individuals providing information from a geographic location
• Need for geographic device directory, e.g., dot-geo
• cellular Cams, GPS and Virtualized Reality (CMU)
–Sensor webs
• The need for geographic reference
“The history of communications and its implications for the Internet,” Odlyzko, AT&T Labs
14-Nov-01 p11
• Coordinate Reference Systems
–Mature technology including ISO standards
–Registries for specific coordinate reference systems
• Overlay of multi-site 2-D data
–Standardized using OGC Web Mapping Service (WMS)
– “Digital Earth will do for georeferenced information what the
World Wide Web did for text and multimedia” - Jeff de La
Beaujardiere
Knowing where you are in DE
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
• Merging multi-site 3-D and 4-D data
–Demonstrated as research
–Standards needed
14-Nov-01 p12
Knowing where you are in DE
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Space Time Toolkit: http://vast.uah.edu/
• Merging multi-site 3-D and 4-D data
–Demonstrated as research
–Standards needed
14-Nov-01 p13
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Fusion and Assimilation
• Data Fusion
–combine remote sensing data with other sources of geospatial
information to improve the understanding of specific
phenomena.
–Fusion Levels: Pixel, Features, Decisions
• Data Assimilation
–melding observations with model simulations to provide
accurate estimation of the state of the atmosphere, oceans,
and land-surface, etc.
• Models
–Simulations of a given topic
–Geographic models utilize coordinate reference systems
–Metadata for models to enable interoperability
14-Nov-01 p14
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Models, Agents, and Knowledge
• Agents
–Software that runs without direct human control to accomplish
goals provided by a user
–Agents collect, filter and process information found on the
Web, sometimes with the help of other agents.
• Process Semantics
–Define automated interaction of Agents and Models
–W3C activity - Semantic Web:
• Use rules to make inferences, choose courses of action and
answer questions
–Digital Earth is a Geographic Semantic Web
• Geospatial linkages are well understood semantics
• Needed technology
–Geographic Ontologies
–Software interoperability stack
14-Nov-01 p15
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Catalog
Catalog
Catalogs Geoprocessing
Services
Features
Other
Content Repositories
Coverages
D i r e c t
data
access
Pictures / maps /
Transformed data
Metadata Update
M e t a d a t a s e a r c h
a n d r e t r i e v a l
User
Applications
Middleware
Agents
Servers
And Models
S e r v i c e C h a i n i n g
Interoperability Stack
Digital Earth Reference Model
14-Nov-01 p16
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Decision Support Systems
``Interactive system to help decision makers
select options”
–Large quantities of space-time data
–Models for predicting results of alternative policy choices
–Display the results in easily understood ways to multiple
communities
• Technology Progression
–Many models and DSS environments exist in close solutions
–Need for distributed DSS, scripting, workflow
• DE supports multiple decision making methods
–Content is King - professional data bases, models, and
decision processes
–Simple Pipes - point to point communications about the state of
the earth will enable inform the democratic decision process
14-Nov-01 p17
A Geography for Digital Earth
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Decision Support
Phenomena Place
Vladimir and Estragon
Models, Agents,
and Knowledge
Fusion and
Assimilation
Content is King?
Where in DE are
you?
How big is DE? The world is wired
14-Nov-01 p18
Waiting for Godot,
by Samuel Beckett
Vladimir: Well? Shall we go?
Estragon: Yes, let’s go
They do not move
Curtain
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
Final Scene: Two men along a country road
14-Nov-01 p19
Waiting for Godot,
in Digital Earth
Final Scene: Two men along a country road
Vladimir: Well? Shall we go?
Estragon: Yes, let’s go
They depart
Curtain
Decisions
Knowledge
Information
Data
14-Nov-01 p20
Questions?
Questions?

More Related Content

What's hot

Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to Know
Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to KnowFive Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to Know
Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to KnowAzavea
 
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, Techviser
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, TechviserBig Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, Techviser
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, TechviserAngela Hey
 
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide Studies
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide StudiesGIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide Studies
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide StudiesJoshua Campbell
 
ForksGIS - Continuing to Grow
ForksGIS - Continuing to GrowForksGIS - Continuing to Grow
ForksGIS - Continuing to Growfireflytza
 
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.Clinton Jones
 
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)Siva Mbbs
 

What's hot (8)

Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to Know
Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to KnowFive Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to Know
Five Technology Trends Every Nonprofit Needs to Know
 
A Brief History Of Data
A Brief History Of DataA Brief History Of Data
A Brief History Of Data
 
Big Data
Big Data Big Data
Big Data
 
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, Techviser
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, TechviserBig Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, Techviser
Big Data - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow by John Mashey, Techviser
 
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide Studies
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide StudiesGIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide Studies
GIS 2.0: Impacts on Humanitarian Affairs and Genocide Studies
 
ForksGIS - Continuing to Grow
ForksGIS - Continuing to GrowForksGIS - Continuing to Grow
ForksGIS - Continuing to Grow
 
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.
Visualizing history - A proposal for Augmentive Drones in Archaeology.
 
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
 

Similar to Geography of Digital Earth

Intro To Geospatial
Intro To GeospatialIntro To Geospatial
Intro To Geospatialdanrickman
 
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of Monash
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of MonashThe Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of Monash
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of MonashSteven Truman
 
2017 Global Trends in Standards
2017 Global Trends in Standards2017 Global Trends in Standards
2017 Global Trends in StandardsPLACE
 
Thinking spatially with your open data
Thinking spatially with your open dataThinking spatially with your open data
Thinking spatially with your open dataTwinbit
 
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open data
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open dataDrupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open data
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open dataDrupalDay
 
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial ObservationsScientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations George Percivall
 
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...InfinIT - Innovationsnetværket for it
 
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart Nation
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart NationSingapore 3D Map for a Smart Nation
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart NationMonica Moran
 
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWG
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWGNIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWG
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWGGeoffrey Fox
 
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007Alastair Dunning
 
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND dHSA
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND  dHSAPIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND  dHSA
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND dHSAFloridaTLaoaten
 
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time Information
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time InformationDealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time Information
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time InformationEdward Curry
 
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research Opportunities
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research OpportunitiesData Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research Opportunities
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research OpportunitiesKathirvel Ayyaswamy
 

Similar to Geography of Digital Earth (20)

Intro To Geospatial
Intro To GeospatialIntro To Geospatial
Intro To Geospatial
 
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of Monash
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of MonashThe Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of Monash
The Use of GIS in Local Government - The City of Monash
 
2017 Global Trends in Standards
2017 Global Trends in Standards2017 Global Trends in Standards
2017 Global Trends in Standards
 
Thinking spatially with your open data
Thinking spatially with your open dataThinking spatially with your open data
Thinking spatially with your open data
 
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open data
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open dataDrupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open data
Drupal Day 2011 - Thinking spatially with your open data
 
NSDI_ Concepts and Components
NSDI_ Concepts and ComponentsNSDI_ Concepts and Components
NSDI_ Concepts and Components
 
Env. mon
Env. monEnv. mon
Env. mon
 
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial ObservationsScientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations
Scientific Knowledge from Geospatial Observations
 
gis.pdf
gis.pdfgis.pdf
gis.pdf
 
gis.pdf
gis.pdfgis.pdf
gis.pdf
 
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...
Extracting Value from Big Data - The Case Vehicular Traffic Data by Christian...
 
Internet of Things
Internet of ThingsInternet of Things
Internet of Things
 
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart Nation
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart NationSingapore 3D Map for a Smart Nation
Singapore 3D Map for a Smart Nation
 
What is gis
What is gisWhat is gis
What is gis
 
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWG
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWGNIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWG
NIST Big Data Public Working Group NBD-PWG
 
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
 
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND dHSA
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND  dHSAPIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND  dHSA
PIAS 2013-GIS.pptxfskjczjsbchdbfscnnND dHSA
 
Open Data is not Enough
Open Data is not EnoughOpen Data is not Enough
Open Data is not Enough
 
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time Information
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time InformationDealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time Information
Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity in Real-Time Information
 
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research Opportunities
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research OpportunitiesData Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research Opportunities
Data Mining and Big Data Challenges and Research Opportunities
 

More from George Percivall

Golden Age of Geospatial Data Science
Golden Age of Geospatial Data ScienceGolden Age of Geospatial Data Science
Golden Age of Geospatial Data ScienceGeorge Percivall
 
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-Rex
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-RexOGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-Rex
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-RexGeorge Percivall
 
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation George Percivall
 
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open Standards
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open StandardsBig Geo Data: Open Source and Open Standards
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open StandardsGeorge Percivall
 
Geospatial innovation along four dimensions
Geospatial innovation along four dimensionsGeospatial innovation along four dimensions
Geospatial innovation along four dimensionsGeorge Percivall
 
Big Data for Local Context
Big Data for Local ContextBig Data for Local Context
Big Data for Local ContextGeorge Percivall
 
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11George Percivall
 
Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing
Common Approach for UAS Data GeoprocessingCommon Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing
Common Approach for UAS Data GeoprocessingGeorge Percivall
 
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-Geoinformatics
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-GeoinformaticsProgress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-Geoinformatics
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-GeoinformaticsGeorge Percivall
 
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and access
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and accessManual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and access
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and accessGeorge Percivall
 
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspective
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspectiveCyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspective
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspectiveGeorge Percivall
 
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)George Percivall
 
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information Standards
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information StandardsTime, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information Standards
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information StandardsGeorge Percivall
 
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...George Percivall
 
OGC standards relevant to ISPRS
OGC standards relevant to ISPRSOGC standards relevant to ISPRS
OGC standards relevant to ISPRSGeorge Percivall
 
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and Standards
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and StandardsInnovation in Geospatial Technology and Standards
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and StandardsGeorge Percivall
 
The power of location information for mobile
The power of location information for mobileThe power of location information for mobile
The power of location information for mobileGeorge Percivall
 
Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)
 Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013) Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)
Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)George Percivall
 
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:George Percivall
 
Location Based Services update for Small Cell Forum
Location Based Services update for Small Cell ForumLocation Based Services update for Small Cell Forum
Location Based Services update for Small Cell ForumGeorge Percivall
 

More from George Percivall (20)

Golden Age of Geospatial Data Science
Golden Age of Geospatial Data ScienceGolden Age of Geospatial Data Science
Golden Age of Geospatial Data Science
 
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-Rex
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-RexOGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-Rex
OGC Update for State of Geospatial Tech at T-Rex
 
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation
Analysis Ready Data workshop - OGC presentation
 
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open Standards
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open StandardsBig Geo Data: Open Source and Open Standards
Big Geo Data: Open Source and Open Standards
 
Geospatial innovation along four dimensions
Geospatial innovation along four dimensionsGeospatial innovation along four dimensions
Geospatial innovation along four dimensions
 
Big Data for Local Context
Big Data for Local ContextBig Data for Local Context
Big Data for Local Context
 
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11
Climate Data Sharing for Urban Resilience - OGC Testbed 11
 
Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing
Common Approach for UAS Data GeoprocessingCommon Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing
Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing
 
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-Geoinformatics
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-GeoinformaticsProgress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-Geoinformatics
Progress towards Open Standards-Based Agro-Geoinformatics
 
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and access
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and accessManual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and access
Manual on Remote Sensing v4 - Chapter 6 archive and access
 
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspective
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspectiveCyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspective
CyberGIS Architectures for Collaborative Problem Solving - OGC perspective
 
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)
Geospatial Temporal Open Standards for Big Data from Space (BiDS2014)
 
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information Standards
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information StandardsTime, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information Standards
Time, Change and Habits in Geospatial-Temporal Information Standards
 
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...
Urban IoT for Smart Cities: New Pathways to Business and Location Intelligenc...
 
OGC standards relevant to ISPRS
OGC standards relevant to ISPRSOGC standards relevant to ISPRS
OGC standards relevant to ISPRS
 
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and Standards
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and StandardsInnovation in Geospatial Technology and Standards
Innovation in Geospatial Technology and Standards
 
The power of location information for mobile
The power of location information for mobileThe power of location information for mobile
The power of location information for mobile
 
Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)
 Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013) Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)
Open Standards Role in EarthCube (AGU 2013)
 
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:
The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:
 
Location Based Services update for Small Cell Forum
Location Based Services update for Small Cell ForumLocation Based Services update for Small Cell Forum
Location Based Services update for Small Cell Forum
 

Recently uploaded

mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategyMansiBishnoi1
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Sérgio Sacani
 
Application of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In BiotechnologyApplication of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In BiotechnologyBhanu Krishan
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionAreesha Ahmad
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxCherry
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPirithiRaju
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinathmuralinath2
 
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)Areesha Ahmad
 
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...frank0071
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent Universitypablovgd
 
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 RpWASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 RpSérgio Sacani
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Sérgio Sacani
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPirithiRaju
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxCherry
 
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptx
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptxKOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptx
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptxOmoniyiDayo
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeAreesha Ahmad
 
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversityINSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversitySteffi Friedrichs
 
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxIsolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxGOWTHAMIM22
 
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of Bengal
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of BengalTopography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of Bengal
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of BengalMd Hasan Tareq
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
 
Application of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In BiotechnologyApplication of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
 
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab 2 (Compound Microscope)
 
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
 
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 RpWASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
 
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptx
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptxKOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptx
KOCH'S POSTULATE: an extensive over view.pptx
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
 
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversityINSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
 
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptxIsolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
Isolation of AMF by wet sieving and decantation method pptx
 
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of Bengal
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of BengalTopography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of Bengal
Topography and sediments of the floor of the Bay of Bengal
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
 

Geography of Digital Earth

  • 1. A Geography Of Digital Earth George Percivall Digital Earth Office percivall@gsfc.nasa.gov
  • 2. 14-Nov-01 p1 Digital Earth •A virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural information gathered about the Earth –multi-resolution –three-dimensional representation •Surface of the earth as the organizing metaphor for a vast amount of data
  • 3. 14-Nov-01 p2 Public Tools & Technology Tools & Technology Enabling Citizens and Communities Enabling Citizens and Communities Interoperability Interoperability Collecting Data Collecting Data EARTH EARTH P r i v a t e Digital Earth Digital Resources Digital Resources Applications Applications
  • 4. 14-Nov-01 p3 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Adapted from “A Theory of Computer Semiotics”, Peter Andersen, Cambridge Press, 1997 Definitions from ANSI Dictionary of Information Technology, www.ncits.org A Geography for Digital Earth Compression of redundancies Representation is described Data with meaning assigned Integrated model of information Pragmatic application of knowledge Goals of multiple stakeholders A representation subject to interpretation
  • 5. 14-Nov-01 p4 A Geography for Digital Earth Decisions Knowledge Information Data Decision Support Phenomena Location Vladimir and Estragon Models, Agents, and Knowledge Fusion and Assimilation Content is King? Where in DE are you? How big is DE? The world is wired
  • 6. 14-Nov-01 p5 The World is Wired and Wireless • Internet is Pervasive –IPV6 - nearly 1,600 addresses/sq-m of the earth ~ 1 per sq inch • Gilder’s law: Deployed bandwidth triples every year • Wired bandwidth –Gigabit Ethernet now, Terabit Ethernet in 2008 –Landsat scene transfer: 1 per sec now, 1000 per sec in 2008 • Wireless bandwidth –4th generation Wireless: 10 to 100 megabit/second (2010) –Full motion video on wireless devices • Deployment will take time –Necessary for Digital Earth access points in public places like museums Decisions Knowledge Information Data
  • 7. 14-Nov-01 p6 The Digital Earth — Varying Scales e.g. Land Use Demographics Global Climate Sea Surface Temperature Digital Elevation HUMANITY HUMANITY e.g. Food and Fiber Disaster Preparedness Biodiversity Coastal Sensitivity COUNTRY COUNTRY e.g. Smart Growth Public Health Disaster Response Transportation Planning Weather COMMUNITY COMMUNITY e.g. Education Decision Making Enhanced Living Information INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL Vision Initiative NASA Program Decisions Knowledge Information Data
  • 8. 14-Nov-01 p7 • All recorded information: ~ several exabytes • Most data has geographic component • DE ~ an exabyte Yotta Zetta Exa Peta Tera Giga Mega Kilo How big is DE? A Book A Book .Movie All LoC books (words) 20 TB All Books MultiMedia Everything! Recorded A Photo A Photo Data Archive NASA EOSDIS Digital Earth Map Satellite Image www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html • Archive organization –Image products in collections –CEOS Census: millions of collections –On-line collections: 10’s of thousands –Collections cataloged • Need to get data on-line
  • 9. 14-Nov-01 p8 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Moving Digital Earth online • Progression of Storage Technology –Disk technology is overtaking tapes –EOSDIS data moving from tape to disk –In ten years RAM will cost what disk costs today • Hurdles to moving online: technical, legal, business –Technical issues of accessibility - geocoding, geographic access standards –“Government commercialization” concerns –Owners fear intellectual property will be stolen. –Need for copy-protection & payment schemes –Privacy Impact Assessment “Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering,” March 2000, Microsoft Technical Report, MS-TR-99-100 “Data Policy Issues and Barriers to Using Commercial Resources” Rand Doc No: DB-247-NASA/OSTP, 1999
  • 10. 14-Nov-01 p9 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Finding value in DE Data • Technology will allow us to store every thing –In only a few years, we will be able save everything, no information will have to be thrown out –Human attention is the scarce resource –Most of this data will never be looked at by a human being • Domain Semantics –Needs to have representation with the data, I.e. information –Geography Markup Language –Information communities, semantic nets, RDF • Enables auto-summarization –Mining based on geographic concepts –Feature Tracking –Feature Classification - Feature Type Catalogs ADaM data mining engine, http://datamining.itsc.uah.edu/environment.html
  • 11. 14-Nov-01 p10 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Is Content King in Digital Earth? • Economics of a telecommunications medium –“Content is King” vs. “Commodity Pipelines” –Broadcast content is most of the data volume –Point to point communications is most of the dollars • Content is King in DE –Professionally developed content from data centers • Commodity Pipelines prevails in DE –Individuals providing information from a geographic location • Need for geographic device directory, e.g., dot-geo • cellular Cams, GPS and Virtualized Reality (CMU) –Sensor webs • The need for geographic reference “The history of communications and its implications for the Internet,” Odlyzko, AT&T Labs
  • 12. 14-Nov-01 p11 • Coordinate Reference Systems –Mature technology including ISO standards –Registries for specific coordinate reference systems • Overlay of multi-site 2-D data –Standardized using OGC Web Mapping Service (WMS) – “Digital Earth will do for georeferenced information what the World Wide Web did for text and multimedia” - Jeff de La Beaujardiere Knowing where you are in DE Decisions Knowledge Information Data • Merging multi-site 3-D and 4-D data –Demonstrated as research –Standards needed
  • 13. 14-Nov-01 p12 Knowing where you are in DE Decisions Knowledge Information Data Space Time Toolkit: http://vast.uah.edu/ • Merging multi-site 3-D and 4-D data –Demonstrated as research –Standards needed
  • 14. 14-Nov-01 p13 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Fusion and Assimilation • Data Fusion –combine remote sensing data with other sources of geospatial information to improve the understanding of specific phenomena. –Fusion Levels: Pixel, Features, Decisions • Data Assimilation –melding observations with model simulations to provide accurate estimation of the state of the atmosphere, oceans, and land-surface, etc. • Models –Simulations of a given topic –Geographic models utilize coordinate reference systems –Metadata for models to enable interoperability
  • 15. 14-Nov-01 p14 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Models, Agents, and Knowledge • Agents –Software that runs without direct human control to accomplish goals provided by a user –Agents collect, filter and process information found on the Web, sometimes with the help of other agents. • Process Semantics –Define automated interaction of Agents and Models –W3C activity - Semantic Web: • Use rules to make inferences, choose courses of action and answer questions –Digital Earth is a Geographic Semantic Web • Geospatial linkages are well understood semantics • Needed technology –Geographic Ontologies –Software interoperability stack
  • 16. 14-Nov-01 p15 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Catalog Catalog Catalogs Geoprocessing Services Features Other Content Repositories Coverages D i r e c t data access Pictures / maps / Transformed data Metadata Update M e t a d a t a s e a r c h a n d r e t r i e v a l User Applications Middleware Agents Servers And Models S e r v i c e C h a i n i n g Interoperability Stack Digital Earth Reference Model
  • 17. 14-Nov-01 p16 Decisions Knowledge Information Data Decision Support Systems ``Interactive system to help decision makers select options” –Large quantities of space-time data –Models for predicting results of alternative policy choices –Display the results in easily understood ways to multiple communities • Technology Progression –Many models and DSS environments exist in close solutions –Need for distributed DSS, scripting, workflow • DE supports multiple decision making methods –Content is King - professional data bases, models, and decision processes –Simple Pipes - point to point communications about the state of the earth will enable inform the democratic decision process
  • 18. 14-Nov-01 p17 A Geography for Digital Earth Decisions Knowledge Information Data Decision Support Phenomena Place Vladimir and Estragon Models, Agents, and Knowledge Fusion and Assimilation Content is King? Where in DE are you? How big is DE? The world is wired
  • 19. 14-Nov-01 p18 Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett Vladimir: Well? Shall we go? Estragon: Yes, let’s go They do not move Curtain Decisions Knowledge Information Data Final Scene: Two men along a country road
  • 20. 14-Nov-01 p19 Waiting for Godot, in Digital Earth Final Scene: Two men along a country road Vladimir: Well? Shall we go? Estragon: Yes, let’s go They depart Curtain Decisions Knowledge Information Data