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PPT-40
Green Earth Movement
An E-Newsletter for the cause of Environment, Peace, Harmony and Justice
Remember - “you and I can decide the future”
ENDANGERED CORAL REEFS
Coral reefs are diverse underwater
ecosystems held together by calcium
carbonate structures secreted
by corals. Coral reefs are built by colonies
of tiny animals found in marine waters that
contain few nutrients.
Most coral reefs
are built from stony
corals, which in turn
consist of polyps that
cluster in groups.
Tropical coral reefs are very productive ecosystems.
Not only are do they support enormous biodiversity,
they are also of immense value to humankind.
Latest estimates suggest coral reefs provide close to
US$30 billion each year in goods and services.
Fisheries: Coral reefs are vital to the world’s
fisheries. They form the nurseries for about a
quarter of the ocean's fish, and thus provide
revenue for local communities
as well as national and
international fishing fleets.
An estimated one billion
people have some
dependence on coral reefs
for food and income from fishing. If properly
managed, reefs can yield around 15 tonnes of fish
and other seafood per square kilometre each year.
Tourism: Tourism revenues generated by coral reefs
are also significant. For example, according to a report
by the Key West chamber of commerce, tourists
visiting the Florida Keys in the US generate at least
US$3 billion dollars in annual income, while
Australia’s Great Barrier Reef generates well over
US$1 billion per year.
Sustainably managed
Coral reef-based tourism
can also provide
significant alternative or
additional sources of
income to poorer
coastal communities in developing countries.
Coastal protection: Coral reefs break the power of the
waves during storms, hurricanes, typhoons, and even
tsumanis. By helping to prevent coastal erosion,
flooding, and loss of property on the shore, the reefs
save billions of dollars each
year in terms of reduced
insurance and
reconstruction costs and
reduced need to build
costly coastal defences –
not to mention the reduced human cost of
destruction and displacement.
Source of medical advances: We can also
expect coral reef species to contribute to future
medical advances. Already coral reef organisms
are being used in treatments for diseases like
cancer and HIV. Just as with
tropical forests, we may
continue to find the answers
to medical problems in the
coral reefs - so long as we can
keep them healthy.
Intrinsic value: For many coastal societies around the
world, coral reefs and their inhabitants are intricately
woven into cultural traditions. For these people - as
well as for those who have floated with a mask and
snorkel, immersed themselves in the three
dimensional wonderland of a scuba dive, or
experienced these habitats through media and books
- a world without coral reefs would be an infinitely
poorer place.
Types of Coral Reefs
Most reef scientists generally recognize three
MAJOR types of coral reefs: Fringing
Reefs, Barrier Reefs, and Atolls. The traditional
and most widely recognized basis for
differentiating these reef types is large-
scale reef.
Fringing Reefs (Shore Reefs)
Fringing reefs are reefs that
grow directly from a shore.
While there may be areas of
shallow intertidal or sub-tidal
sand bottom lying between the
beach and the inshore edge of
coral growth, there is no lagoon between the reef and
shore. Increasing human populations in coastal areas -
and the accompanying increases in coastal development
and intensive agriculture - have resulted in the
decimation of fringing reefs throughout the world in
recent years.
.
Barrier Reefs
Barrier reefs are extensive linear reef complexes that
parallel a shore, and are separated from it by lagoon.
Barrier reefs are far less common than fringing reefs
or atolls, although examples can be found in the
tropical Atlantic as well as the Pacific. The 1200-mile
long Great Barrier Reef off the NE coast of Australia is
the world's largest example of this reef type.
Atolls
An atoll is a roughly circular (annular) oceanic reef
system surrounding a large (and often deep) central
lagoon. In the South Pacific, most atolls occur in mid-
ocean. Examples of this reef type are common in
French Polynesia, the Caroline and Marshall Islands,
Micronesia, and the Cook Islands.
A Caveat on Reef Typology
Readers should be aware that identifying
major reef types may not always be quite
as simple as the above discussion may
suggest. Some reefs
seem to be intermediate
versions that defy any
simple "either or"
classification scheme.
THREAT TO CORAL REEF
The threat to the ocean’s coral reefs is apparent. As
coastal construction increases and global
temperatures rise, an estimated 33 percent of corals
are in danger of extinction. Marine studies have
shown an 80 percent decline in some forms of coral
over the last decade. Coral reef destruction is no
longer something we can continue to downplay or
overlook.
5 Main Causes of Coral Reef
Destruction
Coral Reef Destruction due to Reef Bleaching
Coral Reef Destruction due to Poison Fishing
Coral Reef Destruction due to Water Pollution
Coral Reef Destruction due to Sedimentation
Coral Reef Destruction due to Careless Tourism
1] Coral Reef Destruction due to Reef Bleaching
Reef bleaching occurs
when water conditions
cause coral to expel the
internal microorganisms
that give corals their
vibrant colors. Bleaching
events happen due to a number of factors including
an increase in water temperature. As global warming
warms the planet, ocean water temperatures are also
on the rise. With warmer waters, bleaching events
have become more common.
2] Coral Reef Destruction due to Poison Fishing
It is unfortunately common practice to use cyanide and
other poisons to fish for coral reef dwelling creatures.
The poison is not specific enough to necessarily kill a
specific fish, but is used to stun fish that are then used
in domestic salt water aquariums. Although many fish
can metabolize the cyanide and are only feel the effects
temporarily, the same is not true
for coral polyps. When cyanide
gets in the nooks and crannies
of the reef, the coral often dies
in the cloud of poison.
3] Coral Reef Destruction due to Water Pollution
Water pollution is perhaps the most obvious cause of
coral reef destruction. Reefs
are harmed when oil, fertilizer,
human and animal waste are
dumped in the area. Not only
do these elements change the
chemical make-up of the water,
waste can also block life-giving
sunlight to the reef. Large
floating trash can cut young coral polyps off from
nutrients they need to grow into a thriving reef.
4] Coral Reef Destruction due to Sedimentation
Construction and mining along sea coasts can create a
great deal of silt and soil run off. Particles that enter
the ocean can smother coral reefs, depriving them of
sunlight and nutrients. Fish are unable to feed and
coral polyps are unable to grow leaving the area
inhospitable to reef life.
5] Coral Reef Destruction due to Careless Tourism
Much destruction to coral reefs could be prevented
with just a bit of education for those who want to
explore these interesting natural creations. Divers,
snorkelers and other sea lovers often inadvertently
damage the reef. By simply touching coral the oils on
human fingers can kill
whole areas of coral
reefs. Boating and
fishing can also damage
coral reefs with
carelessly dropped
anchors or lines.
FIVE WAYS YOU CAN PROTECT THE CORAL REEFS
1. Support marine protected areas. Let your elected
officials know you support Marine Protected Areas
(MPAs). Check out MPA initiatives at sites such as the
National Marine Protected Areas Center, Caribbean
Marine Protected Area Management network, and
Pacific Fishery Management Council.
2. Protect coastal habitats.
Protecting coastal habitat, marine environments
and cultural heritage is a key strategy for
sustainable tourism. Sea life depends on the
beaches, estuaries, marshes, sea grass, and
wetlands for their survival. Tourism depends on
clean and healthy beaches for its economy.
3. Volunteer.
Volunteering on a coral
Reef conservation project
is a Great way to
Understand And preserve
Local ecosystems
and protected areas. Some projects house volunteers
on their very own private island spending their days
diving for both work and pleasure. Participants assist
in the restoration of coral reefs damaged by man or
Mother Earth and give homes to many marine species
and plant life that are in danger of extinction.
4. Reduce your use of
plastics. Support local bans on
plastic bags and similar efforts.
5. Inspire Others. It will take a plentiful
of informed people to ensure our coral
reefs are intact for our grandchildren.
1. Twenty Simple Tips
2. Solar Energy
3. Junk Food
4. Plastic – a boon or bane?
5. Green Passion
6. Zero Garbage
7. Soft drink – A Health Hazard
8. Waste to energy
9. Rain Water Harvesting
10. Eco-friendly Religions
11. Happy Green Diwali
12. Climate Change
13. The future of Biodiversity
14. Genetically Modified Foods
15. Waste Water Treatment
16. Body, Organ, Tissue Donation
17. Organic Farming
18. Waste to cooking gas
19. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
20. Protect Mangroves
21. Say NO to Bottled water
22. Save Lakes and Ponds
23. Forests are green lungs
24. Coal Mining and Ecology
25. Sin of Food Waste
26. Climate change and Poverty
27. Stop Water Pollution
28. Carbon Footprints
29. Parks and Open Spaces
30. Rising Sea Levels
31. Laudato Si – Pope’s Encyclical
32. Air Pollution
33. Life Style Changes
34. Water Pollution
35. Sand Mining
36. Bees and Environment
37. Joy of Gardening
38. Watch your Waste
39. Sustainable Development
40. Endangered Coral Reef
Also visit
www.infantjesusjogeshwari.in
Click RESOURCES section
for various resource materials including Quiz on
BIBLE, FAITH, LITURGY, CHURCH,
ENVIRONMENT etc.
ALSO JOKES, PUZZLES etc FOR CHILDREN
AND YOUTH

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Gem ppt-40-endangered coral reaf

  • 1. PPT-40 Green Earth Movement An E-Newsletter for the cause of Environment, Peace, Harmony and Justice Remember - “you and I can decide the future” ENDANGERED CORAL REEFS
  • 2. Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Coral reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups.
  • 3. Tropical coral reefs are very productive ecosystems. Not only are do they support enormous biodiversity, they are also of immense value to humankind. Latest estimates suggest coral reefs provide close to US$30 billion each year in goods and services.
  • 4. Fisheries: Coral reefs are vital to the world’s fisheries. They form the nurseries for about a quarter of the ocean's fish, and thus provide revenue for local communities as well as national and international fishing fleets. An estimated one billion people have some dependence on coral reefs for food and income from fishing. If properly managed, reefs can yield around 15 tonnes of fish and other seafood per square kilometre each year.
  • 5. Tourism: Tourism revenues generated by coral reefs are also significant. For example, according to a report by the Key West chamber of commerce, tourists visiting the Florida Keys in the US generate at least US$3 billion dollars in annual income, while Australia’s Great Barrier Reef generates well over US$1 billion per year. Sustainably managed Coral reef-based tourism can also provide significant alternative or additional sources of income to poorer coastal communities in developing countries.
  • 6. Coastal protection: Coral reefs break the power of the waves during storms, hurricanes, typhoons, and even tsumanis. By helping to prevent coastal erosion, flooding, and loss of property on the shore, the reefs save billions of dollars each year in terms of reduced insurance and reconstruction costs and reduced need to build costly coastal defences – not to mention the reduced human cost of destruction and displacement.
  • 7. Source of medical advances: We can also expect coral reef species to contribute to future medical advances. Already coral reef organisms are being used in treatments for diseases like cancer and HIV. Just as with tropical forests, we may continue to find the answers to medical problems in the coral reefs - so long as we can keep them healthy.
  • 8. Intrinsic value: For many coastal societies around the world, coral reefs and their inhabitants are intricately woven into cultural traditions. For these people - as well as for those who have floated with a mask and snorkel, immersed themselves in the three dimensional wonderland of a scuba dive, or experienced these habitats through media and books - a world without coral reefs would be an infinitely poorer place.
  • 9. Types of Coral Reefs Most reef scientists generally recognize three MAJOR types of coral reefs: Fringing Reefs, Barrier Reefs, and Atolls. The traditional and most widely recognized basis for differentiating these reef types is large- scale reef.
  • 10. Fringing Reefs (Shore Reefs) Fringing reefs are reefs that grow directly from a shore. While there may be areas of shallow intertidal or sub-tidal sand bottom lying between the beach and the inshore edge of coral growth, there is no lagoon between the reef and shore. Increasing human populations in coastal areas - and the accompanying increases in coastal development and intensive agriculture - have resulted in the decimation of fringing reefs throughout the world in recent years. .
  • 11. Barrier Reefs Barrier reefs are extensive linear reef complexes that parallel a shore, and are separated from it by lagoon. Barrier reefs are far less common than fringing reefs or atolls, although examples can be found in the tropical Atlantic as well as the Pacific. The 1200-mile long Great Barrier Reef off the NE coast of Australia is the world's largest example of this reef type.
  • 12. Atolls An atoll is a roughly circular (annular) oceanic reef system surrounding a large (and often deep) central lagoon. In the South Pacific, most atolls occur in mid- ocean. Examples of this reef type are common in French Polynesia, the Caroline and Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and the Cook Islands.
  • 13. A Caveat on Reef Typology Readers should be aware that identifying major reef types may not always be quite as simple as the above discussion may suggest. Some reefs seem to be intermediate versions that defy any simple "either or" classification scheme.
  • 14. THREAT TO CORAL REEF The threat to the ocean’s coral reefs is apparent. As coastal construction increases and global temperatures rise, an estimated 33 percent of corals are in danger of extinction. Marine studies have shown an 80 percent decline in some forms of coral over the last decade. Coral reef destruction is no longer something we can continue to downplay or overlook.
  • 15. 5 Main Causes of Coral Reef Destruction Coral Reef Destruction due to Reef Bleaching Coral Reef Destruction due to Poison Fishing Coral Reef Destruction due to Water Pollution Coral Reef Destruction due to Sedimentation Coral Reef Destruction due to Careless Tourism
  • 16. 1] Coral Reef Destruction due to Reef Bleaching Reef bleaching occurs when water conditions cause coral to expel the internal microorganisms that give corals their vibrant colors. Bleaching events happen due to a number of factors including an increase in water temperature. As global warming warms the planet, ocean water temperatures are also on the rise. With warmer waters, bleaching events have become more common.
  • 17. 2] Coral Reef Destruction due to Poison Fishing It is unfortunately common practice to use cyanide and other poisons to fish for coral reef dwelling creatures. The poison is not specific enough to necessarily kill a specific fish, but is used to stun fish that are then used in domestic salt water aquariums. Although many fish can metabolize the cyanide and are only feel the effects temporarily, the same is not true for coral polyps. When cyanide gets in the nooks and crannies of the reef, the coral often dies in the cloud of poison.
  • 18. 3] Coral Reef Destruction due to Water Pollution Water pollution is perhaps the most obvious cause of coral reef destruction. Reefs are harmed when oil, fertilizer, human and animal waste are dumped in the area. Not only do these elements change the chemical make-up of the water, waste can also block life-giving sunlight to the reef. Large floating trash can cut young coral polyps off from nutrients they need to grow into a thriving reef.
  • 19. 4] Coral Reef Destruction due to Sedimentation Construction and mining along sea coasts can create a great deal of silt and soil run off. Particles that enter the ocean can smother coral reefs, depriving them of sunlight and nutrients. Fish are unable to feed and coral polyps are unable to grow leaving the area inhospitable to reef life.
  • 20. 5] Coral Reef Destruction due to Careless Tourism Much destruction to coral reefs could be prevented with just a bit of education for those who want to explore these interesting natural creations. Divers, snorkelers and other sea lovers often inadvertently damage the reef. By simply touching coral the oils on human fingers can kill whole areas of coral reefs. Boating and fishing can also damage coral reefs with carelessly dropped anchors or lines.
  • 21. FIVE WAYS YOU CAN PROTECT THE CORAL REEFS 1. Support marine protected areas. Let your elected officials know you support Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Check out MPA initiatives at sites such as the National Marine Protected Areas Center, Caribbean Marine Protected Area Management network, and Pacific Fishery Management Council.
  • 22. 2. Protect coastal habitats. Protecting coastal habitat, marine environments and cultural heritage is a key strategy for sustainable tourism. Sea life depends on the beaches, estuaries, marshes, sea grass, and wetlands for their survival. Tourism depends on clean and healthy beaches for its economy.
  • 23. 3. Volunteer. Volunteering on a coral Reef conservation project is a Great way to Understand And preserve Local ecosystems and protected areas. Some projects house volunteers on their very own private island spending their days diving for both work and pleasure. Participants assist in the restoration of coral reefs damaged by man or Mother Earth and give homes to many marine species and plant life that are in danger of extinction.
  • 24. 4. Reduce your use of plastics. Support local bans on plastic bags and similar efforts.
  • 25. 5. Inspire Others. It will take a plentiful of informed people to ensure our coral reefs are intact for our grandchildren.
  • 26. 1. Twenty Simple Tips 2. Solar Energy 3. Junk Food 4. Plastic – a boon or bane? 5. Green Passion 6. Zero Garbage 7. Soft drink – A Health Hazard 8. Waste to energy 9. Rain Water Harvesting 10. Eco-friendly Religions 11. Happy Green Diwali 12. Climate Change 13. The future of Biodiversity 14. Genetically Modified Foods 15. Waste Water Treatment 16. Body, Organ, Tissue Donation 17. Organic Farming 18. Waste to cooking gas 19. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle 20. Protect Mangroves 21. Say NO to Bottled water 22. Save Lakes and Ponds 23. Forests are green lungs 24. Coal Mining and Ecology 25. Sin of Food Waste 26. Climate change and Poverty 27. Stop Water Pollution 28. Carbon Footprints 29. Parks and Open Spaces 30. Rising Sea Levels 31. Laudato Si – Pope’s Encyclical 32. Air Pollution 33. Life Style Changes 34. Water Pollution 35. Sand Mining 36. Bees and Environment 37. Joy of Gardening 38. Watch your Waste 39. Sustainable Development 40. Endangered Coral Reef
  • 27. Also visit www.infantjesusjogeshwari.in Click RESOURCES section for various resource materials including Quiz on BIBLE, FAITH, LITURGY, CHURCH, ENVIRONMENT etc. ALSO JOKES, PUZZLES etc FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH