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Fungal Chitinases from Trichoderma species:
A Solution of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
AMAL DHIVAHAR S, RAMESH SIVA R
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY,
SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AND BIOSCIENCES,
KARUNYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYAND SCIENCES,
COIMBATORE – 641 114, TAMIL NADU, INDIA.
Fungal chitin =
insoluble
homopolymer
parallel
Anti-parallel
Second most abundant polymer found in the
biosphere
Main component of invertebrate exoskeletons
Essential structural component of the cell walls of
filamentous fungi
Fungal genomes contain between 10 – 25
chitinases
ROLES OF CHITINASES
Degradation of exogenous chitin
Cell wall remodelling during fungal cycle
Competition and defence against other
arthropods and fungi IPM
IPM/IPC = ECONOMIC CONTROL OF PESTS
Supress pest population below EIL
Uses natural pest control mechanism
Promote beneficial insects that target
pests
Similar to entomopathogenic fungi or
nematodes
TRICHODERMA SPECIES
Present in all agricultural soils and decaying plant
debris.
Grow and Degrade cell wall by lectin mediated
reaction pathogenic fungi.
Individual antibiotics root diseases
16 are used in India.
species identified:
Source Chitinase Target Genus
Trichoderma atroviride
PTCC5220
Chimeric Chi42 Rhizoctoria, Sclerotina,
Alternaria.
Trichoderma harzianum Chi42 Alternaria, Botrytis and
Rhizoctonia.
Trichoderma harzianum
ABRIICC T8-7MK
Chimeric Chi42 Fusarium, Rhizoctonia,
Sclerotinia, Verticillium,
Alternaria and Botrytis
Trichoderma harzianum CECT
2413
Chi42, Chimeric Chi42 Botrytis
Trichoderma harzianum CECT
2413
Chi33 Rhizoctonia
Trichoderma harzianum CECT
2413
Chimeric Chi33 and Chimeric
Chi42
Rhizoctonia, Botrytis and
Phytophthor
Trichoderma harzianum Rifai
TM
Chi36 Botrytis, Fusarium and
Sclerotium
Trichoderma harzianum TUBF
781
na Aspergillus, Rhizopus and
Mucor.
EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
• Helicoverpa armigera (larvae) :50% - 0% pupa
• T. harzianum = production of pupal mortality: 10% -
70% in high chitinase
• Common mix of T. viride on peritrophic mat of
silkworm B. mori
• Active in acid pH. Residual act@ high pH
Scanning
electron
microscopy
(SEM)
micrographs
showing the
effects of
Trichoderma
viride and
Chi18H8
chitinases on
peritrophic
matrix of
Bombyx mori
and Hermitia
illucens.
NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY:
Heterodera avenae - cyst induces activity of T. harzianum
LIQUID FORMULATION:
- Suspension concentrate
- To increase the shelf life and to overcome other problems
- Formulation of potential ones are used
Eg: T. harzianum with conidial biomass
PRODUCTION
FERMENTATION
SUBMERGED(SmF)
1.Advantages in process
control
2.Easy recovery of
enzymes
SOLID STATE (SsF)
1.Cheap raw material
2.Chitinases of
Verticillium lecanii
Presence of chitin induces chitinase production
1% - !.5% chitin = maximum chitinase
Presence of disaccharide sugars result in increased
chitinase production
N2 source - Yeast
APPLICATION
Trichodermal chitinase – fungi, insects
and nematodes
Commercialization of IPM sources
Could be sprayed or mixed with soil or
coated around seeds
Possible solution for IPM issues
Fungal Chitinases from Trichoderma species: A Solution of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

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Fungal Chitinases from Trichoderma species: A Solution of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

  • 1. Fungal Chitinases from Trichoderma species: A Solution of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) AMAL DHIVAHAR S, RAMESH SIVA R DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AND BIOSCIENCES, KARUNYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYAND SCIENCES, COIMBATORE – 641 114, TAMIL NADU, INDIA.
  • 2. Fungal chitin = insoluble homopolymer parallel Anti-parallel Second most abundant polymer found in the biosphere Main component of invertebrate exoskeletons Essential structural component of the cell walls of filamentous fungi Fungal genomes contain between 10 – 25 chitinases
  • 3. ROLES OF CHITINASES Degradation of exogenous chitin Cell wall remodelling during fungal cycle Competition and defence against other arthropods and fungi IPM
  • 4. IPM/IPC = ECONOMIC CONTROL OF PESTS Supress pest population below EIL Uses natural pest control mechanism Promote beneficial insects that target pests Similar to entomopathogenic fungi or nematodes
  • 5. TRICHODERMA SPECIES Present in all agricultural soils and decaying plant debris. Grow and Degrade cell wall by lectin mediated reaction pathogenic fungi. Individual antibiotics root diseases 16 are used in India.
  • 6. species identified: Source Chitinase Target Genus Trichoderma atroviride PTCC5220 Chimeric Chi42 Rhizoctoria, Sclerotina, Alternaria. Trichoderma harzianum Chi42 Alternaria, Botrytis and Rhizoctonia. Trichoderma harzianum ABRIICC T8-7MK Chimeric Chi42 Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Verticillium, Alternaria and Botrytis Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 Chi42, Chimeric Chi42 Botrytis Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 Chi33 Rhizoctonia Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 Chimeric Chi33 and Chimeric Chi42 Rhizoctonia, Botrytis and Phytophthor Trichoderma harzianum Rifai TM Chi36 Botrytis, Fusarium and Sclerotium Trichoderma harzianum TUBF 781 na Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor.
  • 7. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS • Helicoverpa armigera (larvae) :50% - 0% pupa • T. harzianum = production of pupal mortality: 10% - 70% in high chitinase • Common mix of T. viride on peritrophic mat of silkworm B. mori • Active in acid pH. Residual act@ high pH
  • 8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showing the effects of Trichoderma viride and Chi18H8 chitinases on peritrophic matrix of Bombyx mori and Hermitia illucens.
  • 9. NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY: Heterodera avenae - cyst induces activity of T. harzianum LIQUID FORMULATION: - Suspension concentrate - To increase the shelf life and to overcome other problems - Formulation of potential ones are used Eg: T. harzianum with conidial biomass
  • 10. PRODUCTION FERMENTATION SUBMERGED(SmF) 1.Advantages in process control 2.Easy recovery of enzymes SOLID STATE (SsF) 1.Cheap raw material 2.Chitinases of Verticillium lecanii
  • 11. Presence of chitin induces chitinase production 1% - !.5% chitin = maximum chitinase Presence of disaccharide sugars result in increased chitinase production N2 source - Yeast
  • 12. APPLICATION Trichodermal chitinase – fungi, insects and nematodes Commercialization of IPM sources Could be sprayed or mixed with soil or coated around seeds Possible solution for IPM issues