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A Seminar Presentation on
Submitted to :
Dr. J.P.Agarwal Sir
HOD (EC Dept., JNIT)
Submitted by :
Nishant Kayal
(13EJGEC023)
C. P. Divate
 The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the ever-growing network
of physical objects that feature an IP address for internet
connectivity, and the communication that occurs between these
objects and other Internet-enabled devices and systems.
 In simple words, Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of
connected physical objects that are accessible through the
internet.
 It is also referred to as Machine-to-Machine (M2M), Skynet
or Internet of Everything.
Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
 The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects or
"things“—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other
technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with
other devices and systems over the Internet.
Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
 IoT is a network of connected devices with 1) unique identifiers in the
form of an IP address which 2) have embedded technologies or are
equipped with technologies that enable them to sense, gather data and
communicate about the environment in which they reside and/or
themselves.
Working of Internet of Things (IoT)
Embedded System
Working of Internet of Things (IoT)
Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT)
1) Dynamic & Self-Adapting: The IoT devices can dynamically adapt with
sensed environment, their operating conditions, and user’s context and
take actions accordingly. For ex: Surveillance System.
2) Self-Configuring:
I. IoT devices can be able to upgrade the software with minimal
intervention of user, whenever they are connected to the internet.
II. They can also setup the network i.e a new device can be easily added to
the existing network. For ex: Whenever there will be free wifi access one
device can be connected easily.
3) Interoperable Communication Protocol: IoT allows different devices
(different in architecture) to communicate with each other as well as with
different network. For ex: MI Phone is able to control the smart AC and
smart TV of different manufacturer.
Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT)
4) Unique identities:
I. The devices which are connected to the internet have unique identities i.e IP
address through which they can be identified throughout the network.
II. The IoT devices have intelligent interfaces which allow communicating with
users. It adapts to the environmental contexts.
III. It also allows the user to query the devices, monitor their status, and
control them remotely, in association with the control, configuration and
management infrastructure.
5) Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that
communicate with each other will be much larger than the devices connected
to the current Internet.
6) Security: IoT devices are naturally vulnerable to security threats. It is
important to secure the endpoints, the networks, and the data that is
transferred across all of it means creating a security paradigm.
Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT)
7) Integrated into information network:
I. The IoT devices are connected to the network to share some information with
other connected devices. The devices can be discovered dynamically in the
network by other devices. For ex. If a device has wifi connectivity then that will
be shown toother nearby devices having wifi connectivity.
II. The devices ssid will be visible though out the network. Due to these things the
network is also called as information network.
III. The IoT devices become smarter due to the collective intelligence of the individual
devices in collaboration with the information network. For Ex: weather
monitoring system. Here the information collected from different monitoring
nodes (sensors, arduino devices) can be aggregated and analysed to predict the
weather.
Features of Internet of Things (IoT)
The most important features of IoT on which it works are connectivity,
analyzing, integrating, active engagement, and many more. Some of
them are listed below:
1) Connectivity: Connectivity refers to establish a proper connection
between all the things of IoT to IoT platform it may be server or
cloud. After connecting the IoT devices, it needs a high speed
messaging between the devices and cloud to enable reliable, secure
and bi-directional communication.
2) Analyzing: After connecting all the relevant things, it comes to real-
time analyzing the data collected and use them to build effective
business intelligence. If we have a good insight into data gathered
from all these things, then we call our system has a smart system.
3) Integrating: IoT integrating the various models to improve the user
experience as well.
Features of Internet of Things (IoT)
4) Artificial Intelligence: IoT makes things smart and enhances life
through the use of data. For example, if we have a coffee machine
whose beans have going to end, then the coffee machine itself order
the coffee beans of your choice from the retailer.
5) Sensing: The sensor devices used in IoT technologies detect and
measure any change in the environment and report on their status.
IoT technology brings passive networks to active networks. Without
sensors, there could not hold an effective or true IoT environment.
6) Active Engagement: IoT makes the connected technology, product,
or services to active engagement between each other.
Features of Internet of Things (IoT)
7) Endpoint Management: It is important to be the endpoint management of
all the IoT system otherwise, it makes the complete failure of the system.
For example, if a coffee machine itself order the coffee beans when it goes to
end but what happens when it orders the beans from a retailer and we are
not present at home for a few days, it leads to the failure of the IoT system.
So, there must be a need for endpoint management.
Advantages of Internet of Things (IoT)
1) Efficient resource utilization: If we know the functionality and the
way that how each device work we definitely increase the efficient
resource utilization as well as monitor natural resources.
2) Minimize human effort: As the devices of IoT interact and
communicate with each other and do lot of task for us, then they
minimize the human effort.
3) Save time: As it reduces the human effort then it definitely saves
out time. Time is the primary factor which can save through IoT
platform.
4) Enhance Data Collection:
5) Improve security: Now, if we have a system that all these things
are interconnected then we can make the system more secure and
efficient.
Advantages of Internet of Things (IoT)
5) Reduced Waste: IoT makes areas of improvement clear. Current
analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world
information leading to more effective management of resources.
6) Enhanced Data Collection: Modern data collection suffers from its
limitations and its design for passive use. IoT breaks it out of those
spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to
analyze our world. It allows an accurate picture of everything.
Disadvantages of Internet of Things (IoT)
1) Security: As the IoT systems are interconnected and communicate over
networks. The system offers little control despite any security measures,
and it can be lead the various kinds of network attacks.
2) Privacy: Even without the active participation on the user, the IoT system
provides substantial personal data in maximum detail.
3) Complexity: The designing, developing, and maintaining and enabling the
large technology to IoT system is quite complicated.
4) Flexibility: Many are concerned about the flexibility of an IoT system to
integrate easily with another. They worry about finding themselves with
several conflicting or locked systems.
5) Compliance: IoT, like any other technology in the realm of business, must
comply with regulations. Its complexity makes the issue of compliance
seem incredibly challenging when many consider standard software
compliance a battle
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
1) The "Things" in IoT usually refers to IoT devices which have unique
identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring
capabilities.
2) IoT devices can:
1) Exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly
or indirectly), or
2) Collect data from other devices and process the data locally or
3) Send the data to centralized servers or cloud-based application back-
ends for processing the data, or
4) Perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IoT
infrastructure, based on temporal and space constraints Bahga
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
 An IoT device may
consist of several
interfaces for connections
to other devices, both
wired and wireless. These
includes,
(i) I/O interfaces for
sensors,
(ii) interfaces for Internet
connectivity,
(iii) memory and storage
interfaces and
(iv) audio/video
interfaces.
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
 An IoT device can collect
various types of data
from the on-board or
attached sensors, such
as temperature,
humidity, light intensity.
 The sensed data can be
communicated either to
other devices or cloud-
based servers/storage.
 IoT devices can be
connected to actuators
that allow them to
interact with other
physical entities
(including non-IoT
devices and systems) in
the vicinity of the device.
 For example, a relay switch connected to an IoT device can
turn an appliance on/off based on the commands sent to
the IoT device over the Internet.
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
 IoT devices can also be of
varied types, for
instance, wearable
sensors, smart watches,
LED lights, automobiles
and industrial machines.
 Almost all IoT devices
generate data in some
form or the other which
when processed by data
analytics systems leads
to useful information to
guide further actions
locally or remotely.
 For instance, sensor data generated by a soil moisture monitoring device in a garden,
when processed can help in determining the optimum watering schedules.
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
 Following Figure shows different types of IoT devices.
1. Google Home Voice Controller: Google Home Voice Controller is a smart IoT
device that allows users to operate the TV, speakers, alarms, lights, and many
more such appliances at home just by their voice.
2. Amazon Echo Voice Controller: Amazon Echo Plus voice controller is used to
play songs, initiate phone calls and messages, set alarms, provide answers to
the questions asked, check the weather, manage to-do lists, manage smart
home appliances, and several other things.
3. Mr. Coffee Smart Coffeemaker: Mr. Coffee 10-Cup Smart Optimal Brew
Coffeemaker makes it easier for the user to schedule, monitor, and modify their
brew from anywhere.
4. Philips Hue Hue Go: Philips Hue Hue Go offers endless possibilities to connect
the light to your everyday life and to operate it as you like it.
5. Amazon Dash Button: Amazon Dash Button is an IoT device to make its user's
life simple and easy by making sure that the user does not lack important
household items, for example, groceries, medical aids, and personal care items,
etc.
Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)
 Following Figure shows different types of IoT devices.
6. August Doorbell Cam: August Doorbell Cam allows you to answer your door
from anywhere or remotely. It constantly checks your doors, and also captures
changes in motion in your doorway.
7. Footbot Air Quality Monitor: Footbot Air Quality Monitor is an IoT device that
monitors indoor pollution in your home or workplace and consequently
improves air quality.
8. August Smart Lock: August Smart Lock is an IoT device that provides security.
It allows the user to learn remotely about each and every person who visits their
houses.
9. Canary : Canary Is an all-in-one system for home security. It captures audio
and video and sends smartphone notifications to users. It detects your
homecoming and going, and you can also view the video feed from your
smartphone.
10. Nest Smoke Alarm: It's an IoT device that works like a smoke alarm, thinking,
talking, and alerting your mobile phone about any unwanted emergencies in
your home. It self-tests automatically and has a set of colors to communicate the
seriousness of the situation.
IoT Protocols
 IoT protcols help to establish Communication between IoT Device (Node Device) and Cloud based
Server over the Internet.
 It help to sent commands to IoT Device and received data from an IoT device over the Internet.
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 Link layer protocols determine how the data is physically sent over the
network's physical layer or medium (e.g., copper wire, coaxial cable, or a radio
wave).
 Link layer determines how the packets are coded and signaled by the hardware
device over the medium to which the host is attached (such as a coaxial cable).
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 IEEE 802.3 is a collection of wired
Ethernet standards for the link
layer.
 For example, 802.3 is the standard
for 10BASE5 Ethernet that uses
coaxial cable as a shared medium,
802.3.i is the standard for
10BASE-T Ethernet over copper
twisted-pair connections.
 802.3.j is the standard for
10BASE-F Ethernet over fiber
optic connections, 802.3ae is the
standard for 10 Gbit/s Ethernet
over fiber, and so on.
802.3-Ethernet:
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.3-Ethernet:
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 IEEE 802.11 is a collection of
wireless local area network (WLAN)
communication standards,
including extensive description of
the link layer.
 802.11a operates in the 5 GHz
band, 802.11b and 802.11g
operate in the 2.4 GHz band,
802.11n operates in the 2.4/5
GHz bands, 802.11ac operates in
the 5 GHz band and 802.11ad
operates in the 60 GHz band.
 These standards provide data
rates from 1 Mb/s to upto 6.75
Gb/s.
802.11- Wi-Fi
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.11- Wi-Fi frame format
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 IEEE 802.16 is a collection of
wireless broadband standards,
including extensive descriptions
for the link layer (also called
WiMax).
 WiMaxstandards provide data
rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 1 Gb/s.
 The recent update (802.16m)
provides data rates of 100 Mbit/s
for mobile stations and 1 Gbit/s
for fixed stations.
802.16-WiMax:
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.16-WiMax frame format
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 IEEE 802.15.4 is a collection of
standards for low-rate wireless
personal area networks (LR-
WPANs). These standards form the
basis of specifications for high
level communication protocols
such as ZigBee.
 LR-WPAN standards provide data
rates from 40 Kb/s 250 Kb/s.
 These standards provide low-cost
and low-speed communication for
power constrained devices.
802.15.4-LR-WPAN
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.16-WiMax frame format
IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:
 There are different generations of
mobile communication standards
including second generation (2G
including GSM and CDMA), third
generation (3G - including UMTS
and CDMA2000) and fourth
generation (4G - including LTE).
 IoT devices based on these
standards can communicate over
cellular networks.
 Data rates for these standards
range from 9.6 Kb/s (for 2G) to
upto 100 Mb/s (for 4G) and are
available from the 3GPP websites.
2G/3G/4G - Mobile
Communication
IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols:
 The network layers are responsible for sending of IP datagrams from
the source network to the destination network.
 This layer performs the host addressing and packet routing.
 The datagrams contain the source and destination addresses which
are used to route them from the source to destination across multiple
networks.
 Host identification is done using hierarchical IP addressing schemes
such as IPv4 or IPv6.
IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols: IPv4
 IPv4: Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the most deployed Internet
protocol that is used to identify the devices on a network using a
hierarchical addressing scheme.
 IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme that allows total of 232 or
4,294,967,296 addresses.
 IPv4 has been succeeded by IPv6.
 The IP protocols establish connections on packet networks, but do not
guarantee delivery of packets.
 Guaranteed delivery and data integrity are handled by the upper layer
protocols (such as TCP).
IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols: IPv6
 Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the newest version of Internet
protocol and successor to IPv4.
 IPv6 uses 128-bit address scheme that allows total of 2128 or 3.4 x 1038
addresses.
6LOWPAN:
 6LOWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks) brings IP
protocol to the low-power devices which have limited processing capability.
 6LOWPAN operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range and provides data transfer
rates of 250 Kb/s.
 6LOWPAN works with the 802.15.4 link layer protocol and defines compression
mechanisms for IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-based networks.
IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols:
 The Transport layer protocols provide end-to-end message transfer
capability independent of the underlying network.
 The message transfer capability can be set up on connections, either
using handshakes (as in TCP) or without handshakes /
acknowledgements (as in UDP).
 The transport layer provides functions such as error control,
segmentation, flow control and congestion control.
IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols: TCP
 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most widely used
transport layer protocol, that is used by web browsers (along with
HTTP, HTTPS application layer protocols), email programs (SMTP
application layer protocol) and file transfer (FTP).
 TCP is a connection oriented and stateful protocol.
 TCP ensures reliable transmission of packets in-order and also
provides error detection capability so that duplicate packets can be
discarded and lost packets are retransmitted.
IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols: UDP
 UDP is a connectionless protocol.
 UDP is useful for time-sensitive applications that have very small data
units to exchange and do not want the overhead of connection setup.
 UDP is a transaction oriented and stateless protocol.
 UDP does not provide guaranteed delivery, ordering of messages and
duplicate elimination.
 Higher levels of protocols can ensure reliable delivery or ensuring
connections created are reliable.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols:
 Application layer protocols define how the applications interface with the
lower layer protocols to send the data over the network.
 The application data, typically in files, is encoded by the application layer
protocol and encapsulated in the transport layer protocol which provides
connection or transaction oriented communication over the network.
 Port numbers are used for application addressing (for example port 80 for
HTTP, port 22 for SSH, etc.).
 Application layer protocols enable process-to-process connections using
ports.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: HTTP
 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the application layer protocol that forms the
foundation of the World Wide Web (WWW).
 HTTP includes commands such as GET, PUT, POST, DELETE, HEAD, TRACE,
OPTIONS, etc.
 The protocol follows a request-response model where a client sends requests to a
server using the HTTP commands.
 HTTP is a stateless protocol and each HTTP request is independent of the other
requests.
 An HTTP client can be a browser or an application running on the client (e.g., an
application running on an IoT device, a mobile application or other software).
 HTTP protocol uses Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs) to identify HTTP
resources.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: HTTP
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: COAP
 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is an application layer protocol for
machine-to-machine (M2M) applications, meant for constrained environments
with constrained devices and constrained networks.
 Like HTTP, COAP is a web transfer protocol and uses a request-response model,
however it runs on top of UDP instead of TCP.
 COAP uses a client-server architecture where clients communicate with servers
using connectionless datagrams. COAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP.
 Like HTTP, COAP supports methods such as GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE.
COAP draft specifications are available on IEFT Constrained environments
(CORE) Working Group website.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: COAP
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: WebSocket
 WebSocket protocol allows full-duplex communication over a single socket
connection for sending messages between client and server.
 WebSocket is based on TCP and allows streams of messages to be sent back and
forth between the client and server while keeping the TCP connection open.
 The client can be a browser, a mobile application or an IoT device.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: WebSocket
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: MQTT
 MQTT relies on the TCP protocol for data transmission.
 Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a light-weight messaging protocol
based on the publish-subscribe model.
 MQTT uses a client-server architecture where the client (such as an IoT device)
connects to the server (also called MQTT Broker) and publishes messages to
topics on the server.
 The broker forwards the messages to the clients subscribed to topics.
 MQTT is well suited for constrained environments where the devices have limited
processing and memory resources and the network bandwidth is low.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: MQTT
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: XMPP
 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a protocol for real-time
communication and streaming XML data between network entities.
 XMPP powers wide range of applications including messaging, presence, data
syndication, gaming, multi-party chat and voice/video calls.
 XMPP allows sending small chunks of XML data from one network entity to
another in near real-time.
 XMPP is a decentralized protocol and uses a client-server architecture.
 XMPP supports both client-to-server and server-to-server communication paths.
 In the context of IoT, XMPP allows real-time communication between IoT devices.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: XMPP
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: DDS
 Data Distribution Service (DDS) is a data-centric middleware standard for device-
todevice or machine-to-machine communication.
 DDS uses a publish-subscribe model where publishers (e.g. devices that generate
data) create topics to which subscribers (e.g., devices that want to consume data)
can subscribe.
 Publisher is an object responsible for data distribution and the subscriber is
responsible for receiving published data.
 DDS provides quality-of-service (QoS) control and configurable reliability.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: DSS
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: AMQP
 Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open application layer protocol for
business messaging.
 AMQP supports both point-to-point and publisher/subscriber models, routing and
queuing.
 AMQP brokers receive messages from publishers (e.g., devices or applications that
generate data) and route them over connections to consumers (applications that process
data).
 Publishers publish the messages to exchanges which then distribute message copies to
queues.
 Messages are either delivered by the broker to the consumers which have subscribed to
the queues or the consumers can pull the messages from the queues.
IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: AMQP
Logical design of IoT:
 Logical design of an IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities and
processes without going into the low-level specifics of the implementation.
Logical design of IoT:
Logical design of IoT:
 An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the
capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication, and management
1) Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation,
monitoring and control functions.
2) Communication: The communication block handles the communication for
the IoT system.
3) Services: An IoT system uses various types of IoT services such as services
for device monitoring, device control services, data publishing services and
services for device discovery.
4) Management: Management functional block provides various functions to
govern the IoT system.
5) Security: Security functional block secures the IoT system and by providing
functions such as authentication, authorization, message and content
integrity, and data security.
6) Application: IoT applications provide an interface that the users can use to
control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Applications also allow
users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data.

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Fundamentals of Internet of Things (IoT) Part-2

  • 1. A Seminar Presentation on Submitted to : Dr. J.P.Agarwal Sir HOD (EC Dept., JNIT) Submitted by : Nishant Kayal (13EJGEC023) C. P. Divate
  • 2.  The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the ever-growing network of physical objects that feature an IP address for internet connectivity, and the communication that occurs between these objects and other Internet-enabled devices and systems.  In simple words, Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of connected physical objects that are accessible through the internet.  It is also referred to as Machine-to-Machine (M2M), Skynet or Internet of Everything. Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)  The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects or "things“—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet.
  • 3. Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
  • 4. Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)  IoT is a network of connected devices with 1) unique identifiers in the form of an IP address which 2) have embedded technologies or are equipped with technologies that enable them to sense, gather data and communicate about the environment in which they reside and/or themselves.
  • 5. Working of Internet of Things (IoT) Embedded System
  • 6. Working of Internet of Things (IoT)
  • 7. Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT) 1) Dynamic & Self-Adapting: The IoT devices can dynamically adapt with sensed environment, their operating conditions, and user’s context and take actions accordingly. For ex: Surveillance System. 2) Self-Configuring: I. IoT devices can be able to upgrade the software with minimal intervention of user, whenever they are connected to the internet. II. They can also setup the network i.e a new device can be easily added to the existing network. For ex: Whenever there will be free wifi access one device can be connected easily. 3) Interoperable Communication Protocol: IoT allows different devices (different in architecture) to communicate with each other as well as with different network. For ex: MI Phone is able to control the smart AC and smart TV of different manufacturer.
  • 8. Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT) 4) Unique identities: I. The devices which are connected to the internet have unique identities i.e IP address through which they can be identified throughout the network. II. The IoT devices have intelligent interfaces which allow communicating with users. It adapts to the environmental contexts. III. It also allows the user to query the devices, monitor their status, and control them remotely, in association with the control, configuration and management infrastructure. 5) Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be much larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. 6) Security: IoT devices are naturally vulnerable to security threats. It is important to secure the endpoints, the networks, and the data that is transferred across all of it means creating a security paradigm.
  • 9. Characteristic of Internet of Things (IoT) 7) Integrated into information network: I. The IoT devices are connected to the network to share some information with other connected devices. The devices can be discovered dynamically in the network by other devices. For ex. If a device has wifi connectivity then that will be shown toother nearby devices having wifi connectivity. II. The devices ssid will be visible though out the network. Due to these things the network is also called as information network. III. The IoT devices become smarter due to the collective intelligence of the individual devices in collaboration with the information network. For Ex: weather monitoring system. Here the information collected from different monitoring nodes (sensors, arduino devices) can be aggregated and analysed to predict the weather.
  • 10. Features of Internet of Things (IoT) The most important features of IoT on which it works are connectivity, analyzing, integrating, active engagement, and many more. Some of them are listed below: 1) Connectivity: Connectivity refers to establish a proper connection between all the things of IoT to IoT platform it may be server or cloud. After connecting the IoT devices, it needs a high speed messaging between the devices and cloud to enable reliable, secure and bi-directional communication. 2) Analyzing: After connecting all the relevant things, it comes to real- time analyzing the data collected and use them to build effective business intelligence. If we have a good insight into data gathered from all these things, then we call our system has a smart system. 3) Integrating: IoT integrating the various models to improve the user experience as well.
  • 11. Features of Internet of Things (IoT) 4) Artificial Intelligence: IoT makes things smart and enhances life through the use of data. For example, if we have a coffee machine whose beans have going to end, then the coffee machine itself order the coffee beans of your choice from the retailer. 5) Sensing: The sensor devices used in IoT technologies detect and measure any change in the environment and report on their status. IoT technology brings passive networks to active networks. Without sensors, there could not hold an effective or true IoT environment. 6) Active Engagement: IoT makes the connected technology, product, or services to active engagement between each other.
  • 12. Features of Internet of Things (IoT) 7) Endpoint Management: It is important to be the endpoint management of all the IoT system otherwise, it makes the complete failure of the system. For example, if a coffee machine itself order the coffee beans when it goes to end but what happens when it orders the beans from a retailer and we are not present at home for a few days, it leads to the failure of the IoT system. So, there must be a need for endpoint management.
  • 13. Advantages of Internet of Things (IoT) 1) Efficient resource utilization: If we know the functionality and the way that how each device work we definitely increase the efficient resource utilization as well as monitor natural resources. 2) Minimize human effort: As the devices of IoT interact and communicate with each other and do lot of task for us, then they minimize the human effort. 3) Save time: As it reduces the human effort then it definitely saves out time. Time is the primary factor which can save through IoT platform. 4) Enhance Data Collection: 5) Improve security: Now, if we have a system that all these things are interconnected then we can make the system more secure and efficient.
  • 14. Advantages of Internet of Things (IoT) 5) Reduced Waste: IoT makes areas of improvement clear. Current analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world information leading to more effective management of resources. 6) Enhanced Data Collection: Modern data collection suffers from its limitations and its design for passive use. IoT breaks it out of those spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to analyze our world. It allows an accurate picture of everything.
  • 15. Disadvantages of Internet of Things (IoT) 1) Security: As the IoT systems are interconnected and communicate over networks. The system offers little control despite any security measures, and it can be lead the various kinds of network attacks. 2) Privacy: Even without the active participation on the user, the IoT system provides substantial personal data in maximum detail. 3) Complexity: The designing, developing, and maintaining and enabling the large technology to IoT system is quite complicated. 4) Flexibility: Many are concerned about the flexibility of an IoT system to integrate easily with another. They worry about finding themselves with several conflicting or locked systems. 5) Compliance: IoT, like any other technology in the realm of business, must comply with regulations. Its complexity makes the issue of compliance seem incredibly challenging when many consider standard software compliance a battle
  • 16. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT) 1) The "Things" in IoT usually refers to IoT devices which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. 2) IoT devices can: 1) Exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly or indirectly), or 2) Collect data from other devices and process the data locally or 3) Send the data to centralized servers or cloud-based application back- ends for processing the data, or 4) Perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IoT infrastructure, based on temporal and space constraints Bahga
  • 17. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)  An IoT device may consist of several interfaces for connections to other devices, both wired and wireless. These includes, (i) I/O interfaces for sensors, (ii) interfaces for Internet connectivity, (iii) memory and storage interfaces and (iv) audio/video interfaces.
  • 18. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)  An IoT device can collect various types of data from the on-board or attached sensors, such as temperature, humidity, light intensity.  The sensed data can be communicated either to other devices or cloud- based servers/storage.  IoT devices can be connected to actuators that allow them to interact with other physical entities (including non-IoT devices and systems) in the vicinity of the device.  For example, a relay switch connected to an IoT device can turn an appliance on/off based on the commands sent to the IoT device over the Internet.
  • 19. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)  IoT devices can also be of varied types, for instance, wearable sensors, smart watches, LED lights, automobiles and industrial machines.  Almost all IoT devices generate data in some form or the other which when processed by data analytics systems leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely.  For instance, sensor data generated by a soil moisture monitoring device in a garden, when processed can help in determining the optimum watering schedules.
  • 20. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)  Following Figure shows different types of IoT devices. 1. Google Home Voice Controller: Google Home Voice Controller is a smart IoT device that allows users to operate the TV, speakers, alarms, lights, and many more such appliances at home just by their voice. 2. Amazon Echo Voice Controller: Amazon Echo Plus voice controller is used to play songs, initiate phone calls and messages, set alarms, provide answers to the questions asked, check the weather, manage to-do lists, manage smart home appliances, and several other things. 3. Mr. Coffee Smart Coffeemaker: Mr. Coffee 10-Cup Smart Optimal Brew Coffeemaker makes it easier for the user to schedule, monitor, and modify their brew from anywhere. 4. Philips Hue Hue Go: Philips Hue Hue Go offers endless possibilities to connect the light to your everyday life and to operate it as you like it. 5. Amazon Dash Button: Amazon Dash Button is an IoT device to make its user's life simple and easy by making sure that the user does not lack important household items, for example, groceries, medical aids, and personal care items, etc.
  • 21. Physical Design of Internet of Things (IoT)  Following Figure shows different types of IoT devices. 6. August Doorbell Cam: August Doorbell Cam allows you to answer your door from anywhere or remotely. It constantly checks your doors, and also captures changes in motion in your doorway. 7. Footbot Air Quality Monitor: Footbot Air Quality Monitor is an IoT device that monitors indoor pollution in your home or workplace and consequently improves air quality. 8. August Smart Lock: August Smart Lock is an IoT device that provides security. It allows the user to learn remotely about each and every person who visits their houses. 9. Canary : Canary Is an all-in-one system for home security. It captures audio and video and sends smartphone notifications to users. It detects your homecoming and going, and you can also view the video feed from your smartphone. 10. Nest Smoke Alarm: It's an IoT device that works like a smoke alarm, thinking, talking, and alerting your mobile phone about any unwanted emergencies in your home. It self-tests automatically and has a set of colors to communicate the seriousness of the situation.
  • 22. IoT Protocols  IoT protcols help to establish Communication between IoT Device (Node Device) and Cloud based Server over the Internet.  It help to sent commands to IoT Device and received data from an IoT device over the Internet.
  • 23. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  Link layer protocols determine how the data is physically sent over the network's physical layer or medium (e.g., copper wire, coaxial cable, or a radio wave).  Link layer determines how the packets are coded and signaled by the hardware device over the medium to which the host is attached (such as a coaxial cable).
  • 24. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  IEEE 802.3 is a collection of wired Ethernet standards for the link layer.  For example, 802.3 is the standard for 10BASE5 Ethernet that uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, 802.3.i is the standard for 10BASE-T Ethernet over copper twisted-pair connections.  802.3.j is the standard for 10BASE-F Ethernet over fiber optic connections, 802.3ae is the standard for 10 Gbit/s Ethernet over fiber, and so on. 802.3-Ethernet:
  • 25. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.3-Ethernet:
  • 26. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  IEEE 802.11 is a collection of wireless local area network (WLAN) communication standards, including extensive description of the link layer.  802.11a operates in the 5 GHz band, 802.11b and 802.11g operate in the 2.4 GHz band, 802.11n operates in the 2.4/5 GHz bands, 802.11ac operates in the 5 GHz band and 802.11ad operates in the 60 GHz band.  These standards provide data rates from 1 Mb/s to upto 6.75 Gb/s. 802.11- Wi-Fi
  • 27. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.11- Wi-Fi frame format
  • 28. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  IEEE 802.16 is a collection of wireless broadband standards, including extensive descriptions for the link layer (also called WiMax).  WiMaxstandards provide data rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 1 Gb/s.  The recent update (802.16m) provides data rates of 100 Mbit/s for mobile stations and 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. 802.16-WiMax:
  • 29. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.16-WiMax frame format
  • 30. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  IEEE 802.15.4 is a collection of standards for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR- WPANs). These standards form the basis of specifications for high level communication protocols such as ZigBee.  LR-WPAN standards provide data rates from 40 Kb/s 250 Kb/s.  These standards provide low-cost and low-speed communication for power constrained devices. 802.15.4-LR-WPAN
  • 31. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols: 802.16-WiMax frame format
  • 32. IoT Protocols Link Layer Protocols:  There are different generations of mobile communication standards including second generation (2G including GSM and CDMA), third generation (3G - including UMTS and CDMA2000) and fourth generation (4G - including LTE).  IoT devices based on these standards can communicate over cellular networks.  Data rates for these standards range from 9.6 Kb/s (for 2G) to upto 100 Mb/s (for 4G) and are available from the 3GPP websites. 2G/3G/4G - Mobile Communication
  • 33. IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols:  The network layers are responsible for sending of IP datagrams from the source network to the destination network.  This layer performs the host addressing and packet routing.  The datagrams contain the source and destination addresses which are used to route them from the source to destination across multiple networks.  Host identification is done using hierarchical IP addressing schemes such as IPv4 or IPv6.
  • 34. IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols: IPv4  IPv4: Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the most deployed Internet protocol that is used to identify the devices on a network using a hierarchical addressing scheme.  IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme that allows total of 232 or 4,294,967,296 addresses.  IPv4 has been succeeded by IPv6.  The IP protocols establish connections on packet networks, but do not guarantee delivery of packets.  Guaranteed delivery and data integrity are handled by the upper layer protocols (such as TCP).
  • 35. IoT Protocols Network Layer Protocols: IPv6  Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the newest version of Internet protocol and successor to IPv4.  IPv6 uses 128-bit address scheme that allows total of 2128 or 3.4 x 1038 addresses. 6LOWPAN:  6LOWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks) brings IP protocol to the low-power devices which have limited processing capability.  6LOWPAN operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range and provides data transfer rates of 250 Kb/s.  6LOWPAN works with the 802.15.4 link layer protocol and defines compression mechanisms for IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-based networks.
  • 36. IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols:  The Transport layer protocols provide end-to-end message transfer capability independent of the underlying network.  The message transfer capability can be set up on connections, either using handshakes (as in TCP) or without handshakes / acknowledgements (as in UDP).  The transport layer provides functions such as error control, segmentation, flow control and congestion control.
  • 37. IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols: TCP  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most widely used transport layer protocol, that is used by web browsers (along with HTTP, HTTPS application layer protocols), email programs (SMTP application layer protocol) and file transfer (FTP).  TCP is a connection oriented and stateful protocol.  TCP ensures reliable transmission of packets in-order and also provides error detection capability so that duplicate packets can be discarded and lost packets are retransmitted.
  • 38. IoT Protocols Transport Layer Protocols: UDP  UDP is a connectionless protocol.  UDP is useful for time-sensitive applications that have very small data units to exchange and do not want the overhead of connection setup.  UDP is a transaction oriented and stateless protocol.  UDP does not provide guaranteed delivery, ordering of messages and duplicate elimination.  Higher levels of protocols can ensure reliable delivery or ensuring connections created are reliable.
  • 39. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols:  Application layer protocols define how the applications interface with the lower layer protocols to send the data over the network.  The application data, typically in files, is encoded by the application layer protocol and encapsulated in the transport layer protocol which provides connection or transaction oriented communication over the network.  Port numbers are used for application addressing (for example port 80 for HTTP, port 22 for SSH, etc.).  Application layer protocols enable process-to-process connections using ports.
  • 40. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: HTTP  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the application layer protocol that forms the foundation of the World Wide Web (WWW).  HTTP includes commands such as GET, PUT, POST, DELETE, HEAD, TRACE, OPTIONS, etc.  The protocol follows a request-response model where a client sends requests to a server using the HTTP commands.  HTTP is a stateless protocol and each HTTP request is independent of the other requests.  An HTTP client can be a browser or an application running on the client (e.g., an application running on an IoT device, a mobile application or other software).  HTTP protocol uses Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs) to identify HTTP resources.
  • 41. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: HTTP
  • 42. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: COAP  Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is an application layer protocol for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications, meant for constrained environments with constrained devices and constrained networks.  Like HTTP, COAP is a web transfer protocol and uses a request-response model, however it runs on top of UDP instead of TCP.  COAP uses a client-server architecture where clients communicate with servers using connectionless datagrams. COAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP.  Like HTTP, COAP supports methods such as GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE. COAP draft specifications are available on IEFT Constrained environments (CORE) Working Group website.
  • 43. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: COAP
  • 44. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: WebSocket  WebSocket protocol allows full-duplex communication over a single socket connection for sending messages between client and server.  WebSocket is based on TCP and allows streams of messages to be sent back and forth between the client and server while keeping the TCP connection open.  The client can be a browser, a mobile application or an IoT device.
  • 45. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: WebSocket
  • 46. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: MQTT  MQTT relies on the TCP protocol for data transmission.  Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a light-weight messaging protocol based on the publish-subscribe model.  MQTT uses a client-server architecture where the client (such as an IoT device) connects to the server (also called MQTT Broker) and publishes messages to topics on the server.  The broker forwards the messages to the clients subscribed to topics.  MQTT is well suited for constrained environments where the devices have limited processing and memory resources and the network bandwidth is low.
  • 47. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: MQTT
  • 48. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: XMPP  Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a protocol for real-time communication and streaming XML data between network entities.  XMPP powers wide range of applications including messaging, presence, data syndication, gaming, multi-party chat and voice/video calls.  XMPP allows sending small chunks of XML data from one network entity to another in near real-time.  XMPP is a decentralized protocol and uses a client-server architecture.  XMPP supports both client-to-server and server-to-server communication paths.  In the context of IoT, XMPP allows real-time communication between IoT devices.
  • 49. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: XMPP
  • 50. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: DDS  Data Distribution Service (DDS) is a data-centric middleware standard for device- todevice or machine-to-machine communication.  DDS uses a publish-subscribe model where publishers (e.g. devices that generate data) create topics to which subscribers (e.g., devices that want to consume data) can subscribe.  Publisher is an object responsible for data distribution and the subscriber is responsible for receiving published data.  DDS provides quality-of-service (QoS) control and configurable reliability.
  • 51. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: DSS
  • 52. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: AMQP  Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open application layer protocol for business messaging.  AMQP supports both point-to-point and publisher/subscriber models, routing and queuing.  AMQP brokers receive messages from publishers (e.g., devices or applications that generate data) and route them over connections to consumers (applications that process data).  Publishers publish the messages to exchanges which then distribute message copies to queues.  Messages are either delivered by the broker to the consumers which have subscribed to the queues or the consumers can pull the messages from the queues.
  • 53. IoT Protocols Application Layer Protocols: AMQP
  • 54. Logical design of IoT:  Logical design of an IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities and processes without going into the low-level specifics of the implementation.
  • 56. Logical design of IoT:  An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication, and management 1) Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions. 2) Communication: The communication block handles the communication for the IoT system. 3) Services: An IoT system uses various types of IoT services such as services for device monitoring, device control services, data publishing services and services for device discovery. 4) Management: Management functional block provides various functions to govern the IoT system. 5) Security: Security functional block secures the IoT system and by providing functions such as authentication, authorization, message and content integrity, and data security. 6) Application: IoT applications provide an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Applications also allow users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data.