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Presentation on Fuel Cells



            By :-
            Naveen Sihag
Introduction
                  It is an electrochemical
                   device which convert
                   hydrogen and oxygen into
                   water producing electricity
                   and heat in the process.
                  It is much like a battery that
                   can be recharged while you
                   are drawing power from it.
                  It provides a DC voltage that
                   can be used to power
                   motors, lights and any
                   number of electrical
                   appliances.
The Invention of the Fuel Cell

   Sir William Grove invented the first fuel cell in 1839. Grove
    knew that water could be split into hydrogen and oxygen by
    sending an electric current through it (a process called
    electrolysis). He hypothesized that by reversing the procedure
    you could produce electricity and water. He created a primitive
    fuel cell and called it a gas voltaic battery. After experimenting
    with his new invention, Grove proved his hypothesis. Fifty years
    later, scientists Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer coined the
    term fuel cell while attempting to build a practical model to
    produce electricity
What is a fuel cell?


   A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy
    conversion device. A fuel cell converts the
    chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in
    the process it produces electricity.
   A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a
    chemical reaction. Every fuel cell has two electrodes,
    one positive and one negative, called, respectively,
    the cathode and anode. The reactions that produce
    electricity take place at the electrodes
Why we need fuel cell?

Fuel cell provides an alternate efficient non
    polluting power source that produces no
    noise and has no moving parts.
It is expected that by 2050 the global energy
    demand is going to rise by 2 to 3 times.
This calls for optimization of generation of
    energy through well-known sources,
    preferably renewable energy for commercial
    exploitation.
Types of fuel cell

 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
 Phosphoric acid (PAFC)
 Solid Oxide (SOFC)
 Alkaline (AFC)
 Direct Methanol
 Molten Carbonate
PEM
Requirement for fuel cells

   Hydrocarbons
   Oxygen
   Water
   Hydrogen
   Carbon dioxide
   Carbon monoxide
   And hardware elements are
   Fuel processor or reformer
   Fuel cell
   Convertor
Alkali Fuel Cell
How fuel cells work ?

                   Chemistry of fuel cell
                 At anode:-
                        2H  4H + 4e
                             2


                 At Cathode:-
                   O + 4H + 4e  2H O
                     2                     2


                 NET REACTION

                         2H2 + O2  2H O
                                     2
Advantages


 Fuel cell system are environmentally benign .
 High conversion efficiency .
 Extremely low emission.
 Noise less operations.
 Has no moving parts
Applications
                  Fuel cells powered cars will start to
                   replace gas and diesel engine cars
                   in about 2055. .
                  Fuel cell powered buses are
                   already running in several cities..
                  This promising application will one
                   day even power our houses.
Applications

                Fuel cells also make
                sense for portable
                power like laptop
                computers and
                cellular phones.
   Telecommunications - With the use of computers, the
    Internet, and communication networks steadily increasing,
    there comes a need for more reliable power than is available
    on the current electrical grid, and fuel cells have proven to be
    up to 99.999% (five nines) reliable. Fuel cells can replace
    batteries to provide power for 1kW to 5kW telecom sites without
    noise or emissions, and are durable, providing power in sites
    that are either hard to access or are subject to inclement
    weather. Such systems would be used to provide primary or
    backup power for telecom switch nodes, cell towers, and other
    electronic systems that would benefit from on-site, direct DC
    power supply.
Nokia mobile with fuel cell battery
Wheel chair powered by fuel cell
Toshiba mp3 with a fuel cell
Major organizations working in the
field

 Ministry   of NCES
 IITs
 CSIR   labs
 BHEL
 GAIL
 BARC
 MIT
Disadvantages

 Initialcost of installation is higher.
 Comparative cost of energy storage of fuel
  cells is around twice that of conventional
  sources of energy.
 Energy produced by one fuel cell is around
  0.7 volts.
Recent development

 LLC,  latham,NY has successfully developed
  50 KW power plant.
 Fuel cell of capacity 1.5KW is powering
  houses in Australia.
 GAIL is actively involved in establishing fuel
  infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in India.
 CECRI, karaikudi has developed and tested
  MCFC stack.
Conclusion

   The above discussion prove the existence of huge
    market for fuel cells.
   The commercial power units are technically feasible .
   Research and development should be aimed at
    reducing cost and increasing life.
   Future cities can be planned on fuel cell systems for
    their power and energy requirements.
Thank you

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Fuel cells

  • 1. Presentation on Fuel Cells By :- Naveen Sihag
  • 2. Introduction  It is an electrochemical device which convert hydrogen and oxygen into water producing electricity and heat in the process.  It is much like a battery that can be recharged while you are drawing power from it.  It provides a DC voltage that can be used to power motors, lights and any number of electrical appliances.
  • 3. The Invention of the Fuel Cell  Sir William Grove invented the first fuel cell in 1839. Grove knew that water could be split into hydrogen and oxygen by sending an electric current through it (a process called electrolysis). He hypothesized that by reversing the procedure you could produce electricity and water. He created a primitive fuel cell and called it a gas voltaic battery. After experimenting with his new invention, Grove proved his hypothesis. Fifty years later, scientists Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer coined the term fuel cell while attempting to build a practical model to produce electricity
  • 4. What is a fuel cell?  A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity.  A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction. Every fuel cell has two electrodes, one positive and one negative, called, respectively, the cathode and anode. The reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes
  • 5. Why we need fuel cell? Fuel cell provides an alternate efficient non polluting power source that produces no noise and has no moving parts. It is expected that by 2050 the global energy demand is going to rise by 2 to 3 times. This calls for optimization of generation of energy through well-known sources, preferably renewable energy for commercial exploitation.
  • 6. Types of fuel cell  Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)  Phosphoric acid (PAFC)  Solid Oxide (SOFC)  Alkaline (AFC)  Direct Methanol  Molten Carbonate
  • 7. PEM
  • 8. Requirement for fuel cells  Hydrocarbons  Oxygen  Water  Hydrogen  Carbon dioxide  Carbon monoxide  And hardware elements are  Fuel processor or reformer  Fuel cell  Convertor
  • 10. How fuel cells work ?  Chemistry of fuel cell At anode:- 2H  4H + 4e 2 At Cathode:- O + 4H + 4e  2H O 2 2 NET REACTION 2H2 + O2  2H O 2
  • 11. Advantages  Fuel cell system are environmentally benign .  High conversion efficiency .  Extremely low emission.  Noise less operations.  Has no moving parts
  • 12. Applications  Fuel cells powered cars will start to replace gas and diesel engine cars in about 2055. .  Fuel cell powered buses are already running in several cities..  This promising application will one day even power our houses.
  • 13. Applications  Fuel cells also make sense for portable power like laptop computers and cellular phones.
  • 14. Telecommunications - With the use of computers, the Internet, and communication networks steadily increasing, there comes a need for more reliable power than is available on the current electrical grid, and fuel cells have proven to be up to 99.999% (five nines) reliable. Fuel cells can replace batteries to provide power for 1kW to 5kW telecom sites without noise or emissions, and are durable, providing power in sites that are either hard to access or are subject to inclement weather. Such systems would be used to provide primary or backup power for telecom switch nodes, cell towers, and other electronic systems that would benefit from on-site, direct DC power supply.
  • 15. Nokia mobile with fuel cell battery
  • 16. Wheel chair powered by fuel cell
  • 17. Toshiba mp3 with a fuel cell
  • 18. Major organizations working in the field  Ministry of NCES  IITs  CSIR labs  BHEL  GAIL  BARC  MIT
  • 19. Disadvantages  Initialcost of installation is higher.  Comparative cost of energy storage of fuel cells is around twice that of conventional sources of energy.  Energy produced by one fuel cell is around 0.7 volts.
  • 20. Recent development  LLC, latham,NY has successfully developed 50 KW power plant.  Fuel cell of capacity 1.5KW is powering houses in Australia.  GAIL is actively involved in establishing fuel infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in India.  CECRI, karaikudi has developed and tested MCFC stack.
  • 21. Conclusion  The above discussion prove the existence of huge market for fuel cells.  The commercial power units are technically feasible .  Research and development should be aimed at reducing cost and increasing life.  Future cities can be planned on fuel cell systems for their power and energy requirements.