fuel cell technology


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it gives the basic idea about the fuel cell technology. It is an emerging technology in the field of renewable source of energy

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fuel cell technology

  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Operation of fuel cell Chemistry of fuel cell How fuel cell works Classification of fuel cell Phosphoric acid fuel cell Alkaline fuel cell Proton exchange fuel cell Molten carbonate fuel cell Solid oxide fuel cell Reference
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Fuel cell provides a clean source of power in comparison to other sources like hydro, thermal, nuclear etc It is known as cell because of some similarities with primary cell. It has two electrodes and an electrolyte between them which produces dc power. However, active materials are supplied from outside unlike conventional cell.
  4. 4. A static device which converts the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. First crude fuel cell was developed in 1839 It was developed by welsh physicist William Grove First commercial use of fuel cells was in NASA space programs to generate power for probes, satellites and space capsules
  6. 6. Chemistry of a Fuel Cell Anode side: 2H2  4H+ + 4e- Cathode side: O2 + 4H+ + 4e-  2H2O Net reaction: 2H2 + O2  2H2O
  7. 7. Classification of fuel cell Based on the type of electrolyte  Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell  Alkaline Fuel Cell  Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell  Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based on the types of the fuel and oxidant  Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell  Ammonia-air fuel cell  Hydrazine-oxygen fuel cell  Hydrocarbon (gas) fuel cell  Hydrocarbon (liquid) fuel cell
  8. 8. Based on the type of operating temperature  Low temperature fuel cell(below 150° C)  Medium temperature fuel cell(150-250° C)  High temperature fuel cell(250-800° C)  Very high temperature fuel cell(800-1100° C) Based on application  Space application  Vehicle propulsion  Submarines  Defense application  Commercial application
  9. 9. Based on the chemical nature of electrolyte  Acidic electrolyte type  Alkaline electrolyte type  Neutral electrolyte type
  10. 10. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell It was developed in 1980s. It consists of two electrodes of porous conducting material (commonly nickel) to collect charge ,with concentrated phosphoric acid filled between them , to work as electrolyte. Platinum catalyst is added to both electrode to enhance the rate of the reaction.
  11. 11. At Anode: At Cathode:
  12. 12. Alkaline fuel cell It is the oldest fuel cell It uses 40% aqueous KOH as electrolyte The operating temperature is about 90°C The fuel must be free from carbon dioxide The presence of carbon dioxide in fuel results in the formation of potassium carbonate which increases resistance of cell They were used in Apollo spacecraft to provide both electricity and drinking water
  13. 13. At Cathode At Anode
  14. 14. proton exchange membrane fuel cell A solid membrane of organic material like polystyrene sulphonic acid is used as electrolyte A finely divided platinum is deposited on each surface of the membrane It serves as an electrochemical catalyst and current collector It retains only limited quantity of water This fuel cell operates at 40-60°C
  15. 15. Molten carbonate fuel cell It uses carbonate of alkali metals in molten state as electrolyte This requires the cell operation above the melting point(about 600-700°C) of the respective carbonates Because of high temperature it does not need any catalyst
  16. 16. At Anode At Cathode
  17. 17. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL It uses a hard, ceramic compound of metal (like Ca ,Zr) oxides as electrolyte. Operating temperature is about 600-1000°C The anode is made of porous nickel and cathode employs metal oxide like indium oxide The high temperature limits applications of SOFC units and they tend to be rather large. Solid electrolytes cannot leak, but they can crack.
  18. 18. At Anode: And At Cathode:
  19. 19. S. No. Fuel Cell Op. temp Fuel Efficiency 1 PEMFC 40-60°C H2 48-58% 2 AFC 90°C H2 64% 3 PAFC 150-200°C H2 42% 4 MCFC 600-700°C H2 and CO 50% 5 SOFC 600-1000°C H2 and CO 60-65%
  20. 20. classification of FUELs Direct type Introduced directly in the cell without any transformation Examples are Pure Hydrogen,Hydazine(N2H4) Indirect type Introduced after reforming to a mixture of H2 and some other products Examples are Ammonia,Methanol
  21. 21. COMMON FUELS Hydrogen Hydrazine Ammonia Hydrocarbon(gases) Hydrocarbon(liquid) Synthesis gases Methanol
  22. 22. FUEL CELL SYSTEM Fuel cell stack
  23. 23. Fuel processor  The fuel processor converts fuel into a form usable by the fuel cell Current inverters and conditioners DC to AC converter are used Power conditioning includes controlling current flow (amperes), voltage, frequency, and other characteristics Heat recovery system Excess energy can be used to produce steam or hot water or to be converted to electricity via a gas turbine or other technology
  25. 25. COST COMPARISON S. No Name of source Cost per MW (Rs) Efficiency (%) 1 Thermal 4.5 crore 35-40 2 Hydro 5.5 crore 80-90 3 Nuclear 5 crore 33-38 4 Solar 14 crore 15-18 5 Wind 4.5 crore 25-30 6 Fuel cell 20 crore 55
  26. 26. APPLICATION Transport Portable Stationary
  27. 27. TRANSPORT The fuel cell bus sector is showing year-on-year growth, with more prototypes being unveiled Successful deployments have taken place in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA Forklift trucks and other goods handling vehicles such as airport baggage trucks etc Light duty vehicles (LDVs), such as cars and vans Buses and trucks Trains and trams Ferries and smaller boat
  28. 28. PORTABLE Portable fuel cells are those which are built into, or charge up, products that are designed to be moved These include military applications, auxiliary power units, personal electronics, portable products Portable fuel cells are being developed in a wide range of sizes ranging from less than 5 W up to 20 KW. Off-grid operation Longer run-times compared with batteries Rapid recharging Significant weight reduction potential (for soldier-borne military power) Convenience, reliability, and lower operating costs also apply
  29. 29. STATIONARY Stationary fuel cells are units which provide electricity but are not designed to be moved These include combined heat and power (CHP), uninterruptible power systems (UPS) and primary power units. Residential CHP units have been deployed extensively in Japan with more than 10,000 cumulative units by the end of 2010  South Korea has also deployed CHP units for residential use
  30. 30. Application type portable stationary Transport Definition Units that are built into, or charge up, products that are designed to be moved including auxiliary power units(APU) Units that provide electricity(and sometimes heat) but are not designed to be moved Units that produced propulsive power or range extension to a vehicle Power range 5W to20KW O.5 KW to 400KW 1KW to 100KW Technology PEMFC DMFC PEMFC PAFC MCFC SOFC PEMFC DMFC examples Non-motive APU Military applications(portabl e soldier-borne power) Portable products(torches, battery chargers) Large stationary combined heat and power(CHP) Small stationary micro-CHP Uninterruptible power sources(UPS) Fuel cell electric vehicles(FCEV) Trucks and buses
  31. 31. LOSSES Activation losses These losses are caused by the slowness of the reaction taking place on the surface of the electrodes. Ohmic losses The voltage drop due to the resistance to the flow of electrons through the material of the electrodes. This loss varies linearly with current density. Concentration losses Losses that result from the change in concentration of the reactants at the surface of the electrodes as the fuel is used. Fuel crossover losses Losses that result from the waste of fuel passing through the electrolyte and electron conduction through the electrolyte.
  32. 32. ADVANTAGES It is eco-friendly, noiseless and has no rotating part. It is a decentralized plant. Because of modular nature ,any voltage/current level can be realized High efficiency up to 55% as compared to conventional which has 30% No transmission and distribution losses Wide choice of fuel for fuel cell In addition to electric power, fuel cell plant also supply hot water, space heat and steam Requires less space
  33. 33. disadvantages Cost to implement a fuel cell system exceeds $4,000 per KW Feasible way to produce, ship, and distribute hydrogen Lack of hydrogen infrastructure and life span of fuel cell
  34. 34. Challenges Cost • Currently, the cost is in the $4,000+ range per KW(Rs 20 crore per MW) • Fuel cells could become competitive if they reach an installed cost of $1,500 or less per KW for stationary application • A competitive cost of the order of $60 - $100 per KW in automobile sector would be acceptable Durability and reliability • The long-term performance and reliability of fuel cell systems has not been significantly demonstrated to the market
  35. 35. Infrastructure • Fuel Infrastructure If vehicles are hydrogen-based then an infrastructure for producing, distributing, storing, delivering and maintaining hydrogen fuel is important. In the case of portable applications, the most likely fuel is methanol-based which is sold in a cartridge-like format. • Human Resource Infrastructure Service: This is a brand new technology so qualified service and maintenance personnel will be needed. Development: A critical need today is for qualified technical personnel to assist in the development and commercialization of these products.
  36. 36. System size • The size and weight of current fuel cell systems must be further reduced to meet the packaging requirements for automobiles Fuel Flexibility Air, Thermal, and Water Management Improved Heat Recovery Systems
  37. 37. PRESENT STATUS Fuel cell industry began its road to commercialisation in 2007 An 11.2 MW installation in Korea is the world’s largest fuel cell power plant till today In Germany more than 250 fuel cell micro-CHP system have been installed under the callux programme Commercial production of fuel cell scooters has started in Taiwan in 2012 At the end of 2011, 215 hydrogen refuelling stations was in operation worldwide. The stations are located in Europe (85), North America (80), Asia Pacific (47) and the Rest of the World (3). In USA, at the end of 2011 Clear Edge has over 100 installations of its 5 kW ClearEdge5 HT PEMFC unit in California
  38. 38. Hyundai ix35 FCEV, Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL Mercedes-Benz Citaro fuel cell buses In May 2012, the world’s largest platinum producer Anglo American Platinum launched a fuel cell powered mine locomotive prototype. Some of the agencies involved in development of fuel cells in India are • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES) • Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) • Indian Railways, • Indian Institute of Science and Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, • Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), and Reva Electric Car Company At Vijayawada and Chennai hydrogen filling station are established
  39. 39. REFEreNCE • Khan, B.H., Non Conventional Energy Resources,,New Delhi: McGraw- Hill Third Reprint 2008 • Kothari,D.P, Singhal K.C,Ranja,Rakesh,Renewable Energy Sources and Emerging Technologies,New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited Second Edition Nov 2011 • Nice,Karim and Strickland, Jonathan. "How Fuel Cells Work: Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells". How Stuff Works, accessed August 4, 2011 • http://openaccesslibrary.org/images/HAR224_Adesh_Shar ma.pdf • http://policy.rutgers.edu/ceeep/hydrogen/education/Ther modynamicsFuelCells.pdf • http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/1713685/fct_review_ 2012.pdf
  40. 40. http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/knowledge- library.php http://ezinearticles.com/?Disadvantage-of-Fuel- Cells&id=1788240