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BATTERY
TECHNOLOGIES
Commercial Cells.
Galvanic cells used as source of electric energy
for various consumer, industrial and military
applications.
Classification:
Primary Cells. Eg.: Dry cell
Secondary Cells. Eg.: Lead acid cell.
Objectives:
 Describe the major features of commercial cells.
 Know the two major types of batteries.
 Distinguish between primary & secondary
battery types.
 Know the various applications of Dry cell, Nicad
cell, Lead acid cell, H2-O2 fuel cell and CH3OH –
O2 fuel cell.
Basic Requirements Of
Primary Cell.
 Compactness and lightweight.
 Fabricated from easily available raw materials.
 Economically priced.
 High energy density and constant voltage.
 Benign environmental properties
 Longer shelf life and discharge period.
 Leak proof containers and variety of design
options.
Basic Requirements Of
Secondary Cell.
Long shelf-life and cycle life.
High power to weight ratio
Short time for recharging
Tolerance to service condition.
High voltage & high energy density.
Primary Cells.
Produce electricity from chemicals that are
sealed into it.
Cannot be recharged as the cell reaction
cannot be reversed efficiently by recharging.
The cell must be discarded after discharging.
e.g. Zinc - manganese dioxide cell (Dry cell)
Mercuric oxide – Zinc cell.
Silver oxide – zinc cell.
Secondary Cells
Generation of electric energy, that can be
restored to its original charged condition after
its discharge by passing current flowing in the
opposite direction.
These cells have a large number of cycles of
discharging and charging.
They are known as rechargeable cells, storage
cells, or accumulators.
e.g. Lead storage cell.
Nickel- cadmium cell.
Lithium- ion batteries.
Differences
Primary Batteries Secondary Batteries
 Cell reaction is irreversible Cell reaction is reversible.
 Must be discarded after use. May be recharged
 Have relatively short shelf life Have long shelf life.
 Function only as galvanic Functions both galvanic
cells . Cell & as electrolytic cell.
 They cannot be used as They can be used as energy
storage devices storage devices (e.g. solar/
thermal energy
converted to electrical energy)
 They cannot be recharged They can be recharged.
e.g. Dry cell. Li-MnO2battery.Lead acid,
Ni-Cd battery.
DRY CELL(LECLANCHE CELL)
 Anode: Zinc metal container.
 Cathode: MnO2 + Carbon (powdered graphite)
 Electrolyte: Aqueous paste of NH4Cl and
ZnCl2
 Cell Scheme:
Zn(s)/ ZnCl2(aq),NH4Cl(aq),MnO2(s)/C
 O.C.V. = 1.5V
Working.
Primary Electrode Reactions:
Anode: Zn(s)→Zn2+
(aq)+ 2e-
Cathode:
2MnO2(s)+H2O(l) + 2e- → Mn2O3(s) + 2OH-
(aq)
Net Reaction: Zn(s)+2MnO2(s)+ H2O(l) →
Zn2+
(aq)+Mn2O3(s)+2OH-
(aq)
Secondary Reactions:
NH4
+
(aq)+OH-
(aq) → NH3(g)+H2O(l)
Zn2+
(aq)+2NH3(s)+2Cl- → [Zn(NH3)2 Cl2]
Zn + 2MnO2 + 2NH4Cl →[Zn(NH3)2Cl2]+ H2O+
Mn2O3
Applications:
 In small portable appliances where small
amount of current is needed.
 In consumer electronic devices- quartz
wall clocks, walkman etc.
Advantages.
Dry cell is cheap.
Normally works without leaking (leak proof
cells).
Has a high energy density.
It is not toxic
It contains no liquid electrolytes.
Disadvantages.
Voltage drops due to build up of reaction
products around the electrodes when current is
drawn rapidly from it .
It has limited shelf life because the zinc is
corroded by the faintly acid,ammonium chloride.
The shelf life of dry cell is 6-8 months.
They cannot be used once they get discharged.
Its emf decreases during use as the material is
consumed.
Lead-acid battery:
LEAD STORAGE BATTERY.
 Anode: Spongy lead on lead grid.
 Cathode: Porous PbO2.
 Electrolyte: H2SO4(aq)( 20 %)
(density 1.21-1.30g/ml)
• Cell Scheme:
Pb/PbSO4;H2SO4(aq);PbSO4;PbO2/Pb
O.C.V. = 2V (Pair of plates)
Reactions during
discharging.
 Anode: Pb (s) → Pb2+
(aq) + 2e-
Pb2+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq) → PbSO4(s)
Pb(s)+ SO4
2-
(aq) → PbSO4(aq) + 2e-
 Cathode:PbO2(s)+ 4H+
(aq)+2e- →Pb2+
(aq)+ 2H2O(l)
Pb2+
(aq)+SO4
2-
(aq)→PbSO4(s)
PbO2(s)+4H+
(aq)+SO4
2-
(aq)+2e- → PbSO4(s)+
2H2O(l)
 Overall: Pb (s)+PbO2 (s)+4H+
(aq)+ 2SO4
2-
(aq) →
2PbSO4 (s)+2H2O(l)
Charging the Lead-acid battery:
Charging reactions
 Cathode:
PbSO4(s)+2H2O(l)→PbO2(s)+ SO4
2-
(aq)+4H+
(aq)
+2e-
 Anode :
PbSO4(s) + 2e- → Pb(s)+ SO4
2-
(aq)
 Net:2PbSO4 (s)+ 2H2O(aq) → Pb(s)+ PbO2(s)
+2H2SO4
Limitations.
 Self discharge:They are subject to self discharge with H2
evolution at negative plates and O2 evolution at positive
plates.
Pb +H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2
PbO2 + H2SO4 PbSO4 +H2O +1/2 O2
SO4
2- +2 H+ (From dissociation of water) H2SO4
H2O H+ +OH-
 Loss ofWater: Due to evaporation, self discharge and
electrolysis of water while charging. Hence water
content must be regularly checked and distilled water
must be added.
 Sulfation: If left in uncharged state, for a prolonged
period, or operated at too high temperatures or at too
high acid concentrations, transformation of porous
PbSO4 into dense and coarse grained form by re
crystallization.
* This results in passivation of negative plates
inhibiting their charge acceptance.
 Corrosion of Grid: Can occur due to overcharging
when grid metal gets exposed to the electrolyte.
This weakens the grid and increases the internal
resistance of the battery.
 Effectiveness of battery is reduced at low
temperature due to increase in the viscosity of
electrolyte.
 Recent years have seen the introduction of
“maintenance – free batteries” without a gas –
release vent. Here the gassing is controlled by
careful choice of the composition of the lead alloys
used i.e. by using a Pb-Ca (0.1 % ) as the anode
which inhibits the electrolysis of water
 Alternatively, some modern batteries contain a
catalyst (e.g. a mixture of 98% ceria (cerium oxide)
& 2% platinum, heated to 1000o C) that combines
the hydrogen and oxygen produced during
discharge back into water. Thus the battery retains
its potency and requires no maintenance. Such
batteries are sealed as there is no need to add water
and this sealing prevents leakage of cell materials.
Applications.
*Automative: For starting, lighting and
ignition of IC engine driven vehicles.
*Consumer Applications: Emergency
lighting, security alarm system.
*Heavy duty Application:Trains, lift
trucks, mining machines etc.
Advantages:
A lead storage battery is highly efficient. The
voltage efficiency of the cell is defined as follows.
Voltage efficiency = average voltage during discharge
average voltage during charge
The voltage efficiency of the lead – acid cell is about
80 %.
The near reversibility is a consequence of the faster
rate of the chemical reactions in the cell i.e. anode
oxidizes easily and cathode reduces easily leading
to an overall reaction with a high negative free
energy change.
 A lead – acid battery provides a good service for
several years. Its larger versions can last 20 to 30
years, if carefully attended (i.e. longer design life)
 It can be recharged. The number of recharges
possible range from 300 to 1500, depending on the
battery’s design and conditions. The sealed lead-
acid batteries can withstand upto 2000 –
rechargings. Generally the most costly, largest,
heaviest cells are the longest–lived.
 The battery’s own internal self – discharging is low.
 The length of time that is generally required for re-
charging process is less i.e. recharge time is 2-8
hours depending on the status of battery.
 Low environmental impact of constituent
materials is an added advantage
 It has sensitivity to rough handling and good
safety characteristics.
 Ease of servicing as indicated by several local
battery service points.
 It is a low- cost battery with facilities for
manufacture throughout the world using cheap
materials.
NICKEL- CADMIUM CELL
Anode: Porous cadmium powder
compressed to cylindrical pellets.
Cathode: Ni(OH)3 or NiO(OH) mixed with 20%
graphite powder
Electrolyte: 20-28% Aq. KOH jelled with a
jelling agent.
Cell Scheme:
Cd/Cd(OH)2,KOH,Ni(OH)2, Ni(OH)3/Ni
O.C.V. = 1.25V
Reactions during discharging.
Anode:
Cd(s)+2OH-
(aq)→Cd(OH)2(s)+ 2e-
Cathode:
2Ni(OH)3(s)+2e- → 2Ni(OH)2(s)+2OH-
(aq)
 Net Reaction:
Cd(s)+2Ni(OH)3(s)→ 2Ni(OH)2(s)+ Cd(OH)2(s)
Charging reactions:
Anode:
Cd(OH)2(s)+2e-→ Cd(s) +2OH-
(aq)
Cathode:
2Ni(OH)2(s) +2OH-
(aq)→2Ni(OH)3(s)+2e-
Net:
2Ni(OH)2(s)+Cd(OH)2(s)→2Ni(OH)3(s)+ Cd(s)
Discharging reaction:
 Anode: Cd(s)+2OH-(aq) → Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e-
Cathode: 2NiO (OH) (s) + 2 H2O + 2 e- →
2Ni (OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq)
 Net Reaction: Cd(s) + 2NiO (OH) (s) + 2H2O
→ 2 Ni(OH)2 (s) + Cd(OH)2(s)
Charging reactions:
 -ve pole: Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2e-→ Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq)
 +ve pole: 2 Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq) → 2 NiO(OH)
(s) + 2H2O+2e-
 Overall reaction: 2 Ni(OH)2 (s) + Cd(OH)2(s) →
2 NiO(OH) (s) + Cd(s) +2H2O(l)
Applications.
In flash lights, photoflash units and portable
electronic equipments.
In emergency lighting systems, alarm systems.
In air crafts and space satellite power systems.
For starting large diesel engines and gas
turbines etc.,
Advantages.
Can be recharged many times.
They maintain nearly constant voltage level throught
their discharge.There is no change in the electrolyte
composition during the operation.
It can be left unused for long periods of time at any state
of charge without any appreciable damage (i.e. long shelf
life).
It can be encased as a sealed unit like the dry cell because
gassing will not occur during nominal discharging or
recharging.
They exhibit good performance ability at low
temperatures.
They can be used to produce large instantaneous
currents as high as 1000-8000 A for one second.
It is a compact rechargeable cell available in three
basic configurations – button, cylindrical and
rectangular.
They have low internal resistance.
Disadvantages.
 It poses an environmental pollution hazard due
to higher toxicity of metallic cadmium than lead.
 Cadmium is a heavy metal and its use increases
the weight of batteries, particularly in larger
versions.
 Cost of cadmium metal and hence the cost of
construction of NiCad batteries is high.
 The KOH electrolyte used is a corrosive
hazardous chemical.
Fuel Cells.
A fuel cell is a galvanic cell in which chemical
energy of a fuel – oxidant system is converted
directly into electrical energy in a continuous
electrochemical process.
 Cell Schematic Representation:
Fuel;electrode/electrolyte/electrode/oxidant.
e.g. H2-O2; CH3OH-O2
 The reactants (i.e. fuel + oxidant) are constantly supplied
from outside and the products are removed at the same
rate as they are formed.
 Anode:
Fuel+ oxygen → Oxidation products+ ne-
 Cathode:
Oxidant + ne- → Reduction products.
Requirements Of Fuel Cell.
 Electrodes: Must be stable, porous and
good conductor.
 Catalyst: Porous electrode must be
impregnated with catalyst like Pt,
Pd, Ag or Ni, to enhance
otherwise slow electrochemical
reactions.
 OptimumTemperature: Optimum.
 Electrolyte: Fairly concentrated.
Hydrogen – Oxygen Fuel Cell
 Anode: Porous graphite electrodes impregnated with
finely divided Pt/Pd.
 Cathode: Porous graphite electrodes impregnated with
finely divided Pt/Pd.
 Electrolyte: 35-50% KOH held in asbestos matrix.
 OperatingTemperature: 90oC.
 Anode :
2H2(g) +40H-
(aq)→ 4H2O(l)+4e-
 Cathode:
O2(g)+2H2O(l)+4e- →4OH(aq)
 Net Reaction:
2H2(g)+O2(g)→2H2O(l).
*Water should be removed from the cell.
*O2should be free from impurities.
Applications.
 Used as energy source in space shuttles e.g.
Apollo spacecraft.
 Used in small- scale applications in
submarines and other military vehicles.
 Suitable in places where, environmental
pollution and noise are objectionable.
CH3OH-O2 Fuel Cell
 Both electrodes: Made of porous nickel
plates impregnated with finely- divided
Platinum.
 Fuel: Methyl alcohol.
 Oxidant: Pure oxygen / air.
 Electrolyte:Conc.Phosphoric acid/Aq.KOH
 OperatingTemperature: 150-200oC.
 The emf of the cell is 1.20V at 25oC.
 MeOH is one of the most electro active organic fuels in
the low temperature range as
*It has a low carbon content
*It posseses a readily oxidizable OH group
*It is miscible in all proportions in aqueous
electrolytes.
 At anode:
CH3OH + 6OH- →CO2 + 5H2O + 6e-
• At cathode:
3/2 O2 +3H2O + 6e- →6OH-
Net Reaction:
CH3OH +3/2O2 →CO2 + 2H2O.
It is used in millitary applications and in large scale power
production. It has been used to power television relay
stations.
Advantages Of Fuel Cells.
 High efficiency of the energy conversion
process.
 Silent operation.
 No moving parts and so elimination of wear
and tear.
 Absence of harmful waste products.
 No need of charging.
Limitations Of Fuel Cells.
 Cost of power is high as a result of the cost of
electrodes.
 Fuels in the form of gases and O2 need to be
stored in tanks under high pressure.
 Power output is moderate.
 They are sensitive to fuel contaminants such
as CO,H2S, NH3 & halides, depending on the
type of fuel cell.
Differences.
 Fuel Cell Galvanic Cell
*Do not store chemical Stores chemical energy
energy
*Reactants are fed from The reactants form an
outside continuously. integral part of it.
*Need expensive noble These conditions are
metal catalysts. not required
*No need of charging Get-discharged when stored
– up energy is exhausted.
*Never become dead Limited life span in use
*Useful for long-term Useful as portable power services
electricity generation.

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Battery Types and Battery technology

  • 2. Commercial Cells. Galvanic cells used as source of electric energy for various consumer, industrial and military applications. Classification: Primary Cells. Eg.: Dry cell Secondary Cells. Eg.: Lead acid cell.
  • 3. Objectives:  Describe the major features of commercial cells.  Know the two major types of batteries.  Distinguish between primary & secondary battery types.  Know the various applications of Dry cell, Nicad cell, Lead acid cell, H2-O2 fuel cell and CH3OH – O2 fuel cell.
  • 4. Basic Requirements Of Primary Cell.  Compactness and lightweight.  Fabricated from easily available raw materials.  Economically priced.  High energy density and constant voltage.  Benign environmental properties  Longer shelf life and discharge period.  Leak proof containers and variety of design options.
  • 5. Basic Requirements Of Secondary Cell. Long shelf-life and cycle life. High power to weight ratio Short time for recharging Tolerance to service condition. High voltage & high energy density.
  • 6. Primary Cells. Produce electricity from chemicals that are sealed into it. Cannot be recharged as the cell reaction cannot be reversed efficiently by recharging. The cell must be discarded after discharging. e.g. Zinc - manganese dioxide cell (Dry cell) Mercuric oxide – Zinc cell. Silver oxide – zinc cell.
  • 7. Secondary Cells Generation of electric energy, that can be restored to its original charged condition after its discharge by passing current flowing in the opposite direction. These cells have a large number of cycles of discharging and charging. They are known as rechargeable cells, storage cells, or accumulators. e.g. Lead storage cell. Nickel- cadmium cell. Lithium- ion batteries.
  • 8. Differences Primary Batteries Secondary Batteries  Cell reaction is irreversible Cell reaction is reversible.  Must be discarded after use. May be recharged  Have relatively short shelf life Have long shelf life.  Function only as galvanic Functions both galvanic cells . Cell & as electrolytic cell.  They cannot be used as They can be used as energy storage devices storage devices (e.g. solar/ thermal energy converted to electrical energy)  They cannot be recharged They can be recharged. e.g. Dry cell. Li-MnO2battery.Lead acid, Ni-Cd battery.
  • 10.  Anode: Zinc metal container.  Cathode: MnO2 + Carbon (powdered graphite)  Electrolyte: Aqueous paste of NH4Cl and ZnCl2  Cell Scheme: Zn(s)/ ZnCl2(aq),NH4Cl(aq),MnO2(s)/C  O.C.V. = 1.5V
  • 11. Working. Primary Electrode Reactions: Anode: Zn(s)→Zn2+ (aq)+ 2e- Cathode: 2MnO2(s)+H2O(l) + 2e- → Mn2O3(s) + 2OH- (aq) Net Reaction: Zn(s)+2MnO2(s)+ H2O(l) → Zn2+ (aq)+Mn2O3(s)+2OH- (aq)
  • 12. Secondary Reactions: NH4 + (aq)+OH- (aq) → NH3(g)+H2O(l) Zn2+ (aq)+2NH3(s)+2Cl- → [Zn(NH3)2 Cl2] Zn + 2MnO2 + 2NH4Cl →[Zn(NH3)2Cl2]+ H2O+ Mn2O3
  • 13. Applications:  In small portable appliances where small amount of current is needed.  In consumer electronic devices- quartz wall clocks, walkman etc.
  • 14. Advantages. Dry cell is cheap. Normally works without leaking (leak proof cells). Has a high energy density. It is not toxic It contains no liquid electrolytes.
  • 15. Disadvantages. Voltage drops due to build up of reaction products around the electrodes when current is drawn rapidly from it . It has limited shelf life because the zinc is corroded by the faintly acid,ammonium chloride. The shelf life of dry cell is 6-8 months. They cannot be used once they get discharged. Its emf decreases during use as the material is consumed.
  • 18.  Anode: Spongy lead on lead grid.  Cathode: Porous PbO2.  Electrolyte: H2SO4(aq)( 20 %) (density 1.21-1.30g/ml) • Cell Scheme: Pb/PbSO4;H2SO4(aq);PbSO4;PbO2/Pb O.C.V. = 2V (Pair of plates)
  • 19. Reactions during discharging.  Anode: Pb (s) → Pb2+ (aq) + 2e- Pb2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → PbSO4(s) Pb(s)+ SO4 2- (aq) → PbSO4(aq) + 2e-  Cathode:PbO2(s)+ 4H+ (aq)+2e- →Pb2+ (aq)+ 2H2O(l) Pb2+ (aq)+SO4 2- (aq)→PbSO4(s) PbO2(s)+4H+ (aq)+SO4 2- (aq)+2e- → PbSO4(s)+ 2H2O(l)  Overall: Pb (s)+PbO2 (s)+4H+ (aq)+ 2SO4 2- (aq) → 2PbSO4 (s)+2H2O(l)
  • 21. Charging reactions  Cathode: PbSO4(s)+2H2O(l)→PbO2(s)+ SO4 2- (aq)+4H+ (aq) +2e-  Anode : PbSO4(s) + 2e- → Pb(s)+ SO4 2- (aq)  Net:2PbSO4 (s)+ 2H2O(aq) → Pb(s)+ PbO2(s) +2H2SO4
  • 22. Limitations.  Self discharge:They are subject to self discharge with H2 evolution at negative plates and O2 evolution at positive plates. Pb +H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2 PbO2 + H2SO4 PbSO4 +H2O +1/2 O2 SO4 2- +2 H+ (From dissociation of water) H2SO4 H2O H+ +OH-  Loss ofWater: Due to evaporation, self discharge and electrolysis of water while charging. Hence water content must be regularly checked and distilled water must be added.
  • 23.  Sulfation: If left in uncharged state, for a prolonged period, or operated at too high temperatures or at too high acid concentrations, transformation of porous PbSO4 into dense and coarse grained form by re crystallization. * This results in passivation of negative plates inhibiting their charge acceptance.
  • 24.  Corrosion of Grid: Can occur due to overcharging when grid metal gets exposed to the electrolyte. This weakens the grid and increases the internal resistance of the battery.  Effectiveness of battery is reduced at low temperature due to increase in the viscosity of electrolyte.
  • 25.  Recent years have seen the introduction of “maintenance – free batteries” without a gas – release vent. Here the gassing is controlled by careful choice of the composition of the lead alloys used i.e. by using a Pb-Ca (0.1 % ) as the anode which inhibits the electrolysis of water  Alternatively, some modern batteries contain a catalyst (e.g. a mixture of 98% ceria (cerium oxide) & 2% platinum, heated to 1000o C) that combines the hydrogen and oxygen produced during discharge back into water. Thus the battery retains its potency and requires no maintenance. Such batteries are sealed as there is no need to add water and this sealing prevents leakage of cell materials.
  • 26. Applications. *Automative: For starting, lighting and ignition of IC engine driven vehicles. *Consumer Applications: Emergency lighting, security alarm system. *Heavy duty Application:Trains, lift trucks, mining machines etc.
  • 27. Advantages: A lead storage battery is highly efficient. The voltage efficiency of the cell is defined as follows. Voltage efficiency = average voltage during discharge average voltage during charge The voltage efficiency of the lead – acid cell is about 80 %. The near reversibility is a consequence of the faster rate of the chemical reactions in the cell i.e. anode oxidizes easily and cathode reduces easily leading to an overall reaction with a high negative free energy change.
  • 28.  A lead – acid battery provides a good service for several years. Its larger versions can last 20 to 30 years, if carefully attended (i.e. longer design life)  It can be recharged. The number of recharges possible range from 300 to 1500, depending on the battery’s design and conditions. The sealed lead- acid batteries can withstand upto 2000 – rechargings. Generally the most costly, largest, heaviest cells are the longest–lived.  The battery’s own internal self – discharging is low.  The length of time that is generally required for re- charging process is less i.e. recharge time is 2-8 hours depending on the status of battery.
  • 29.  Low environmental impact of constituent materials is an added advantage  It has sensitivity to rough handling and good safety characteristics.  Ease of servicing as indicated by several local battery service points.  It is a low- cost battery with facilities for manufacture throughout the world using cheap materials.
  • 31. Anode: Porous cadmium powder compressed to cylindrical pellets. Cathode: Ni(OH)3 or NiO(OH) mixed with 20% graphite powder Electrolyte: 20-28% Aq. KOH jelled with a jelling agent. Cell Scheme: Cd/Cd(OH)2,KOH,Ni(OH)2, Ni(OH)3/Ni O.C.V. = 1.25V
  • 32. Reactions during discharging. Anode: Cd(s)+2OH- (aq)→Cd(OH)2(s)+ 2e- Cathode: 2Ni(OH)3(s)+2e- → 2Ni(OH)2(s)+2OH- (aq)  Net Reaction: Cd(s)+2Ni(OH)3(s)→ 2Ni(OH)2(s)+ Cd(OH)2(s)
  • 33. Charging reactions: Anode: Cd(OH)2(s)+2e-→ Cd(s) +2OH- (aq) Cathode: 2Ni(OH)2(s) +2OH- (aq)→2Ni(OH)3(s)+2e- Net: 2Ni(OH)2(s)+Cd(OH)2(s)→2Ni(OH)3(s)+ Cd(s)
  • 34. Discharging reaction:  Anode: Cd(s)+2OH-(aq) → Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e- Cathode: 2NiO (OH) (s) + 2 H2O + 2 e- → 2Ni (OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq)  Net Reaction: Cd(s) + 2NiO (OH) (s) + 2H2O → 2 Ni(OH)2 (s) + Cd(OH)2(s)
  • 35. Charging reactions:  -ve pole: Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2e-→ Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq)  +ve pole: 2 Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq) → 2 NiO(OH) (s) + 2H2O+2e-  Overall reaction: 2 Ni(OH)2 (s) + Cd(OH)2(s) → 2 NiO(OH) (s) + Cd(s) +2H2O(l)
  • 36. Applications. In flash lights, photoflash units and portable electronic equipments. In emergency lighting systems, alarm systems. In air crafts and space satellite power systems. For starting large diesel engines and gas turbines etc.,
  • 37. Advantages. Can be recharged many times. They maintain nearly constant voltage level throught their discharge.There is no change in the electrolyte composition during the operation. It can be left unused for long periods of time at any state of charge without any appreciable damage (i.e. long shelf life). It can be encased as a sealed unit like the dry cell because gassing will not occur during nominal discharging or recharging. They exhibit good performance ability at low temperatures.
  • 38. They can be used to produce large instantaneous currents as high as 1000-8000 A for one second. It is a compact rechargeable cell available in three basic configurations – button, cylindrical and rectangular. They have low internal resistance.
  • 39. Disadvantages.  It poses an environmental pollution hazard due to higher toxicity of metallic cadmium than lead.  Cadmium is a heavy metal and its use increases the weight of batteries, particularly in larger versions.  Cost of cadmium metal and hence the cost of construction of NiCad batteries is high.  The KOH electrolyte used is a corrosive hazardous chemical.
  • 40. Fuel Cells. A fuel cell is a galvanic cell in which chemical energy of a fuel – oxidant system is converted directly into electrical energy in a continuous electrochemical process.  Cell Schematic Representation: Fuel;electrode/electrolyte/electrode/oxidant. e.g. H2-O2; CH3OH-O2
  • 41.  The reactants (i.e. fuel + oxidant) are constantly supplied from outside and the products are removed at the same rate as they are formed.  Anode: Fuel+ oxygen → Oxidation products+ ne-  Cathode: Oxidant + ne- → Reduction products.
  • 42. Requirements Of Fuel Cell.  Electrodes: Must be stable, porous and good conductor.  Catalyst: Porous electrode must be impregnated with catalyst like Pt, Pd, Ag or Ni, to enhance otherwise slow electrochemical reactions.  OptimumTemperature: Optimum.  Electrolyte: Fairly concentrated.
  • 43. Hydrogen – Oxygen Fuel Cell
  • 44.  Anode: Porous graphite electrodes impregnated with finely divided Pt/Pd.  Cathode: Porous graphite electrodes impregnated with finely divided Pt/Pd.  Electrolyte: 35-50% KOH held in asbestos matrix.  OperatingTemperature: 90oC.
  • 45.  Anode : 2H2(g) +40H- (aq)→ 4H2O(l)+4e-  Cathode: O2(g)+2H2O(l)+4e- →4OH(aq)  Net Reaction: 2H2(g)+O2(g)→2H2O(l). *Water should be removed from the cell. *O2should be free from impurities.
  • 46. Applications.  Used as energy source in space shuttles e.g. Apollo spacecraft.  Used in small- scale applications in submarines and other military vehicles.  Suitable in places where, environmental pollution and noise are objectionable.
  • 47. CH3OH-O2 Fuel Cell  Both electrodes: Made of porous nickel plates impregnated with finely- divided Platinum.  Fuel: Methyl alcohol.  Oxidant: Pure oxygen / air.  Electrolyte:Conc.Phosphoric acid/Aq.KOH  OperatingTemperature: 150-200oC.
  • 48.  The emf of the cell is 1.20V at 25oC.  MeOH is one of the most electro active organic fuels in the low temperature range as *It has a low carbon content *It posseses a readily oxidizable OH group *It is miscible in all proportions in aqueous electrolytes.
  • 49.  At anode: CH3OH + 6OH- →CO2 + 5H2O + 6e- • At cathode: 3/2 O2 +3H2O + 6e- →6OH- Net Reaction: CH3OH +3/2O2 →CO2 + 2H2O. It is used in millitary applications and in large scale power production. It has been used to power television relay stations.
  • 50. Advantages Of Fuel Cells.  High efficiency of the energy conversion process.  Silent operation.  No moving parts and so elimination of wear and tear.  Absence of harmful waste products.  No need of charging.
  • 51. Limitations Of Fuel Cells.  Cost of power is high as a result of the cost of electrodes.  Fuels in the form of gases and O2 need to be stored in tanks under high pressure.  Power output is moderate.  They are sensitive to fuel contaminants such as CO,H2S, NH3 & halides, depending on the type of fuel cell.
  • 52. Differences.  Fuel Cell Galvanic Cell *Do not store chemical Stores chemical energy energy *Reactants are fed from The reactants form an outside continuously. integral part of it. *Need expensive noble These conditions are metal catalysts. not required *No need of charging Get-discharged when stored – up energy is exhausted. *Never become dead Limited life span in use *Useful for long-term Useful as portable power services electricity generation.