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VAIBHAV LAURBy:
PHOTOGRAPHY
Photography is derived from the Greek photos-
for “light” and –graphos for “drawing”. It is
the art , science, and practice of creating
durable images by recording light or other
electromagnetic radiation, either chemically
by means of a light sensitive material such as
photographic film, or electonically by means
of an image sensor.
FORENSIC
PHOTOGRAPHY
It is referred to as forensic imaging or crime scene
photography, is the art of producing an accurate
reproduction of a crime scene or an accident scene
using photography for the benefit of a court or to
aid in an investigation. It is the part of evidence
collecting. It provides investigators with photos of
victims, places and items involved in the crime
Belgium in 1843 and Denmark in 1851 uses photography for document purpose.
Document contain prisoners images. There was no training required and pictures
were often taken by amateurs , commercial photographers and even policemen or
prison officials. By the 1870s, the practice had spread to many countries.
This was not like photographing portraits of families or children. These were
documenting criminals. Though these were slowly adapted to police regulations
photographing criminals and suspects was widespread until the latter part of the
19th century.
Earlier only 1or 2 photographs were taken. But as crime increases number of
photographs were also increases for better examination.
There is an old saying: “A tradesman is only as good as the tools he uses.”
This is very true when it comes to forensic photography. Without good, well-
maintained photographic equipment you will not be able to do your job to
perfection.
The 35mm or digital SLR camera is useful for forensic photography.
It deals with a lot of ultraviolet and infrared photographs because the SLR
digital camera has a very low sensitivity for ultraviolet and infrared.
Quality of lens which will govern the quality of photography.
Minimum requirement is a wide-angle lens of at least 28mm focal length.
A macro lens of around 50mm focal length and a medium telephoto lens of
135mm focal length and an extension tube with a zoom lens in the range of
28-105mm.
The quality of film available today is constantly improving. Many Police
departments today have moved right away from black and white film to colour film.
Courts too, have come to expect colour photographs. Film for crime scene
photography is ISO400 colour film.
Not every crime scene will be as easy to photograph as an everyday, landscape shot.
There will be indoor scenes, underground scenes, night scenes, outdoor scenes with
heavy contrasts between light and shadow . It is essential that your camera is
coupled with an efficient flash unit with a high output to get clear image or photo.
• To record the scene and associated areas.
• To record the appearance of physical evidence as first encountered.
• To provide investigators with a photographic record of the scene to assist
them with their investigations.
• To present the crime scene at court for the edification of judges, juries and
counsel alike.
Points of qualification of a photograph in court
• Object pictured must be material or relevant to the point in issue.
• The photograph must not appeal to the emotions or tend to prejudice the court
or jury.
• The photograph must be free from distortion and not misrepresent the scene or
the object it purports to reproduce
It is important before entering and photographing a crime scene that you talk to
investigators at the scene and formulate a plan of attack.
The Big photographs
Wide-angle photographs of the general crime scene and surrounding areas will
present a big picture of the overall scene and to show the relationships between
various pieces of evidence at the scene.
If the scene is an indoor one minimum 10 photographs of a room using a wide-
angle lens - one from each corner looking diagonally to the opposite corner (4);
one from the centre of each wall looking directly to the centre of the opposite wall
(4); one from near floor level at one end of the room looking up to the ceiling (1);
and one from the same end of the room near to ceiling height looking down to the
floor of the room (1) giving the total of 10 photographs.
The mid-range photographs
These show the relationships of specific items of evidence to each other and to the
scene proper.
They should be photographed from normal viewing height.
Remember photographs will eventually be viewed by a judge or a panel of
jurors, and they must be able to relate to the scene easily, with no distortions or
confusion.
The close-up photographs
To show details of important pieces of evidence. Items with which relative sizes
are important should be photographed with and without a scale. It is important
that the scale is placed on the same plane as the item, and that the film plane is
parallel to the scale.
The Big photograph The mid-range photographs
METHODS
Crime or accident scene photographs usually
capture images in color but also in Black and
white. There are different methods of
photography like digital, Aerial, Surveillance
photography.
Digital photography:- It has an automatic date
and time marker on each image, so that
authenticity can be verified.
Taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. Platforms for
aerial photography include helicopters, kites & air craft. The use of aerial
photography for military purposes was expanded during World war.
These are used for taking photographs of a big crime scene. Ex- arson case etc.
C…..
CAMERA USED
Aerial camera systems are fitted with pan, tilt, roll and 10x zoom cameras which
allows the aircraft to record and transmit to the ground and Internet live HD video
via either a wireless digital video link of a 3G/4G wireless internet connection.
HELICOPTER USED
Octocopters also known as Coptercam Aerial Camera System
: Has 8 aerial camera
Hexacopters
: Has 6 aerial camera
: Has 4 aerial camera
Quadcopters
Photographing the behavior activities, or other changing information, usually of
people. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic
equipment (such as CCTV cameras).
Surveillance is very useful to maintain social control and prevent/investigate
criminal activity.
FIT FOR COURT
The images must be clear and usually have
scales. They serve to not only remind
investigators of the scene, but also to provide
a tangible image for the court to better enable
them to understand what happened. The use
of several views taken from the different
angles helps to minimize the problem of
parallax. Overall images do not have scales
and serve to show the general layout.
SUICIDE
There is some doubt to the circumstances of the death - treat it as a homicide. Film
is cheap, and if the suicide should turn out to be a murder covered it fully. Don't
think it cannot and will not happen. History is full of murders made to look like
suicides.
ASSAULT
crime firstly require a general, overall photograph of the victim injuries. An assault
victim can be photographed like a mini crime scene, with general (big picture)
photographs, mid-range and close-up. Bites marks and other injuries close-up, use a
scale to show the sizes of the injuries; photograph at 90 degrees to avoid distortion .
Use a small aperture especially on curved surfaces such as an arm or finger to
increase depth of field and so ensure the entire injury image is sharp.
BLOOD SPLASH PATTERNS
Photographs of blood splash patterns, whether they be on a floor, on a vertical
surface such as a wall or even overhead on a ceiling, must be photographed with the
film plane parallel to the surface bearing the stain. A scale must be included on the
same plane as the surface.
MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES
These photographs must show the relationships of each vehicle to the other; the
view each driver had on approach to the point of impact; the direction from which
each driver came; debris and marks on the roadway.
Technical photographs showing damage to the
vehicles.
CASE
STUDY
• Tay Bridge disaster of 1879 when a half-mile
section of the new bridge collapsed in a storm,
taking an express train down into the estuary of
the river Tay. At least 75 passengers and crew
were killed in the disaster.
• The set of photographs taken a few days after the
accident have been re-analysed in 1999-2000 by
digitising them and enlarging the files to show
critical details. The originals were of very high
resolution since a large plate camera was used
with a small aperture, plus a small grain film.
• The re-analysed pictures shed new light on why
the bridge fell, suggesting that design flaws and
defects in the cast iron columns which supported
the centre section led directly to the catastrophic
failure. Alternative explanations that the bridge
was blown down by the wind during the storm
that night, or that the train derailed and hit the
girders are unlikely. The re-analysis supports the
original court of inquiry conclusions, which stated
that the bridge was "badly designed, badly built
and badly maintained.”
R
Forensic photography

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Forensic photography

  • 2. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is derived from the Greek photos- for “light” and –graphos for “drawing”. It is the art , science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light sensitive material such as photographic film, or electonically by means of an image sensor.
  • 3. FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY It is referred to as forensic imaging or crime scene photography, is the art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime scene or an accident scene using photography for the benefit of a court or to aid in an investigation. It is the part of evidence collecting. It provides investigators with photos of victims, places and items involved in the crime
  • 4. Belgium in 1843 and Denmark in 1851 uses photography for document purpose. Document contain prisoners images. There was no training required and pictures were often taken by amateurs , commercial photographers and even policemen or prison officials. By the 1870s, the practice had spread to many countries. This was not like photographing portraits of families or children. These were documenting criminals. Though these were slowly adapted to police regulations photographing criminals and suspects was widespread until the latter part of the 19th century. Earlier only 1or 2 photographs were taken. But as crime increases number of photographs were also increases for better examination.
  • 5. There is an old saying: “A tradesman is only as good as the tools he uses.” This is very true when it comes to forensic photography. Without good, well- maintained photographic equipment you will not be able to do your job to perfection. The 35mm or digital SLR camera is useful for forensic photography. It deals with a lot of ultraviolet and infrared photographs because the SLR digital camera has a very low sensitivity for ultraviolet and infrared.
  • 6. Quality of lens which will govern the quality of photography. Minimum requirement is a wide-angle lens of at least 28mm focal length. A macro lens of around 50mm focal length and a medium telephoto lens of 135mm focal length and an extension tube with a zoom lens in the range of 28-105mm.
  • 7. The quality of film available today is constantly improving. Many Police departments today have moved right away from black and white film to colour film. Courts too, have come to expect colour photographs. Film for crime scene photography is ISO400 colour film. Not every crime scene will be as easy to photograph as an everyday, landscape shot. There will be indoor scenes, underground scenes, night scenes, outdoor scenes with heavy contrasts between light and shadow . It is essential that your camera is coupled with an efficient flash unit with a high output to get clear image or photo.
  • 8. • To record the scene and associated areas. • To record the appearance of physical evidence as first encountered. • To provide investigators with a photographic record of the scene to assist them with their investigations. • To present the crime scene at court for the edification of judges, juries and counsel alike.
  • 9. Points of qualification of a photograph in court • Object pictured must be material or relevant to the point in issue. • The photograph must not appeal to the emotions or tend to prejudice the court or jury. • The photograph must be free from distortion and not misrepresent the scene or the object it purports to reproduce
  • 10. It is important before entering and photographing a crime scene that you talk to investigators at the scene and formulate a plan of attack. The Big photographs Wide-angle photographs of the general crime scene and surrounding areas will present a big picture of the overall scene and to show the relationships between various pieces of evidence at the scene. If the scene is an indoor one minimum 10 photographs of a room using a wide- angle lens - one from each corner looking diagonally to the opposite corner (4); one from the centre of each wall looking directly to the centre of the opposite wall (4); one from near floor level at one end of the room looking up to the ceiling (1); and one from the same end of the room near to ceiling height looking down to the floor of the room (1) giving the total of 10 photographs.
  • 11. The mid-range photographs These show the relationships of specific items of evidence to each other and to the scene proper. They should be photographed from normal viewing height. Remember photographs will eventually be viewed by a judge or a panel of jurors, and they must be able to relate to the scene easily, with no distortions or confusion. The close-up photographs To show details of important pieces of evidence. Items with which relative sizes are important should be photographed with and without a scale. It is important that the scale is placed on the same plane as the item, and that the film plane is parallel to the scale.
  • 12. The Big photograph The mid-range photographs
  • 13. METHODS Crime or accident scene photographs usually capture images in color but also in Black and white. There are different methods of photography like digital, Aerial, Surveillance photography. Digital photography:- It has an automatic date and time marker on each image, so that authenticity can be verified.
  • 14. Taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. Platforms for aerial photography include helicopters, kites & air craft. The use of aerial photography for military purposes was expanded during World war. These are used for taking photographs of a big crime scene. Ex- arson case etc. C…..
  • 15. CAMERA USED Aerial camera systems are fitted with pan, tilt, roll and 10x zoom cameras which allows the aircraft to record and transmit to the ground and Internet live HD video via either a wireless digital video link of a 3G/4G wireless internet connection. HELICOPTER USED Octocopters also known as Coptercam Aerial Camera System : Has 8 aerial camera Hexacopters : Has 6 aerial camera : Has 4 aerial camera Quadcopters
  • 16. Photographing the behavior activities, or other changing information, usually of people. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras). Surveillance is very useful to maintain social control and prevent/investigate criminal activity.
  • 17. FIT FOR COURT The images must be clear and usually have scales. They serve to not only remind investigators of the scene, but also to provide a tangible image for the court to better enable them to understand what happened. The use of several views taken from the different angles helps to minimize the problem of parallax. Overall images do not have scales and serve to show the general layout.
  • 18. SUICIDE There is some doubt to the circumstances of the death - treat it as a homicide. Film is cheap, and if the suicide should turn out to be a murder covered it fully. Don't think it cannot and will not happen. History is full of murders made to look like suicides. ASSAULT crime firstly require a general, overall photograph of the victim injuries. An assault victim can be photographed like a mini crime scene, with general (big picture) photographs, mid-range and close-up. Bites marks and other injuries close-up, use a scale to show the sizes of the injuries; photograph at 90 degrees to avoid distortion . Use a small aperture especially on curved surfaces such as an arm or finger to increase depth of field and so ensure the entire injury image is sharp.
  • 19. BLOOD SPLASH PATTERNS Photographs of blood splash patterns, whether they be on a floor, on a vertical surface such as a wall or even overhead on a ceiling, must be photographed with the film plane parallel to the surface bearing the stain. A scale must be included on the same plane as the surface. MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES These photographs must show the relationships of each vehicle to the other; the view each driver had on approach to the point of impact; the direction from which each driver came; debris and marks on the roadway. Technical photographs showing damage to the vehicles.
  • 20. CASE STUDY • Tay Bridge disaster of 1879 when a half-mile section of the new bridge collapsed in a storm, taking an express train down into the estuary of the river Tay. At least 75 passengers and crew were killed in the disaster. • The set of photographs taken a few days after the accident have been re-analysed in 1999-2000 by digitising them and enlarging the files to show critical details. The originals were of very high resolution since a large plate camera was used with a small aperture, plus a small grain film. • The re-analysed pictures shed new light on why the bridge fell, suggesting that design flaws and defects in the cast iron columns which supported the centre section led directly to the catastrophic failure. Alternative explanations that the bridge was blown down by the wind during the storm that night, or that the train derailed and hit the girders are unlikely. The re-analysis supports the original court of inquiry conclusions, which stated that the bridge was "badly designed, badly built and badly maintained.” R