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Ethnic	Divide	in	the	Estonian	Labour	
Market
Kristjan	Kaldur
Institute of	Baltic	Studies
Introduction	/	Findings	from	previous	studies
Ethnic dividein	the Estonian	labour market
• Estonians and	other nationalities /	ethnic minorities
Gap between two ethnic groups increased after the
restoration of	independencein	1991
The	situation	is	particularly	acute	in	Ida-Viru county
People	of	other nationalities	do	not	constitute	a	single	
homogeneous	group
• No	universal	solutions
Our analysis
Purpose:	analysethe scope,	possiblecauses and	consequences of	
ethnic segregation in	the Estonian	labour market
Combination of	meta-analysis and	statisticaldata analysis
Systematic review of	most relevant	factors
Meta-analysis:	15	studies (2000-2016)
• monitorings of	integratsioon,	human development reports and	other
studies and	articles that compare two ethnic groups
Statistical data analysis:	6	databases
• Labour forcesurvey,	Work life survey,	databases of	Statistics Estonia,	
Monitoring of	Integration 2015	survey,	etc.
Structure
Individual-levelfactors (8)
E.g.	Estonian	language skills,	level
of	education,	age,	sex
Objective characteristics (9)
E.g.	Employment and	
unemployment rate,	annual income
Structural factors (7)
E.g.	Legal-political context,	
regionaal	differences,	
discrimination
Assessments /	values (15)
E.g.	Perception of	equality of	
opportunities,	expectations of	state
intervention
Ethnic gap in	the Estonian	labour market	(1)
11.9 10.5
8.6 7.7 6.7 5.4 4 3.5 4.1
10.8
13.3
9.6
7.6 6.8 6 5.4
19.7
17.8 16.5 15.7 16.9
13.1
9.8
6.7 8.2
19
23.4
17.9
15
12.4
10.3
8
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Estonians Other	nationalities
3,469 3,848
4,557
5,637
6,639
7,596 7,197 7,020 7,550
8,709
9,412 10,010
2,766 3,138
3,907 4,544
5,611
6,308 5,812 5,509 6,083
7,014 7,395
8,249
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Estonians Other	nationalities
Ethnic gap in	the Estonian	labour market	(2)
	 Estonians	(%)	 Other	nationalities	(%)	
Share	of	managers	among	workers	 6,9	 3,9	
Share	of	highly	qualified	specialists	among	workers	 14,2	 11,1	
Share	of	managers	among	workers	with	higher	education	 15,2	 8,6	
Share	of	highly	qualified	specialists	among	workers	with	
higher	education	
51,9	 43,1	
	
7.2 7 7.4 7.9 8.5 7.9 7.4 8.1
20.7 21.4
19.2 18.6 19 17.3 16.2 17.2
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Estonians Other	nationalities
Major	risk	factors for ethnic minorities
• Estonian	language	skills	(low)
• Citizenship	(undetermined,	non-EU)
• Education	(Basic	or	lower)
• Age	(15-24;	55+)
• Sex	(female)
• Region	(Ida-Viru county,	Tallinn)
• Cultural	differences	(lower	mobility,	gender	stereotypes,	limited	social	
networks)
• Attitudes	(higher	insecurity,	negativity,	higher	demands	for	job	offers,	
lower	satisfaction	with	job)
• Discrimination	by	employers	(non-Estonian	origin)

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Ethnic Divide in the Estonian Labour Market

  • 2. Introduction / Findings from previous studies Ethnic dividein the Estonian labour market • Estonians and other nationalities / ethnic minorities Gap between two ethnic groups increased after the restoration of independencein 1991 The situation is particularly acute in Ida-Viru county People of other nationalities do not constitute a single homogeneous group • No universal solutions
  • 3. Our analysis Purpose: analysethe scope, possiblecauses and consequences of ethnic segregation in the Estonian labour market Combination of meta-analysis and statisticaldata analysis Systematic review of most relevant factors Meta-analysis: 15 studies (2000-2016) • monitorings of integratsioon, human development reports and other studies and articles that compare two ethnic groups Statistical data analysis: 6 databases • Labour forcesurvey, Work life survey, databases of Statistics Estonia, Monitoring of Integration 2015 survey, etc.
  • 4.
  • 5. Structure Individual-levelfactors (8) E.g. Estonian language skills, level of education, age, sex Objective characteristics (9) E.g. Employment and unemployment rate, annual income Structural factors (7) E.g. Legal-political context, regionaal differences, discrimination Assessments / values (15) E.g. Perception of equality of opportunities, expectations of state intervention
  • 6. Ethnic gap in the Estonian labour market (1) 11.9 10.5 8.6 7.7 6.7 5.4 4 3.5 4.1 10.8 13.3 9.6 7.6 6.8 6 5.4 19.7 17.8 16.5 15.7 16.9 13.1 9.8 6.7 8.2 19 23.4 17.9 15 12.4 10.3 8 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Estonians Other nationalities 3,469 3,848 4,557 5,637 6,639 7,596 7,197 7,020 7,550 8,709 9,412 10,010 2,766 3,138 3,907 4,544 5,611 6,308 5,812 5,509 6,083 7,014 7,395 8,249 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Estonians Other nationalities
  • 7. Ethnic gap in the Estonian labour market (2) Estonians (%) Other nationalities (%) Share of managers among workers 6,9 3,9 Share of highly qualified specialists among workers 14,2 11,1 Share of managers among workers with higher education 15,2 8,6 Share of highly qualified specialists among workers with higher education 51,9 43,1 7.2 7 7.4 7.9 8.5 7.9 7.4 8.1 20.7 21.4 19.2 18.6 19 17.3 16.2 17.2 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Estonians Other nationalities
  • 8. Major risk factors for ethnic minorities • Estonian language skills (low) • Citizenship (undetermined, non-EU) • Education (Basic or lower) • Age (15-24; 55+) • Sex (female) • Region (Ida-Viru county, Tallinn) • Cultural differences (lower mobility, gender stereotypes, limited social networks) • Attitudes (higher insecurity, negativity, higher demands for job offers, lower satisfaction with job) • Discrimination by employers (non-Estonian origin)