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1
Safety in the Heat Programme
Summer 2012
Darren Joubert
Occupational and Environmental Health
Health Promotion and Surveillance Dept.
Health Authority – Abu Dhabi
2
H.E. Zaid Al Siksek,
HAAD CEO
3
• What is the problem?
• What is the HAAD safety in Heat programme?
• How can it help?
• What are the key messages and components of the
programme
• How do you use the materials on-site?
• How do you assess heat stress?
• How do you get the materials?
What we will cover…
What is the problem?
Working in the Heat is a Significant
Occupational Hazard in Abu Dhabi
5
Heat Related Illness Cases treated in one
Hospital Emergency Dept. (Survey 2007)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Heat Related Illness Cases
Count of Cases
3,017+ cases of heat-related illness seen at HCFs in Abu Dhabi Emirate, 2010
2025
122 88
829
3017
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
HEAT EXHAUSTION HEAT STROKE HEAT SYNCOPE PRICKLY HEAT TOTAL
Heat Related Illness Cases
Heat-related illness, by medical condition
What happens when you are
exposed to heat?
How do you heat up?
• Normal Body Metabolism
• Work and Exercise
• Environmental Heat Loss or
Gain
9
Thermal
Radiation
60% heat
exchange
Convection from air
temperature 12% of heat
exchange
Conduction from hot
surfaces 3% of heat
exchange
How do you cool down?
• Perspiration/Sweating and
• Evaporation of sweat
• Cooling is affected by:
– sweat rate
– sweat volume
– Evaporation
– air movement
– humidity
10
What happens in a cool environment?
11
What happens in a hot environment?
12
What happens when you get Dehydration?
Un-replaced sweat loss results in dehydration which means:
• there is less blood available to go to the skin and the ability to lose heat is lost
• heart rates and blood pressure increase because of this smaller volume,
resulting in excessive fatigue
• blood supply to the gut is reduced resulting in decreased fluid absorption
• less blood is available to supply working muscles so less work can be performed
• mental capacity is reduced due to decreased blood flow to the brain (increase
risk of accidents and injuries)
Electrolyte Loss - Sodium
• Sodium is the major electrolyte lost in sweat
so needs to be replaced through diet and
electrolyte drinks - NOT SALT TABLETS
• Sodium is essential for many body functions
including the maintenance of fluid balance,
regulation of blood pressure, and normal
function of the nervous system.
• Too little sodium leads to
hyponatremia which can be a severe
condition and can be fatal.
14
What is the Magic Number?
15
370 Celsius
Heat GAIN Heat LOSS
• Sweat production
and Evaporation
• Electrolyte
loss/replacement
• Acclimatisation
• Personal Factors –
age, medication,
BMI, fitness,
• Air Temperature
• Radiant Heat -
Sun
• Humidity
• Wind Speed
• Workload
• Clothing
What does the law say?
UAE Labour Law Ministerial Resolution
• Employers have a legal responsibility to protect the health of
their workers as stipulated by the UAE Labour Law (Federal
Law No. 8 of 1980).
• Follow the Ministry of Labour Ministerial
Resolution for the midday break in summer:
15 June – 15 September 2012
12:30 pm – 3:00 pm
18
Legal Responsibilities of Employers
• Work hours should no exceed 8 hours per day
• Publish the daily schedule of work in Arabic and
languages the workers can understand
• Provide Shaded rest areas (preferably air-conditioned)
• Provide adequate drinking water and electrolyte
replacement (food or drinks)
• Fines and Penalties:
– AED 15 000 for each case of breach
– Downgrading of Company Category
• Heat exposure and heat stroke can be fatal if proper
controls are not implemented.
EHSMS CoP and Technical Guideline
Abu Dhabi EHSMS RF ver. 2.0 – Feb 2012
Who does EHSMS regulations apply to?
• All employers in the Emirate of
Abu Dhabi that
• Have employees working in high
temperature environments
including:
– Outdoors in summer and
– Other hot site operations (furnaces,
smelters, factories and other hot
environments)
20
Main Elements of the Code of Practice
• Training and Competency
• Workers and new workers/visitors
• Managers and Supervisors
• First Aiders
• Roles and Responsibilities
• Employers
• Employees
21
Heat Stress Programme Requirements
• Perform risk assessment
• Implement acclimatisation programme
• Assess environmental conditions (TWL index)
• Communicate conditions to employees (e.g.:
flag system)
• Provide water and electrolyte drinks
• Provide appropriate PPE (drinking bottles)
• Provide shade and cooling shelters
• Schedule work in coolest part of the day/obey
midday break rule
22
Heat Stress Programme Requirements..
• Provide pre-employment screening and medical
clearance to identify chronic medical conditions (not
visa screening)
• Conduct pre-employment training (inductions)
• Implement Engineering controls to reduce exposure
• Train and provide first aiders
• Implement audit and inspection programme
• Train all employees
• Investigate and report heat illness
23
Record Keeping for Heat Stress programme
Keep record of:
• Heat stress programme initiatives and activities
• Details of training and awareness activities and
messages communicated to employees
• Details of heat stress related facilities, services
provided e.g.: first aid, shade, engineering controls
used etc.
• Programme evaluation, stats, cost-benefit
information etc.
• Heat stress related incidents e.g.: heat illness, first
aid cases, hospitalization and emergency treatment
etc. 24
What is the HAAD Safety in Heat
programme and how can it help?
25
• Multi–media
– Printed Materials – posters, pamphlets, roll up banners and training
materials and Digital Media - videos and online/websites
• Multi-lingual
– English, Arabic, Urdu, Malayalam, Hindi, and Bengali
• Multi-targeted
– Four different groups and all sectors where heat stress occurs
• Technical programme
– Based on international best practice and research conducted in
Australia and UAE
• To reduce heat illness and heat related in injuries in
Abu Dhabi and beyond..
HAAD Safety in the Heat Program
The Program includes:
Information and Resources for:
• Work in heat protocols and procedures
• Information and training for workers and supervisors to
recognize heat stress symptoms and to control heat exposure
• Guidance on preventative measures
• Guidance on First-Aid measures for heat illness
• Guidance on good hydration practices
• Guidance on assessing and monitor Heat Stress Parameters
(TWL Index)
• To raise awareness of the dangers of heat exposure
amongst the target groups and prevention and;
• To provide support and health promotion materials to raise
awareness of the issue, increase education and training
• To support the AD EHS Center, EHSMS Sector Regulatory
Authorities, EHSMS and other Entities and the Ministry of
Labour summer activities and events:
Aims and Objectives of HAAD Safety
in Heat Program
Primary target audience:
• Health and Safety Personnel in all
Industrial sectors where workers
are exposed to Heat
Secondary target audiences:
• Employers, CEO’s, Business Owners, Supervisors ;
• Heat exposed workers from different language groups
Target Groups
2009
• Launched on the 20th May 2009 in collaboration with the
Ministry of Labour
2010
• Program evaluation, some amendments to the graphics
and style, additional resources added such as different
language materials and Ramadan posters
• Re-launched for summer 2010
2011
• Re-launched for summer 2011
2012
• Has become part of the Abu Dhabi EHSMS regulatory
framework
• Re-launched for summer 2012
2013
• New Look
The Programme so far…2009 -12
Material Development (2009-2012)
Construction (2009) Multi-sector and Ramadan (2010)
EHSMS and 10 Sectors (2012)
DVD/CD Sets
Wide Range of Resources available
HSE Procedure and
Training Manual
Technical Information Sheets
Posters/
Roll-Up
banners Pamphlets
Water
cooler
What are the key messages and components
in the programme?
Resources for: Supervisors
Information pamphlets in
different languages covering:
• What happens to the body
when it is exposed to heat
• How heat exposure affects a
worker – symptoms
• Prevention of Heat Illness –
What you as a supervisor
should do
Messages for Workers
Pamphlets in different languages with Key Points to remember
Hydration is the single biggest
factor for protection against heat
illness
Improving hydration status is
key
Key Point 1… Drinking enough water
Come to work
well Hydrated
Maintain adequate
Hydration throughout
The day
Self Assess
Hydration
Self Assessment of Hydration Status
Hydration – Important Points to remember
• To come to work fully hydrated:
– drink plenty of water before you get to work, at least 1
Litre
• To drink plenty of water during the shift
– at least 2 litres every 2-3 hours in summer (or rehydration
fluid approved by the employer one to one).
• Remind them if they drink water only when thirsty it
is too late.
• To carry a water container with you
of at least 1-2 liters to fill regularly.
Key Point 2 … Salt Replacement
POINTS to REMEMBER:
• If electrolyte replacement drinks are provided there is no need
to add extra salt to meals
• If someone has high blood pressure they should be checked by a
doctor before working in heat or increasing salt intake
• If electrolyte drinks are consumed then they should alternate
with a drink of water one to one over the day
Maintain electrolyte
Intake/replacement
Key Point 3 … Rest and Recovery
Self-pace work – do
not push beyond
the bodies limits.
Allow time at night
to recover from the
heat stress during
the day
Provide a well balanced
health diet to help the
body to recover – avoid
coffee, cola and high
sugar and fatty foods
Key Point 4 … Heat Illness
Identify Signs of Heat Illness
Encourage the reporting of all signs of heat
illness to the supervisor
(feeling faint, dizziness, fatigue, headache,
nausea, vomiting, cramps).
REMEMBER:
HEAT ILLNESS CAN KILL SO BE AWARE!
Posters Remind of Key Points
During Summer:
• Drink at least 2 litres of water every 2-3
hours – Maintain Hydration
• Add a little more salt to your meals –
Replace Electrolytes
• In hot weather take regular breaks –
Encourage Self Pacing
• Get plenty of sleep at night – Encourage
Rest and Recovery
• When unwell tell your supervisor –
Encourage Reporting of Symptoms
What about Ramadan, fasting and heat exposure?
POINTS to REMEMBER:
• Try avoid heat exposure as much as
possible during Ramadan
• Monitor for signs of heat illness such as
skin rashes, dizziness, headaches
• Start the day well hydrated – for Suhoor
with your meal eat fruits, vegetables and
drink plenty of water and unsweetened
fruit juice
• Avoid salty foods at Suhoor
• Drink water and fruit juices at Iftar before
eating
• Avoid strenuous activity and rest in a cool
place where possible
How do you use the materials on-site?
How do you implement the programme?
• Place posters up in worksites,
noticeboards and rest/eating
areas on site and in worker
accommodation areas
• Place pamphlets on notice
boards, in rest areas and
worker accommodation sites
to be read by workers – use
them as a training resource to
smaller groups
46
47
Implementation on worksites
• Place urine charts in
toilets and urinals
• Show worker videos
before and throughout
the summer to different
language groups and
discuss and answer
questions
• Train HSE Officers with
procedures manual and
HSE video, ppt slides
48
Implementation on worksites…
49
How do you Assess Heat Stress?
Environmental Assessment
Radiant Heat
To determine TWL the following must be measured:
Dry Bulb Temperature
(ambient air temperature)
in degrees °C
Wet Bulb Temperature
(affected by the humidity/evaporation)
in degrees °C
Globe Temperature
(affected by the radiant heat)
in degrees °C
Wind speed in metres per second
Assessment of Heat Stress
• Wet bulb temperature is the most important and is
measured using a wet bulb thermometer
• WB is the temperature at which water evaporates into
the air
• Significant when compared to skin temperature
because of the affect it has how much of an
individuals sweat evaporates
• Dry bulb temperature (ambient temp.) is not as
important and is measured using a regular
thermometer
Air Temperature – Dry Bulb
Radiant Heat – Globe Temperature
• Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic
waves in contrast to heat transmitted by
conduction or convection
• Measured using a “globe thermometer” a
150 mm diameter hollow copper ball
(painted black) with a standard
thermometer in it.
• Significant for workers in the sun or in
smelters
Relative Humidity – Wet Bulb Temp.
• Relative Humidity is a percentage of the actual amount
of moisture in the air, compared to the maximum
moisture that can be taken up by the air at that
temperature
• 50% or more of sweat can drop off skin
• Only sweat which evaporates off skin
produces cooling
• Sweat which drops off just adds to
dehydration load
• Dry air means more evaporates and
less drips off  keep air dry (low humidity)
Wind Speed – Air Velocity
The higher the wind speed the better (within reason)
• Wind speed increases evaporation of sweat
• Use fanswhere possible
• Ensure ventilation systems are working effectively at
all times
• The Thermal Work Limit (TWL), which has been validated
for gulf conditions, is the heat stress index that is
recommended by HAAD to enable the safe management of
work in heat.
• It gives a measure of the maximum safe work rate for the
conditions i.e.: the maximum rate at which heat can be
lost to the environment in the given conditions
• If TWL is too low then even low rates of work cannot
safely be carried out continuously.
• TWL is calculated from environmental parameters assuming
that workers are well hydrated and acclimatised to the
conditions and are self-paced.
Thermal Work Limit (TWL)
A HIGH TWL means better
working conditions
THERMAL WORK LIMIT
A LOW TWL means poorer
working conditions 56
THERMAL WORK LIMIT
57
TWL – Thermal Work Limit Zones and Interventions
for Management of Work in Heat
58
Assessing Heat Stress – Equipment
Available for TWL
Calor Heat Stress Meter
(Australia)
Kestrel Instrument
(USA)
Scarlet Tech
(Taiwan)
HAAD Online TWL calculator
If individual environmental parameters are known they can also be entered into
the online HAAD TWL calculator to calculate TWL.
How do you get the materials?
61
Material Collection
• Complete a material
order form
• Collect the materials at
HAAD HQ building 1st
floor Sunday – Thursday
between 9:30am and
2:30pm
• Contact person: Mr.
Mohammed Hussain
• Regional Officer: HAAD
• mhussain@haad.ae
62
Thank You/Questions

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Haad safety in heat program

  • 1. 1 Safety in the Heat Programme Summer 2012 Darren Joubert Occupational and Environmental Health Health Promotion and Surveillance Dept.
  • 2. Health Authority – Abu Dhabi 2 H.E. Zaid Al Siksek, HAAD CEO
  • 3. 3 • What is the problem? • What is the HAAD safety in Heat programme? • How can it help? • What are the key messages and components of the programme • How do you use the materials on-site? • How do you assess heat stress? • How do you get the materials? What we will cover…
  • 4. What is the problem?
  • 5. Working in the Heat is a Significant Occupational Hazard in Abu Dhabi 5
  • 6. Heat Related Illness Cases treated in one Hospital Emergency Dept. (Survey 2007) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Heat Related Illness Cases Count of Cases
  • 7. 3,017+ cases of heat-related illness seen at HCFs in Abu Dhabi Emirate, 2010 2025 122 88 829 3017 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 HEAT EXHAUSTION HEAT STROKE HEAT SYNCOPE PRICKLY HEAT TOTAL Heat Related Illness Cases Heat-related illness, by medical condition
  • 8. What happens when you are exposed to heat?
  • 9. How do you heat up? • Normal Body Metabolism • Work and Exercise • Environmental Heat Loss or Gain 9 Thermal Radiation 60% heat exchange Convection from air temperature 12% of heat exchange Conduction from hot surfaces 3% of heat exchange
  • 10. How do you cool down? • Perspiration/Sweating and • Evaporation of sweat • Cooling is affected by: – sweat rate – sweat volume – Evaporation – air movement – humidity 10
  • 11. What happens in a cool environment? 11
  • 12. What happens in a hot environment? 12
  • 13. What happens when you get Dehydration? Un-replaced sweat loss results in dehydration which means: • there is less blood available to go to the skin and the ability to lose heat is lost • heart rates and blood pressure increase because of this smaller volume, resulting in excessive fatigue • blood supply to the gut is reduced resulting in decreased fluid absorption • less blood is available to supply working muscles so less work can be performed • mental capacity is reduced due to decreased blood flow to the brain (increase risk of accidents and injuries)
  • 14. Electrolyte Loss - Sodium • Sodium is the major electrolyte lost in sweat so needs to be replaced through diet and electrolyte drinks - NOT SALT TABLETS • Sodium is essential for many body functions including the maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of blood pressure, and normal function of the nervous system. • Too little sodium leads to hyponatremia which can be a severe condition and can be fatal. 14
  • 15. What is the Magic Number? 15 370 Celsius Heat GAIN Heat LOSS • Sweat production and Evaporation • Electrolyte loss/replacement • Acclimatisation • Personal Factors – age, medication, BMI, fitness, • Air Temperature • Radiant Heat - Sun • Humidity • Wind Speed • Workload • Clothing
  • 16. What does the law say?
  • 17. UAE Labour Law Ministerial Resolution • Employers have a legal responsibility to protect the health of their workers as stipulated by the UAE Labour Law (Federal Law No. 8 of 1980). • Follow the Ministry of Labour Ministerial Resolution for the midday break in summer: 15 June – 15 September 2012 12:30 pm – 3:00 pm
  • 18. 18 Legal Responsibilities of Employers • Work hours should no exceed 8 hours per day • Publish the daily schedule of work in Arabic and languages the workers can understand • Provide Shaded rest areas (preferably air-conditioned) • Provide adequate drinking water and electrolyte replacement (food or drinks) • Fines and Penalties: – AED 15 000 for each case of breach – Downgrading of Company Category • Heat exposure and heat stroke can be fatal if proper controls are not implemented.
  • 19. EHSMS CoP and Technical Guideline Abu Dhabi EHSMS RF ver. 2.0 – Feb 2012
  • 20. Who does EHSMS regulations apply to? • All employers in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi that • Have employees working in high temperature environments including: – Outdoors in summer and – Other hot site operations (furnaces, smelters, factories and other hot environments) 20
  • 21. Main Elements of the Code of Practice • Training and Competency • Workers and new workers/visitors • Managers and Supervisors • First Aiders • Roles and Responsibilities • Employers • Employees 21
  • 22. Heat Stress Programme Requirements • Perform risk assessment • Implement acclimatisation programme • Assess environmental conditions (TWL index) • Communicate conditions to employees (e.g.: flag system) • Provide water and electrolyte drinks • Provide appropriate PPE (drinking bottles) • Provide shade and cooling shelters • Schedule work in coolest part of the day/obey midday break rule 22
  • 23. Heat Stress Programme Requirements.. • Provide pre-employment screening and medical clearance to identify chronic medical conditions (not visa screening) • Conduct pre-employment training (inductions) • Implement Engineering controls to reduce exposure • Train and provide first aiders • Implement audit and inspection programme • Train all employees • Investigate and report heat illness 23
  • 24. Record Keeping for Heat Stress programme Keep record of: • Heat stress programme initiatives and activities • Details of training and awareness activities and messages communicated to employees • Details of heat stress related facilities, services provided e.g.: first aid, shade, engineering controls used etc. • Programme evaluation, stats, cost-benefit information etc. • Heat stress related incidents e.g.: heat illness, first aid cases, hospitalization and emergency treatment etc. 24
  • 25. What is the HAAD Safety in Heat programme and how can it help? 25
  • 26. • Multi–media – Printed Materials – posters, pamphlets, roll up banners and training materials and Digital Media - videos and online/websites • Multi-lingual – English, Arabic, Urdu, Malayalam, Hindi, and Bengali • Multi-targeted – Four different groups and all sectors where heat stress occurs • Technical programme – Based on international best practice and research conducted in Australia and UAE • To reduce heat illness and heat related in injuries in Abu Dhabi and beyond.. HAAD Safety in the Heat Program
  • 27. The Program includes: Information and Resources for: • Work in heat protocols and procedures • Information and training for workers and supervisors to recognize heat stress symptoms and to control heat exposure • Guidance on preventative measures • Guidance on First-Aid measures for heat illness • Guidance on good hydration practices • Guidance on assessing and monitor Heat Stress Parameters (TWL Index)
  • 28. • To raise awareness of the dangers of heat exposure amongst the target groups and prevention and; • To provide support and health promotion materials to raise awareness of the issue, increase education and training • To support the AD EHS Center, EHSMS Sector Regulatory Authorities, EHSMS and other Entities and the Ministry of Labour summer activities and events: Aims and Objectives of HAAD Safety in Heat Program
  • 29. Primary target audience: • Health and Safety Personnel in all Industrial sectors where workers are exposed to Heat Secondary target audiences: • Employers, CEO’s, Business Owners, Supervisors ; • Heat exposed workers from different language groups Target Groups
  • 30. 2009 • Launched on the 20th May 2009 in collaboration with the Ministry of Labour 2010 • Program evaluation, some amendments to the graphics and style, additional resources added such as different language materials and Ramadan posters • Re-launched for summer 2010 2011 • Re-launched for summer 2011 2012 • Has become part of the Abu Dhabi EHSMS regulatory framework • Re-launched for summer 2012 2013 • New Look The Programme so far…2009 -12
  • 31. Material Development (2009-2012) Construction (2009) Multi-sector and Ramadan (2010) EHSMS and 10 Sectors (2012)
  • 32. DVD/CD Sets Wide Range of Resources available HSE Procedure and Training Manual Technical Information Sheets Posters/ Roll-Up banners Pamphlets Water cooler
  • 33. What are the key messages and components in the programme?
  • 34. Resources for: Supervisors Information pamphlets in different languages covering: • What happens to the body when it is exposed to heat • How heat exposure affects a worker – symptoms • Prevention of Heat Illness – What you as a supervisor should do
  • 35. Messages for Workers Pamphlets in different languages with Key Points to remember
  • 36. Hydration is the single biggest factor for protection against heat illness Improving hydration status is key
  • 37. Key Point 1… Drinking enough water Come to work well Hydrated Maintain adequate Hydration throughout The day Self Assess Hydration
  • 38. Self Assessment of Hydration Status
  • 39. Hydration – Important Points to remember • To come to work fully hydrated: – drink plenty of water before you get to work, at least 1 Litre • To drink plenty of water during the shift – at least 2 litres every 2-3 hours in summer (or rehydration fluid approved by the employer one to one). • Remind them if they drink water only when thirsty it is too late. • To carry a water container with you of at least 1-2 liters to fill regularly.
  • 40. Key Point 2 … Salt Replacement POINTS to REMEMBER: • If electrolyte replacement drinks are provided there is no need to add extra salt to meals • If someone has high blood pressure they should be checked by a doctor before working in heat or increasing salt intake • If electrolyte drinks are consumed then they should alternate with a drink of water one to one over the day Maintain electrolyte Intake/replacement
  • 41. Key Point 3 … Rest and Recovery Self-pace work – do not push beyond the bodies limits. Allow time at night to recover from the heat stress during the day Provide a well balanced health diet to help the body to recover – avoid coffee, cola and high sugar and fatty foods
  • 42. Key Point 4 … Heat Illness Identify Signs of Heat Illness Encourage the reporting of all signs of heat illness to the supervisor (feeling faint, dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, cramps). REMEMBER: HEAT ILLNESS CAN KILL SO BE AWARE!
  • 43. Posters Remind of Key Points During Summer: • Drink at least 2 litres of water every 2-3 hours – Maintain Hydration • Add a little more salt to your meals – Replace Electrolytes • In hot weather take regular breaks – Encourage Self Pacing • Get plenty of sleep at night – Encourage Rest and Recovery • When unwell tell your supervisor – Encourage Reporting of Symptoms
  • 44. What about Ramadan, fasting and heat exposure? POINTS to REMEMBER: • Try avoid heat exposure as much as possible during Ramadan • Monitor for signs of heat illness such as skin rashes, dizziness, headaches • Start the day well hydrated – for Suhoor with your meal eat fruits, vegetables and drink plenty of water and unsweetened fruit juice • Avoid salty foods at Suhoor • Drink water and fruit juices at Iftar before eating • Avoid strenuous activity and rest in a cool place where possible
  • 45. How do you use the materials on-site?
  • 46. How do you implement the programme? • Place posters up in worksites, noticeboards and rest/eating areas on site and in worker accommodation areas • Place pamphlets on notice boards, in rest areas and worker accommodation sites to be read by workers – use them as a training resource to smaller groups 46
  • 47. 47 Implementation on worksites • Place urine charts in toilets and urinals • Show worker videos before and throughout the summer to different language groups and discuss and answer questions • Train HSE Officers with procedures manual and HSE video, ppt slides
  • 49. 49 How do you Assess Heat Stress? Environmental Assessment Radiant Heat
  • 50. To determine TWL the following must be measured: Dry Bulb Temperature (ambient air temperature) in degrees °C Wet Bulb Temperature (affected by the humidity/evaporation) in degrees °C Globe Temperature (affected by the radiant heat) in degrees °C Wind speed in metres per second Assessment of Heat Stress
  • 51. • Wet bulb temperature is the most important and is measured using a wet bulb thermometer • WB is the temperature at which water evaporates into the air • Significant when compared to skin temperature because of the affect it has how much of an individuals sweat evaporates • Dry bulb temperature (ambient temp.) is not as important and is measured using a regular thermometer Air Temperature – Dry Bulb
  • 52. Radiant Heat – Globe Temperature • Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves in contrast to heat transmitted by conduction or convection • Measured using a “globe thermometer” a 150 mm diameter hollow copper ball (painted black) with a standard thermometer in it. • Significant for workers in the sun or in smelters
  • 53. Relative Humidity – Wet Bulb Temp. • Relative Humidity is a percentage of the actual amount of moisture in the air, compared to the maximum moisture that can be taken up by the air at that temperature • 50% or more of sweat can drop off skin • Only sweat which evaporates off skin produces cooling • Sweat which drops off just adds to dehydration load • Dry air means more evaporates and less drips off  keep air dry (low humidity)
  • 54. Wind Speed – Air Velocity The higher the wind speed the better (within reason) • Wind speed increases evaporation of sweat • Use fanswhere possible • Ensure ventilation systems are working effectively at all times
  • 55. • The Thermal Work Limit (TWL), which has been validated for gulf conditions, is the heat stress index that is recommended by HAAD to enable the safe management of work in heat. • It gives a measure of the maximum safe work rate for the conditions i.e.: the maximum rate at which heat can be lost to the environment in the given conditions • If TWL is too low then even low rates of work cannot safely be carried out continuously. • TWL is calculated from environmental parameters assuming that workers are well hydrated and acclimatised to the conditions and are self-paced. Thermal Work Limit (TWL)
  • 56. A HIGH TWL means better working conditions THERMAL WORK LIMIT A LOW TWL means poorer working conditions 56 THERMAL WORK LIMIT
  • 57. 57 TWL – Thermal Work Limit Zones and Interventions for Management of Work in Heat
  • 58. 58 Assessing Heat Stress – Equipment Available for TWL Calor Heat Stress Meter (Australia) Kestrel Instrument (USA) Scarlet Tech (Taiwan)
  • 59. HAAD Online TWL calculator If individual environmental parameters are known they can also be entered into the online HAAD TWL calculator to calculate TWL.
  • 60. How do you get the materials?
  • 61. 61 Material Collection • Complete a material order form • Collect the materials at HAAD HQ building 1st floor Sunday – Thursday between 9:30am and 2:30pm • Contact person: Mr. Mohammed Hussain • Regional Officer: HAAD • mhussain@haad.ae