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10/27/2016 Company Presentation CONFIDENTIAL 1
ERTMSFormalSpecs (EFS)
A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS
specifications
Laurent Ferier
EFS Project Manager and Software Architect
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
2
The Context
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
2
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
3
The Challenge
Specification of the EVC behavior
• Normative documents
– Subset-026 : SRS
– Subset-027 : JRU
– Subset-034 : TIU
• Additional documents
– DMI start & stop conditions
– Requirements scope identification (trackside,
onboard, system, rolling stock)
• Issues
– Natural language
– Structure
– Size
– Completeness
– Consistency
– Releases
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
3
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
4
Impact
• All stakeholders involved
- Specifiers (ERA, Unisig, …)
- System supplier
- Users (IM, EUG, …)
• Impact
- Interpretation issues
• Expected behavior
• Impact of a change
- Integration and interoperability
- Safety
- Maintenance
• Costs
– Development
– Maintenance
• Rewriting the requirements is out of scope
- The industry needs to address those issues
Min
Max
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1 3 10 15 30 401 6 10
40
70
1000
Relative cost (Boehm 1981)
Min Max
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
4
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
5
ERTMSFormalSpecs
Objective: model 100% ERTMS Business Logic
Process and project management, Requirements analysis,
Traceability, Domain Specific Language (DSL), Diagrams,
Tests, Visualization, …
ERTMS Specifications
CASE tool
Target
Assess the specification
(visualization , tests, …)
Current
Code generation
(language, coding rules, …)
Future
Version 3.4.0
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
6
Objectives
Requirements elicitation
• Understandable
• Check completeness / consistency
• Does it match customer needs
• Provide a structure
• Traced to original requirements
Tests
• Test sequences validation
• Reference OBU
Future
Design and implementation
• Code generation
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
7
Requirements handling
• Subset-026, 027, 034
- More than 7000 requirements,
- 4500 applicable to the OBU
• Requirements management
- Create the inventory
• Encode (copy & paste)
• Verify against text file
- Categorize
• Identify the scope
• Functional blocs (project dashboard)
- Fill the gaps with hypothesis
- Comment
• Traceability
- Metrics
- Handle changes
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
8
Modelling in EFS
• Translation of requirements into a formal representation
- Well defined
- Unique interpretation
• Purpose
– Assess requirements
– Animation
– Testing
– Visualization
Model properties
● As close as possible to the requirements
- To be understood by domain specialists
- Should match Subset-026 expressivity
- High level artifacts
• State machines
• Braking curves
● Traceability
– References the requirements covered
by the model
– Comments
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
9
27/10/2016 –
CONFIDENTIAL
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
10
Traction/Braking models
Trackside related Inputs
Speed & Distance
Monitoring
Trackside Speed
Restrictions
Gradients
Track conditions
powerless section &
brake inhibition
Reduced Adhesion
conditions
Speed and distance limits:
 LoA
 EoA / SvL
 Location from SR distance
National Values
 Trackside integrated correction factors:
Kv_int, Kr_int, Kt_int
 Available adhesion
 EB confidence level
 SB command inhibition in TSM
 EB command revocation in CSM/TSM
 Guidance curve inhibition
 A_NVMAXREDADH under reduced adhesion
 Service Brake feedback inhibition
 Release Speed
Conversion
Model
Brake
percentage
Acceleration /
Deceleration
due to Gradient
Determination of
the supervised
targets
Determination of
brake deceleration
curves:
 EBD
 SBD
 GUI
Supervision limits:
 Emergency brake intervention (EBI)
 Service brake intervention (SBI)
 Warning (W)
 Permitted speed (P)
 Indication (I)
 Pre-Indication location
 Release speed monitoring start
location
Speed and distance
monitoring commands
 TI commands
 Emergency brake command
 Service brake command
 TCO command
 DMI commands:
 Normal status
 Indication status
 Overspeed status
 Warning status
 Intervention status
Calculation of decelerations:
A_safe(v,d) for EBD curve
A_expected(v,d) for SBD curve
A_normal_service(v,d) for GUI curve
Calculation of
brake build up times:
T_bs for SBI limit
T_be for EBI limit
A_gradient
TI commands
Traction model
Fixed Values
Onboard correction factors:
Kdry_rst, Kwet_rst, Kn
Train related
Inputs
Braking model
OR
Brake percentage
SB interface
 SB command implemented
 SB feedback implemented
TCO interface
Nominal rotating mass
Train length
Fixed Values
Maximum train speed
A_brake_emergency
A_brake_service
A_brake_normal_service
T_brake_service
T_brake_emergency
MRSP
Train position
/ speed /
acceleration
track conditions
Kdry_rst / Kwet_rst /
Kv_int / Kr_int /
reduced adhesion
TRK speed
restrictions /
Max train
speed
Electro-pneumatic brake
Kt_int
speed / distance
limits
DMI
commands
Brake
position
Traction
model
Special Brakes
 Electro-pneumatic brake
 Eddy current brake
 Magnetic shoe brake
 Regenerative brake
Model coverage
Braking curves
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
11
Braking curves comparative results
• Comparison with ERA braking curve
spreadsheet
- Tool differences
• ERA spreadsheet handle a single target
• whereas EFS handles complex speed profiles
• Version 3.3.0 vs version 3.4.0
- Results
• Same results for the simplest cases (modulo ɛ)
• Similar results for complex deceleration factors
– due to discrete computation in the spreadsheet
– acceptable : initial train speed=140km/h induced Δ=20cm
– note : acceptable error not defined in Subset26
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
12
Modelling status
More than 90% modelled
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
13
Testing
• Objectives
- Functional tests, related to Subset-026 requirements
• Make sure that the model behaves as required
• 100% model in the loop testing
- Integration tests
• As expressed in Subset-076
• Specific translations from Subset-076 database
• Test description
- Actions
• Statements
• Used to trigger the model
- Expectations
• Boolean expressions
• Check that the condition is respected
• Instantaneous / Continuous
• Deadline
• White box testing
- Traces available for investigation
- Step back
Subset 076
● Define interoperability tests between trackside & trainborne
- Inputs from either trackside or driver
- Expected output from EVC
● Define EVC integration tests
● Available as word documents, generated from an Access database
The idea is to apply Subset-076 tests to EFS model.
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
14
● Integration model
- Source is the (non formal) subset 076 Access database
- Imported as structured text in the EFS test database
- Access databases are no more useful
- Automate the translation process
- Some parts might not be automated
The same translation rules can be used
to translate several test cases
Textual translation database can be used
to translate new releases
Subset-076 and EFS
S76 Access
databases
Textual import
EFS tests
database
Text
Model
Textual
tranlations
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
15
27/10/2016 –
CONFIDENTIAL
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
16
Subset-076 test status
Open interface
● EFS provides an open interface
- Access the model
- Drive the simulation
● Plug additional tools to EFS
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
17
WCF software bus
27/10/2016 –
CONFIDENTIAL
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
18
DMI
● Visualize the system state
Display the model state, according to DMI specification
Ease the communication
with the domain expert
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
19
Scenario Editor
● Objectives
- Graphically create test scenarios
• Events
- Balise messages
- EURORADIO
- Driver actions
- …
• Train speed
- Drives the animation process
- Graphically display system
state
• Braking curves
• System changes
● Purpose
- Analyze CRs
- Create visuals for tutorials
Graphical edition / visualization of scenarios
Ease the creation of
specific scenarios
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
20
CR1084
● Current situation
- Two successive targets
• Pre-indication should happen
7s before indication point
- Second target too close from
the first one
• Insufficient time for the driver
to react adequately to reach
the new target speed
• Intervention is inevitable.
Static analysis and reproduction using the Scenario Editor
CR1084
Problem description
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
21
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
22
Analyze ERA proposal
● Idea
When several targets are too close
one to the others, apply the display
algorithms to the most restrictive
target
● Formally defined
References paragraph changes in
Subset-026
Solution proposed by ERA
● Amend the model
- White box
- Using traceability information
Visualization of the ERA proposed solution
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
23
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
24
Analyze EUG proposal
● Idea
When several targets are too close
one to the others,
switch from Target1 to Target2 as
soon as the train passes the pre-
indication location for the second
target
● Formally defined
References paragraph changes in
Subset-026
Solution proposed by EUG
● Amend the model
- White box
- Using traceability information
Visualization of the EUG proposed solution
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
25
27/10/2016 –
CONFIDENTIAL
Conclusions
The impact of a spec modification is difficult to evaluate
because one cannot animate text documents
● ERTMSFormalSpecs is efficient for CR implementation impact analysis
- Analysis + results for CR1084
• Prepared in 2 man-days
- Reasons
• Traceability
• Declarative language
• Visualization tools
- Scenario Editor
- DMI
• White box model
● Early errors detection in the development life-cycle
● Modelling enforces precision of the proposed solution
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
26
27/10/2016 –
CONFIDENTIAL
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
27
ERTMSFormalSpecs vs production OBU
● Compare the braking curves computation of two different OBU
- Based on trace files
The project
ERTMS Formal Specs
Onboard Unit
Test scenario
Input events
Output events
EFS output
Comparer
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
28
ERTMSFormalSpecs vs production OBU
Similar results between OBU and EFS model
● Model update
- Topics
• Confidence interval computation
• Brakes application implies traction cutoff
• EB application implies SB application
• Selection of EB instead of SB in specific situations
• Impedance mismatch for DMI acknowledgements
- Modelled and documented in a separate file
● Understanding
- EFS White box testing was the key to understand
interpretation differences
The results
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
29
TestOBU.SIL0
● Mandatory for all ERTMS projects
- EUROBALISE contents and configuration
- RBC configuration
- …
● Objectives
- Reduce costs
• Installation
• Use : designed with testing in mind
– White box
– Configurable
Onsite testing
ERTMSFORMALSPECS
GSM-R 8WGPS
DMI
SIL0
GSM-R network
ANTENNA
EUROBALISE
EFS - A domain specific language to formalize
ERTMS specifications
30
EFS
What is it ? What is it not ?
• EFS
- Modelling tool
- Focus on execution and
visualization
- Traces model and tests to
requirements
- Helps project management
- White box
- Open Source
- Can be integrated in a test
environment
• What is not EFS
- Real time
- SIL 4
- Embedded
- A proving tool
- A toy
Thank you for your attention!
www.ertmssolutions.com

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ERTMSFormalSpecs Presentation - October 2016

  • 1. 10/27/2016 Company Presentation CONFIDENTIAL 1 ERTMSFormalSpecs (EFS) A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications Laurent Ferier EFS Project Manager and Software Architect
  • 2. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 2 The Context EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 2
  • 3. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 3 The Challenge Specification of the EVC behavior • Normative documents – Subset-026 : SRS – Subset-027 : JRU – Subset-034 : TIU • Additional documents – DMI start & stop conditions – Requirements scope identification (trackside, onboard, system, rolling stock) • Issues – Natural language – Structure – Size – Completeness – Consistency – Releases EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 3
  • 4. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 4 Impact • All stakeholders involved - Specifiers (ERA, Unisig, …) - System supplier - Users (IM, EUG, …) • Impact - Interpretation issues • Expected behavior • Impact of a change - Integration and interoperability - Safety - Maintenance • Costs – Development – Maintenance • Rewriting the requirements is out of scope - The industry needs to address those issues Min Max 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1 3 10 15 30 401 6 10 40 70 1000 Relative cost (Boehm 1981) Min Max EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 4
  • 5. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 5 ERTMSFormalSpecs Objective: model 100% ERTMS Business Logic Process and project management, Requirements analysis, Traceability, Domain Specific Language (DSL), Diagrams, Tests, Visualization, … ERTMS Specifications CASE tool Target Assess the specification (visualization , tests, …) Current Code generation (language, coding rules, …) Future Version 3.4.0
  • 6. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 6 Objectives Requirements elicitation • Understandable • Check completeness / consistency • Does it match customer needs • Provide a structure • Traced to original requirements Tests • Test sequences validation • Reference OBU Future Design and implementation • Code generation
  • 7. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 7 Requirements handling • Subset-026, 027, 034 - More than 7000 requirements, - 4500 applicable to the OBU • Requirements management - Create the inventory • Encode (copy & paste) • Verify against text file - Categorize • Identify the scope • Functional blocs (project dashboard) - Fill the gaps with hypothesis - Comment • Traceability - Metrics - Handle changes
  • 8. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 8 Modelling in EFS • Translation of requirements into a formal representation - Well defined - Unique interpretation • Purpose – Assess requirements – Animation – Testing – Visualization
  • 9. Model properties ● As close as possible to the requirements - To be understood by domain specialists - Should match Subset-026 expressivity - High level artifacts • State machines • Braking curves ● Traceability – References the requirements covered by the model – Comments EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 9 27/10/2016 – CONFIDENTIAL
  • 10. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 10 Traction/Braking models Trackside related Inputs Speed & Distance Monitoring Trackside Speed Restrictions Gradients Track conditions powerless section & brake inhibition Reduced Adhesion conditions Speed and distance limits:  LoA  EoA / SvL  Location from SR distance National Values  Trackside integrated correction factors: Kv_int, Kr_int, Kt_int  Available adhesion  EB confidence level  SB command inhibition in TSM  EB command revocation in CSM/TSM  Guidance curve inhibition  A_NVMAXREDADH under reduced adhesion  Service Brake feedback inhibition  Release Speed Conversion Model Brake percentage Acceleration / Deceleration due to Gradient Determination of the supervised targets Determination of brake deceleration curves:  EBD  SBD  GUI Supervision limits:  Emergency brake intervention (EBI)  Service brake intervention (SBI)  Warning (W)  Permitted speed (P)  Indication (I)  Pre-Indication location  Release speed monitoring start location Speed and distance monitoring commands  TI commands  Emergency brake command  Service brake command  TCO command  DMI commands:  Normal status  Indication status  Overspeed status  Warning status  Intervention status Calculation of decelerations: A_safe(v,d) for EBD curve A_expected(v,d) for SBD curve A_normal_service(v,d) for GUI curve Calculation of brake build up times: T_bs for SBI limit T_be for EBI limit A_gradient TI commands Traction model Fixed Values Onboard correction factors: Kdry_rst, Kwet_rst, Kn Train related Inputs Braking model OR Brake percentage SB interface  SB command implemented  SB feedback implemented TCO interface Nominal rotating mass Train length Fixed Values Maximum train speed A_brake_emergency A_brake_service A_brake_normal_service T_brake_service T_brake_emergency MRSP Train position / speed / acceleration track conditions Kdry_rst / Kwet_rst / Kv_int / Kr_int / reduced adhesion TRK speed restrictions / Max train speed Electro-pneumatic brake Kt_int speed / distance limits DMI commands Brake position Traction model Special Brakes  Electro-pneumatic brake  Eddy current brake  Magnetic shoe brake  Regenerative brake Model coverage Braking curves
  • 11. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 11 Braking curves comparative results • Comparison with ERA braking curve spreadsheet - Tool differences • ERA spreadsheet handle a single target • whereas EFS handles complex speed profiles • Version 3.3.0 vs version 3.4.0 - Results • Same results for the simplest cases (modulo ɛ) • Similar results for complex deceleration factors – due to discrete computation in the spreadsheet – acceptable : initial train speed=140km/h induced Δ=20cm – note : acceptable error not defined in Subset26
  • 12. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 12 Modelling status More than 90% modelled
  • 13. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 13 Testing • Objectives - Functional tests, related to Subset-026 requirements • Make sure that the model behaves as required • 100% model in the loop testing - Integration tests • As expressed in Subset-076 • Specific translations from Subset-076 database • Test description - Actions • Statements • Used to trigger the model - Expectations • Boolean expressions • Check that the condition is respected • Instantaneous / Continuous • Deadline • White box testing - Traces available for investigation - Step back
  • 14. Subset 076 ● Define interoperability tests between trackside & trainborne - Inputs from either trackside or driver - Expected output from EVC ● Define EVC integration tests ● Available as word documents, generated from an Access database The idea is to apply Subset-076 tests to EFS model. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 14
  • 15. ● Integration model - Source is the (non formal) subset 076 Access database - Imported as structured text in the EFS test database - Access databases are no more useful - Automate the translation process - Some parts might not be automated The same translation rules can be used to translate several test cases Textual translation database can be used to translate new releases Subset-076 and EFS S76 Access databases Textual import EFS tests database Text Model Textual tranlations EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 15 27/10/2016 – CONFIDENTIAL
  • 16. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 16 Subset-076 test status
  • 17. Open interface ● EFS provides an open interface - Access the model - Drive the simulation ● Plug additional tools to EFS EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 17 WCF software bus 27/10/2016 – CONFIDENTIAL
  • 18. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 18 DMI ● Visualize the system state Display the model state, according to DMI specification Ease the communication with the domain expert
  • 19. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 19 Scenario Editor ● Objectives - Graphically create test scenarios • Events - Balise messages - EURORADIO - Driver actions - … • Train speed - Drives the animation process - Graphically display system state • Braking curves • System changes ● Purpose - Analyze CRs - Create visuals for tutorials Graphical edition / visualization of scenarios Ease the creation of specific scenarios
  • 20. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 20 CR1084 ● Current situation - Two successive targets • Pre-indication should happen 7s before indication point - Second target too close from the first one • Insufficient time for the driver to react adequately to reach the new target speed • Intervention is inevitable. Static analysis and reproduction using the Scenario Editor
  • 21. CR1084 Problem description EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 21
  • 22. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 22 Analyze ERA proposal ● Idea When several targets are too close one to the others, apply the display algorithms to the most restrictive target ● Formally defined References paragraph changes in Subset-026 Solution proposed by ERA ● Amend the model - White box - Using traceability information
  • 23. Visualization of the ERA proposed solution EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 23
  • 24. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 24 Analyze EUG proposal ● Idea When several targets are too close one to the others, switch from Target1 to Target2 as soon as the train passes the pre- indication location for the second target ● Formally defined References paragraph changes in Subset-026 Solution proposed by EUG ● Amend the model - White box - Using traceability information
  • 25. Visualization of the EUG proposed solution EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 25 27/10/2016 – CONFIDENTIAL
  • 26. Conclusions The impact of a spec modification is difficult to evaluate because one cannot animate text documents ● ERTMSFormalSpecs is efficient for CR implementation impact analysis - Analysis + results for CR1084 • Prepared in 2 man-days - Reasons • Traceability • Declarative language • Visualization tools - Scenario Editor - DMI • White box model ● Early errors detection in the development life-cycle ● Modelling enforces precision of the proposed solution EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 26 27/10/2016 – CONFIDENTIAL
  • 27. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 27 ERTMSFormalSpecs vs production OBU ● Compare the braking curves computation of two different OBU - Based on trace files The project ERTMS Formal Specs Onboard Unit Test scenario Input events Output events EFS output Comparer
  • 28. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 28 ERTMSFormalSpecs vs production OBU Similar results between OBU and EFS model ● Model update - Topics • Confidence interval computation • Brakes application implies traction cutoff • EB application implies SB application • Selection of EB instead of SB in specific situations • Impedance mismatch for DMI acknowledgements - Modelled and documented in a separate file ● Understanding - EFS White box testing was the key to understand interpretation differences The results
  • 29. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 29 TestOBU.SIL0 ● Mandatory for all ERTMS projects - EUROBALISE contents and configuration - RBC configuration - … ● Objectives - Reduce costs • Installation • Use : designed with testing in mind – White box – Configurable Onsite testing ERTMSFORMALSPECS GSM-R 8WGPS DMI SIL0 GSM-R network ANTENNA EUROBALISE
  • 30. EFS - A domain specific language to formalize ERTMS specifications 30 EFS What is it ? What is it not ? • EFS - Modelling tool - Focus on execution and visualization - Traces model and tests to requirements - Helps project management - White box - Open Source - Can be integrated in a test environment • What is not EFS - Real time - SIL 4 - Embedded - A proving tool - A toy
  • 31. Thank you for your attention! www.ertmssolutions.com