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©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Linux Boot
The Big Bang theory
Ruslan Bilovol
2019
2
Who am I?
• 10+ years background in Embedded Systems
development
• Texas Instruments, Marvell, Cisco
• OpenSource contributor and enthusiast
0295 E4A8 BEA7 3111 24B8 E490 0A02 52FB 7C55 614B
3
How Linux is booting?
BIOS/UEFI/
ROM
Bootloader Linux Kernel Userspace
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Questions?
5
Questions
• Why so many steps?
• Why bootloader is needed?
• How multiple CPU cores are started?
• When Virtual Memory appears in the system?
• How first process starts?
• What Linux Kernel is doing after starting userspace?
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
What is “Linux Boot”?
7
What is “Linux Boot”?
• Boot is short for bootstrap
• A self-starting process to init HW and prepare SW
• Power on, wait - and universe is ready
8
How Linux is booting?
BIOS/UEFI/
ROM
Bootloader Linux Kernel Userspace
Initial HW startup
Fetch and execute
bootloader
Low-level HW init
Fetch and execute
Linux Kernel
System initialization
Preparation for
UserSpace
execution
Starting processes.
System initialization
from UserSpace
9
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Singularity of hardware
11
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Userspace processes
12
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
13
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
14
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
15
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
16
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
MMU
17
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
MMU
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
18
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
MMU
Linux Kernel
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
19
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
RAM
MMU
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
20
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
The Big Bang: powering up your
machine
22
I've got the power!
• x86 - BIOS/UEFI
– RAM detection
– Hardware detection/Initialization
– Boot sequence
• BIOS: loads a 512 byte from the MBR and jumps into it
• UEFI: loads UEFI application from a partition on a GPT boot device
23
I've got the power!
• ARM - ROM
– Very minimal init (varies)
– Load first-stage bootloader (SD, FLASH, UART)
24
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
RAM
MMU
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
25
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Bootloader: why is it really
needed?
27
Bootloader
• Is a program that does:
– Low-level hardware initialization
– Fetch Linux Kernel image (disk, network, etc) and put it to the RAM
– Prepare system for kernel boot (CPUs, caches, MMU, interrupts)
– Jump into first kernel instruction
BIOS/UEFI/
ROM
Bootloader Linux Kernel Userspace
28
Bootloaders
• GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader)
– x86/x86-64
• LILO (Linux Loader)
• U-Boot (“the Universal Boot Loader”)
– ARM and other embedded systems
29
Bootloader
• ARM64 bootloader requirements (minimal)
– Setup and initialise the RAM
– Setup the device tree
– Decompress the kernel image (if needed)
– Call the kernel image
30
ARM64 Kernel starting conditions
• Following conditions must be met by bootloader:
– Quiesce all DMA capable devices
– All interrupts disabled (IRQ, FIQ, Debug, SError)
– The MMU must be off
– Same coherency domain on all CPUs
– Primary (boot) CPU jumps directly to the kernel
– Secondary CPUs a either disabled or spinning outside of Kernel
31
Kernel starting conditions
Power ON
Bootloader
Kernel
CPU 0
(boot CPU)
CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3
time
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Dark Ages:
The beginning of the Linux Kernel
execution
33
Linux Kernel compression
• Saves disk space
• Faster to decompress in RAM than load full uncompressed image
Kernel Image Type Decompressor
vmlinux NA (raw ELF file)
Image Not compressed
Image.gz Bootloader
zImage Kernel
(self-decompressing)
34
Linux Kernel compression (ARM example)
vmlinux Image
piggy_data
piggy.S
piggy.o
head.o
decompress.o
misc.o
...
vmlinux zImage
Raw kernel
executable
(ELF)
Stripped
binary
vmlinux
gzip-ped
Image
included into
piggy.S
Combined with
decompressor and
bootstrapping part
Combined
kernel image
(ELF)
Stripped
binary
vmlinux
35
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Black hole in the Linux?
37
Black hole in the Linux?
38
Black hole in the Linux?
• /dev/null !
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Kernel and Hardware
initialization:
from darkness to first stars
40
Linux kernel start
vmlinux
head.o
main.o
Architecture-dependent low-level initialization:
- check CPU type and capabilities
- enable MMU and virtual memory
- call start_kernel() from main.o
Initialization of all the kernel features
(a lot of them!)
Rest of the kernel binary
jmp
41
arch/*/kernel/head*[S,c]
init/main.c: start_kernel()
jmp
init/main.c: rest_init()
init/main.c: kernel_init()
arch/*/kernel
arch/*/mm
cpu_idle (PID 0)
init process (PID 1)
Initialization Operation
42
Linux init/main.c
• start_kernel()
– local_irq_disable()
– boot_cpu_init()
– setup_arch() /* architecture-specific initialization */
– mm_init() /* Kernel Memory Management */
– sched_init() /* Scheduler init (doesn’t run at this moment) */
– preempt_disable()
– init_IRQ() /* IRQ subsystem initialization */
– tick_init() / init_timers() /* Timer sybsystem init */
– rand_initialize()
– time_init() /* Platform timers init */
– local_irq_enable() /* IRQs enabled on local CPU */
– console_init()
43
Linux init/main.c
• rest_init()
– pid = kernel_thread(kernel_init, NULL, CLONE_FS);
– pid = kernel_thread(kthreadd, NULL, CLONE_FS | CLONE_FILES);
– cpu_startup_entry() /* Call into cpu_idle */
44
Linux init/main.c
• kernel_init()
– smp_init()
– do_initcalls() /* drivers initialization */
– prepare_namespace() /* mount initrd if needed */
– free_initmem()
– try to run init process:
if (!try_to_run_init_process("/sbin/init") ||
!try_to_run_init_process("/etc/init") ||
!try_to_run_init_process("/bin/init") ||
!try_to_run_init_process("/bin/sh"))
return 0;
45
Linux initrd
• Problem
– need to mount root filesystem, but
driver for it lives in root fs
– chicken and egg issue
• Solution
– bootloader loads small filesystem with
needed drivers to RAM
– Kernel mounts it as root fs
– initrd does all needed initialization
– initrd switches root to actual root
filesystem
pivot_root
bootloader
kernel initrd
/dev/sda2
Load
drivers
46
Linux initrd - typical boot sequence
• bootloader loads the kernel and the initial RAM disk
• kernel converts initrd into a “normal” RAM disk
• root device (initrd) is mounted
• /sbin/init is executed
• init mounts the “real” root file system
• init switches to the “real” root fs using pivot_root system call
• init execs the /sbin/init on the new root filesystem
– important: PID 1 is preserved
• the initrd file system is removed
47
init
idletsk
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
MMU
Linux Kernel
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
48
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Galaxies and planets:
Init spawns user Space
50
Init process
• The first process that is
executed once the Linux
kernel loads
• Does system initialization
on userspace level
• Runs all other processes
(bootstraps userspace)
• Handles processes
whose parent died
(“zombie”)
Kernel
initialization
time
init (PID 0)
User Space
process 1
process 2
process 3
process n
51
Typical Init system tasks
• Desktop systems
– find init configuration files/scripts
– check and mount filesystems
– run daemons (background tasks)
– setup networking
– run display manager
• Embedded systems
– depends on Embedded system purpose
– often similar to desktop, but without graphics
52
Init process
• Popular init systems
– SysVinit
• survived from UNIX System V days
– systemd
• modern init system aimed to address the limitations of SysVinit
– OpenRC
• Gentoo users
– busybox
• simple, for small/embedded systems
53
Run levels / Targets
SysV Runlevel systemd Target Description
0 poweroff.target Shut down the system.
1, s, single rescue.target Single user mode.
2, 4 multi-user.target User-defined/Site-specific runlevels. By default,
identical to 3.
3 multi-user.target Multi-user, non-graphical. Users can usually login via
multiple consoles or via the network.
5 graphical.target Multi-user, graphical. Usually has all the services of
runlevel 3 plus a graphical login.
6 reboot.target Reboot
emergency emergency.target Emergency shell
54
vim
Chrome
Office
VLC
Chrome
Timer
Interrupt
controller
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Caches (L1, L2, L3)
Userspace processes
RAM
MMU
Linux Kernel
HDD GPU Keybd Mouse Network
55
The Big Bang theory
•
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.
Questions?
57
References
https://kernel.org
https://wiki.archlinux.org
©2016 GlobalLogic Inc.

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