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EFFLUENT
TREATMENT PLANT
PRESENTER : SYED ATIF NASEEM
PGD COURSE: SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT
FOR PHARMA
INDUSTRY
CONTENTS :
● INTRODUCTION
● OVERVIEW
● ALLOWBALE LIMITS OF BOD, COD , TSS AND TDS
● PROCESS LAYOUT
● PRELIMINARY TREATMENT
● PRIMARY TREATMENT
● SECONDARY TREATMENT
● TERTIARY TREATMENT
● CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
• ETP is one type of waste water treatment method
which is particularly designed to purify the
industrial waste water in order to release safe
water to the environment and reuse again by
minimizing the use of fresh water.
OVERVIEW
Chemical
Synthesis
Cardiovascula
r Agent
CNS
Stimulants
Fermentation
Plants
Steriods,
Vitamins
Therapeutic
nutrients
Formulation
Plants
Tablet,
Topical,
Syrup
Injectables,
Sterile
Manufacturing
Natural /
Biological Product
Extraction
Vitamins
Antibiotics
,Enzymes
Pharmaceutical Company
EFFULENT GENERATION IN
PHARMA INDUSTRY
• Waste generated from washing reactors & Process lines.
• Constitutes of solvents, active pharmaceutical ingredients,
detergents & Catalysts etc
• Spent liquors from fermentation processes e.g antibiotics ,
vitamins.
• Chemical waste eg Xenobiotics, Floor and Laboratory
washing waste
• Condenser water from evaporation
• This increases the toxicity of waste water and make it unfit
for survival for aquatic life
PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN
PWW TREATMENT
Different medicine produce different type of waste.
Variable amount of products
Mixing of pharmaceutical waste with other type of waste
It contain High BOD and High PH
Allowable Parameters of Effulent
OBJECTIVE:
Parameters Permissible Limits
Chemical Oxygen Demand 200 mg/L
Biological Oxygen Demand 30-50 mg/L
Total Suspended Solids 10 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids 1500 mg/L
PH 6.5-8
Oil & Grease 10 mg/L
Effulent Treatment PLant
ETP METHODOLOGY
• Preliminary Treatment (Physical Treatment)
• Primary Treatment (Chemical Treatment)
• Secondary Treatment (Biological Treatment)
• Tertiary Treatment and Advance Biological and Chemical Treatment
• Sludge Treatment & Processing
Preliminary Treatment -Physical
Treatment
Photo
• Screen Chamber
 Dead animal removes, branches of trees, logs of wood, rags & other
coarse floating material
 Two Automatic bar screens cleaners remove large solids (rags,
plastics etc. Collected material is placed in dumpsters to be taken for
landfills
• Grit Chamber
 Grit include sand, ash, egg shell etc. Diameter of less than 0.2 mm.
Heavy particles fall to the bottom.
 Through auger pump, separate the grit from water which goes to
dumpsters which is taken to landfill.
• Floatation or Skimming Tanks
 Oil , Fats , waxes, fatty acids soap & minerals.
 Through natural flotation, the bubbles of air are passed on the bottom
of the tank and floating matter rises which is separated easily
• Equalization tank is used to mixed different types of influent /
effluent thoroughly to produce homogenous and equalized
effluent for uniform treatment.
• The effluent is hold and mixed for specified period of time.
EQULIZATION TANK
Primary Treatment -Chemical Treatment
• Sedimentation
 Settling down of suspended particles (Dust, Clay, Sand & Rust) at the bottom of water called
sedimentation
 Water is collected into big pound and impurities are settled down slowly through gravitation.
• Coagulation
 It is the process in which chemical agent is mixed with water then colloidal and suspended
particles are agglomerated and form insoluble metal hydroxide known as flocks.
 Colloidal Particles which are fine particles of size 0.0001 mm carry electric charges
 Turbidity is presence in water is due to presence of fine particles of clay , silt & organic
matter
 Alum, hydrant lime, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and poly aluminum chloride coagulants.
• Filtration
 Water pass through the thick layer of sand and porous material which retain coarse
impurities on its surface & in pores.
 To remove colloidal & suspended matter along with bacterial load.
• Flocculates
 Polyacrylamide & BA-2 flocculate are high molecular weight organic compound having
positive charge to neutralize the charges as colloidal molecule carries negative charges.
Secondary Treatment -Biological
Treatment
• Microorganism like bacteria, fungi decompose the organic waste in to simpler form through these three
types of secondary treatment.
• Aerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Presence Treatment)
 Activated Sludge Process
 Trickling Filter
• Anaerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Absence Treatment)
• Oxygen Pond
Secondary Treatment - Aerobic Treatment
( Oxygen Presence Treatment)
• Activated Sludge Process
 Sewage from sedimentation tank enter in to aeration tank. 20-30 % of
active sludge is mixed in the aeration tank.
 For industrial waste, aeration requires 6-24 hours for efficient process.
 The micro-organism oxidizes the organic matter in the presence of
abundant oxygen present in the tank. Sewage is allowed to settle in
secondary sedimentation tank.
 Bed smell & odor will be removed from effluent.
 Give clear sparkling treated liquid.
• Trickling Filter
 After primary treatment, the effluent is passed through Bed surface
(filter medium) which is consist of bed stone in which bacteria / micro-
organism are present.
 Bacteria get nutrient.
 Bacteria attack on carbohydrates, protein, fats, oil which is essential
for the growth of bacteria.
TRICKLING FILTER
Secondary Treatment -Anaerobic
Treatment ( Oxygen Absence Treatment)
• UASB Reactor (Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)
 It is a three phase settler which separates sludge, liquid and
biogas in same tank under high turbulence without occupying
large space.
 Organic matter is degraded under anaerobic conditions by
microbes producing methane and Co2
 More effective than conventional aerobic process, produce
only 5-10 % of sludge.
 Granules or particles is introduce from the bottom of the
reactor flow upwards through a sludge blanket.
 Treated effluent rises to the top along with generated biogas
in form of small bubbles. Biogas is collected from gas
collection domes from top.
 Separated solids falls back to baffle system on top which alow
to settle down SS in the sludge blanket.
Secondary Treatment – Oxidation Pond
(Lagoon)
• The oxygen pond is shallow pond where waste water
is purified by action of algae and aerobic bacteria.
• Oxygen is released during the process of
photosynthesis. Aerobic bacteria gets oxygen from
atmosphere and convert the organic matter present in
sewage and liberate Co2 which is again taken by
algae during the process of photosynthesis.
• The contents of aeration tank are commonly referred
to as the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)
•
Tertiary Treatment – Advance Biological
& Chemical Treatment
• Decrease the load of Nitrogen and Phosphorous compound present in the effluent
through following process
 Precipitation:
• The effluent received after the secondary treatment is mixed with calcium oxide.
• The lime will react the phosphorous compound in waste to form insoluble calcium
phosphate which then settle down at the bottom of settling tank.
 Nitrogen Stripping:
• Nitrogen present in waste water in the form of ammonia gas, nitrates & nitrites.
• Ammonia is highly undesirable in streams and lakes because it is lethal to aquatic
biota.
• Nitrogen eventually enhance Eutrophication. In order to remove nitrogen, air is forced
through effluent which there by result in the removal of ammonia gas.
 Chlorination:
• Process to kill micro-organism through chlorine.
• To prevent spread of epidemics.
• To assist in the formation of Floc in process of coagulation together with other
chemical to prevent corrosion
Tertiary Treatment – Other Advance
Method
• Ultraviolet Light
 The water is passed through the banks of cylindrical, quartz jacketed
fluorescent bulbs
 Dissolved material like iron and some organic compounds can also absorb
some of the light.
 Ultraviolet disinfection is getting more popular because of the complications
associated with chlorine usage.
• Ozone
 Unstable to store.
 Used it when made by passing electrical discharge through air which is then
bubbled through the water.
 Chlorine can be dosed at a high concentration so that some of its remains in
the water for longer period of time.
 Ozone is consumed very rapidly & leaves no residual.
 Ozone can also produced some by product which is not harmful if compares it
with chlorine byproducts.
ADVANCED TREATMENT
PROCESS
Advanced
Treatment
Process
Membrane
Technology
Carbon Adsorption
Membrane
Distillation
• USED FOR RECOVERY
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
Reverse Osmosis 95% recovery of amoxicillin
Nano Filtration Greater than 97% recovery of
amoxicillin& greater than 40% rejection
of COD
Ultra Filtration Alkaline protease recovery 83%
• There are several types of filter available to treat certain types of waste
water.
• Selection depend upon characteristic of waste water, efficiency
absorbent , flow rate & pollutant to be removed from waste water.
FILTRATION
Type of
Filters
Based on Filtration
Rate
Based on Filter media
Material
Based on Depth
of Filter media
Gravity
Filters
Pressure
Filters
Deep Granular
Filter
Pre-Coat
Filters
Slow Sand
Filters
Rapid Sand
Filters
Metal Fabric
Filter
Earth
Filters
Anthracite
Filters
Sand Filters
• ACF consist of activated carbon granules supported by
fine quartz filter media.
• ACF are used to remove free chlorine , organic
residues , toxic heavy metals ions and color from ww.
• Most common adsorbents used are activated carbon,
peat moss and brown coal.
• This treatment not only improves the taste of water but
also protect other water treatment units such as
reverse osmosis membrane and ion exchange resins
from possible damage due to oxidation.
ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER
This treatment is used for removal of toxic material & recover
of valuable material from effluent
Ion – exchange is only economical when recovered material is
reused.
Majorly used for recovery of Cr, Ni, Phosphate & H2So4, Cu, Pb,
Hg & removal of cyanides from waste water after Cr
recovery.
ION EXCHANGE
• Presently it is used for demineralization of water
• It operates at atmospheric condition and heat requirement is low
• It has been successfully applied for recovery of acids from fermentation
• Membrane fouling is a major disadvantage
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION
SLUDGE
TREATMENT &
PROCESSING
Two Methods
● An aerobic Digester
● Sludge Dewatering & Drying
SLUDGE PROCESSING – AN-AEROBIC
DIGESTER
• A group of bacteria begins to digest and dissolve
the solids to their basic components.
• This process uses bacteria which do not need
any atmospheric oxygen to survive and therefore
no air bubble in the tank.
• The anaerobic digesters produces a stable
sludge which is readily dewatered.
SLUDGE PROCESSING – SLUDGE
DEWATERING & DRYING
• After organic solids have been digested, the sludge is pumped to sand drying beds or to the belt filter
presses.
• The dewatered solids are then squeezed between two belts to further dewater them.
• 18-20 percent solids are the resulting of the ETP.
CONCLUSION
• Quality & Quantity factors should be consider before the design &
installation of ETP at Plant / Site.
• Compliance with international standard and its parameters.
• Type of plant which best for the requirement including the concentration
of BOD, COD and PH meets.
• Choosing a Effluent treatment plant on the bases of sample collection
and analysis performed in the laboratory.
• Budget related to construction of ETP
• Land area require to install the ETP
• Expenses to run the ETP & compliance with environmental standard.
EMAIL:
SYED.NASEEM@VELOSIAIMS.COM.PK
CELL NO:
+92-03183744342
THANKS

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EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT For PHARMA INDUSTRY

  • 1. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT PRESENTER : SYED ATIF NASEEM PGD COURSE: SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR PHARMA INDUSTRY
  • 2. CONTENTS : ● INTRODUCTION ● OVERVIEW ● ALLOWBALE LIMITS OF BOD, COD , TSS AND TDS ● PROCESS LAYOUT ● PRELIMINARY TREATMENT ● PRIMARY TREATMENT ● SECONDARY TREATMENT ● TERTIARY TREATMENT ● CONCLUSION
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • ETP is one type of waste water treatment method which is particularly designed to purify the industrial waste water in order to release safe water to the environment and reuse again by minimizing the use of fresh water.
  • 5. EFFULENT GENERATION IN PHARMA INDUSTRY • Waste generated from washing reactors & Process lines. • Constitutes of solvents, active pharmaceutical ingredients, detergents & Catalysts etc • Spent liquors from fermentation processes e.g antibiotics , vitamins. • Chemical waste eg Xenobiotics, Floor and Laboratory washing waste • Condenser water from evaporation • This increases the toxicity of waste water and make it unfit for survival for aquatic life
  • 6. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN PWW TREATMENT Different medicine produce different type of waste. Variable amount of products Mixing of pharmaceutical waste with other type of waste It contain High BOD and High PH
  • 7. Allowable Parameters of Effulent OBJECTIVE: Parameters Permissible Limits Chemical Oxygen Demand 200 mg/L Biological Oxygen Demand 30-50 mg/L Total Suspended Solids 10 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids 1500 mg/L PH 6.5-8 Oil & Grease 10 mg/L
  • 9. ETP METHODOLOGY • Preliminary Treatment (Physical Treatment) • Primary Treatment (Chemical Treatment) • Secondary Treatment (Biological Treatment) • Tertiary Treatment and Advance Biological and Chemical Treatment • Sludge Treatment & Processing
  • 10. Preliminary Treatment -Physical Treatment Photo • Screen Chamber  Dead animal removes, branches of trees, logs of wood, rags & other coarse floating material  Two Automatic bar screens cleaners remove large solids (rags, plastics etc. Collected material is placed in dumpsters to be taken for landfills • Grit Chamber  Grit include sand, ash, egg shell etc. Diameter of less than 0.2 mm. Heavy particles fall to the bottom.  Through auger pump, separate the grit from water which goes to dumpsters which is taken to landfill. • Floatation or Skimming Tanks  Oil , Fats , waxes, fatty acids soap & minerals.  Through natural flotation, the bubbles of air are passed on the bottom of the tank and floating matter rises which is separated easily
  • 11. • Equalization tank is used to mixed different types of influent / effluent thoroughly to produce homogenous and equalized effluent for uniform treatment. • The effluent is hold and mixed for specified period of time. EQULIZATION TANK
  • 12. Primary Treatment -Chemical Treatment • Sedimentation  Settling down of suspended particles (Dust, Clay, Sand & Rust) at the bottom of water called sedimentation  Water is collected into big pound and impurities are settled down slowly through gravitation. • Coagulation  It is the process in which chemical agent is mixed with water then colloidal and suspended particles are agglomerated and form insoluble metal hydroxide known as flocks.  Colloidal Particles which are fine particles of size 0.0001 mm carry electric charges  Turbidity is presence in water is due to presence of fine particles of clay , silt & organic matter  Alum, hydrant lime, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and poly aluminum chloride coagulants. • Filtration  Water pass through the thick layer of sand and porous material which retain coarse impurities on its surface & in pores.  To remove colloidal & suspended matter along with bacterial load. • Flocculates  Polyacrylamide & BA-2 flocculate are high molecular weight organic compound having positive charge to neutralize the charges as colloidal molecule carries negative charges.
  • 13. Secondary Treatment -Biological Treatment • Microorganism like bacteria, fungi decompose the organic waste in to simpler form through these three types of secondary treatment. • Aerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Presence Treatment)  Activated Sludge Process  Trickling Filter • Anaerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Absence Treatment) • Oxygen Pond
  • 14. Secondary Treatment - Aerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Presence Treatment) • Activated Sludge Process  Sewage from sedimentation tank enter in to aeration tank. 20-30 % of active sludge is mixed in the aeration tank.  For industrial waste, aeration requires 6-24 hours for efficient process.  The micro-organism oxidizes the organic matter in the presence of abundant oxygen present in the tank. Sewage is allowed to settle in secondary sedimentation tank.  Bed smell & odor will be removed from effluent.  Give clear sparkling treated liquid. • Trickling Filter  After primary treatment, the effluent is passed through Bed surface (filter medium) which is consist of bed stone in which bacteria / micro- organism are present.  Bacteria get nutrient.  Bacteria attack on carbohydrates, protein, fats, oil which is essential for the growth of bacteria.
  • 16. Secondary Treatment -Anaerobic Treatment ( Oxygen Absence Treatment) • UASB Reactor (Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)  It is a three phase settler which separates sludge, liquid and biogas in same tank under high turbulence without occupying large space.  Organic matter is degraded under anaerobic conditions by microbes producing methane and Co2  More effective than conventional aerobic process, produce only 5-10 % of sludge.  Granules or particles is introduce from the bottom of the reactor flow upwards through a sludge blanket.  Treated effluent rises to the top along with generated biogas in form of small bubbles. Biogas is collected from gas collection domes from top.  Separated solids falls back to baffle system on top which alow to settle down SS in the sludge blanket.
  • 17. Secondary Treatment – Oxidation Pond (Lagoon) • The oxygen pond is shallow pond where waste water is purified by action of algae and aerobic bacteria. • Oxygen is released during the process of photosynthesis. Aerobic bacteria gets oxygen from atmosphere and convert the organic matter present in sewage and liberate Co2 which is again taken by algae during the process of photosynthesis. • The contents of aeration tank are commonly referred to as the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) •
  • 18. Tertiary Treatment – Advance Biological & Chemical Treatment • Decrease the load of Nitrogen and Phosphorous compound present in the effluent through following process  Precipitation: • The effluent received after the secondary treatment is mixed with calcium oxide. • The lime will react the phosphorous compound in waste to form insoluble calcium phosphate which then settle down at the bottom of settling tank.  Nitrogen Stripping: • Nitrogen present in waste water in the form of ammonia gas, nitrates & nitrites. • Ammonia is highly undesirable in streams and lakes because it is lethal to aquatic biota. • Nitrogen eventually enhance Eutrophication. In order to remove nitrogen, air is forced through effluent which there by result in the removal of ammonia gas.  Chlorination: • Process to kill micro-organism through chlorine. • To prevent spread of epidemics. • To assist in the formation of Floc in process of coagulation together with other chemical to prevent corrosion
  • 19. Tertiary Treatment – Other Advance Method • Ultraviolet Light  The water is passed through the banks of cylindrical, quartz jacketed fluorescent bulbs  Dissolved material like iron and some organic compounds can also absorb some of the light.  Ultraviolet disinfection is getting more popular because of the complications associated with chlorine usage. • Ozone  Unstable to store.  Used it when made by passing electrical discharge through air which is then bubbled through the water.  Chlorine can be dosed at a high concentration so that some of its remains in the water for longer period of time.  Ozone is consumed very rapidly & leaves no residual.  Ozone can also produced some by product which is not harmful if compares it with chlorine byproducts.
  • 21. • USED FOR RECOVERY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY Reverse Osmosis 95% recovery of amoxicillin Nano Filtration Greater than 97% recovery of amoxicillin& greater than 40% rejection of COD Ultra Filtration Alkaline protease recovery 83%
  • 22. • There are several types of filter available to treat certain types of waste water. • Selection depend upon characteristic of waste water, efficiency absorbent , flow rate & pollutant to be removed from waste water. FILTRATION Type of Filters Based on Filtration Rate Based on Filter media Material Based on Depth of Filter media Gravity Filters Pressure Filters Deep Granular Filter Pre-Coat Filters Slow Sand Filters Rapid Sand Filters Metal Fabric Filter Earth Filters Anthracite Filters Sand Filters
  • 23. • ACF consist of activated carbon granules supported by fine quartz filter media. • ACF are used to remove free chlorine , organic residues , toxic heavy metals ions and color from ww. • Most common adsorbents used are activated carbon, peat moss and brown coal. • This treatment not only improves the taste of water but also protect other water treatment units such as reverse osmosis membrane and ion exchange resins from possible damage due to oxidation. ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER
  • 24. This treatment is used for removal of toxic material & recover of valuable material from effluent Ion – exchange is only economical when recovered material is reused. Majorly used for recovery of Cr, Ni, Phosphate & H2So4, Cu, Pb, Hg & removal of cyanides from waste water after Cr recovery. ION EXCHANGE
  • 25. • Presently it is used for demineralization of water • It operates at atmospheric condition and heat requirement is low • It has been successfully applied for recovery of acids from fermentation • Membrane fouling is a major disadvantage MEMBRANE DISTILLATION
  • 26. SLUDGE TREATMENT & PROCESSING Two Methods ● An aerobic Digester ● Sludge Dewatering & Drying
  • 27. SLUDGE PROCESSING – AN-AEROBIC DIGESTER • A group of bacteria begins to digest and dissolve the solids to their basic components. • This process uses bacteria which do not need any atmospheric oxygen to survive and therefore no air bubble in the tank. • The anaerobic digesters produces a stable sludge which is readily dewatered.
  • 28. SLUDGE PROCESSING – SLUDGE DEWATERING & DRYING • After organic solids have been digested, the sludge is pumped to sand drying beds or to the belt filter presses. • The dewatered solids are then squeezed between two belts to further dewater them. • 18-20 percent solids are the resulting of the ETP.
  • 29. CONCLUSION • Quality & Quantity factors should be consider before the design & installation of ETP at Plant / Site. • Compliance with international standard and its parameters. • Type of plant which best for the requirement including the concentration of BOD, COD and PH meets. • Choosing a Effluent treatment plant on the bases of sample collection and analysis performed in the laboratory. • Budget related to construction of ETP • Land area require to install the ETP • Expenses to run the ETP & compliance with environmental standard.