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Early Learning Center Portfolio
SPED 293C Assignment Outline
*For this assignment you will be creating an Early Learning
Center. You must include young children with exceptional
needs within your program. You may work in teams or
individuals for this assignment.*
The following outline is required for the Early Learning Center:
Name of Center
· Create a name for your center. (Ex. Bright Minds Early
Learning Academy)
Philosophy
· What type of Early Learning philosophy will your center
embrace? Please describe. (Ex. Waldorf, Montessori, Reggio,
co-op, play-based, art infused, etc.)
Mission Statement
· What is the mission of your Early Learning Center? What are
your goals? What is your target population?
· You can create an inclusive center that includes students with
exceptional needs, or it can be a center exclusively for young
children with exceptional needs.
· It can be a center for children 6 weeks to 5 years or just
preschool age (4-5).
· What is your target population? (Ex. lower SES, local
community or college parents) Are you going to partner with a
university, YMCA, or school district?
Center Layout(Physical Layout)
· Create a layout of your entire center with a visual and written
description.
· Please indicate the number of classrooms.
· Indicate other types of rooms- sensory room, indoor
gym/motor room, therapy room, cafeteria, offices, support staff
rooms, etc.
Staffing/Personnel
· Indicate the number of staff required for your Early Learning
Center. You do not have to include all indicated below, but
those pertinent to your program.
· Teachers
· Teaching Assistants
· Directors/Lead Staff
· Support Staff: OT, PT, Speech Therapist, Counselor, or
Nursing
· Additional Staff: parent volunteers, fieldwork students
Classroom Layout
· Create a layout of one of your classrooms.
· Indicate a carpet area, quiet area, various stations (i.e. blocks,
dress up), table areas, etc.
Classroom Management
· Outline procedures for the learning center/classrooms:
· Indicate 3-5 learning center/classroom rules
· Acknowledgment system
· Corrective consequence system
Thematic Lesson Plan Outline
· Using the thematic lesson plan outline provided to you, create
a theme based lesson plan outline. Design at least 2activities in
each of the eight designated topic areas.
Please be prepared to formally share out your Early Learning
Center with a PowerPoint.
DUE: May 4th
Sensory Activities for Early Childhood
SPED 293C
All preschool teachers, especially those working with children
with exceptional needs, are using important techniques utilized
by skilled Occupational Therapists. When a child stimulates
their senses they are sending signals to their brain that helps to
create and strengthen neural pathways important for: Motor
Skills, Cognitive Development, Communication, Social and
Emotional Skills, Functional Tasks, and the development of
Sense of Self.
Activity: You have just viewed a clip of an Occupational
Therapist demonstrating some sensory
activities to use with a child with special needs. Break up into
small groups and discuss and
then create a sensory activity that you can use on a pre-school
child with special needs. Your
activity needs to address and stimulate at least three of the
above mentioned developmental
areas.
Be prepared to share out with the class.
Lesson Title:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Targeted Skill:
_____________________________________________________
___________
Age Level: ___________
Student Needs: Describe exceptional/student’s needs being
addressed in the class.
_____________________________________________________
_________________________
Objectives: (for the lesson)
1.
_____________________________________________________
___________________
2.
_____________________________________________________
___________________
Materials/Classroom Setup:
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
______________________
Vocabulary: Identify vocabulary used in lesson with students
(language development).
_____________________________________________________
_________________________
Curriculum Lesson: Describe the lesson from beginning to end
in detail.
Intro:________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
______________________Body:__________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
__________________________________________ClosingActiv
ity__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
______
Technology Used: (Optional) Including adaptive technology
needed to assist in the activity.
_____________________________________________________
_________________________
_____________________________________________________
_________________________
Scenario # 1
Nora J, currently 17 months of age was referred for early
intervention services by her pediatrician due to failure to thrive
associated with encephalitis, cardiac anomalies, seizures, and
spasticity, most likely cerebral palsy. A cardiologist and
neurologist are also monitoring Nora. Nora is on an NG tube
and has not had a complete night's sleep due to night tube
feeding.
Nora is able to drink about one ounce of liquid from a
sprouted cup when it is held for her. She is able to accept a
variety of foods and is able to move them around in her mouth
with her tongue. She can swallow about 5 spoonfuls of familiar
baby foods without choking. She had choked on everything until
about 8 and a half months. Sometimes Nora will choke or gag
when new foods are introduced, does not scoop food or bring
spoon to mouth. She does not finger feed, and needs assistance
when drinking from a sippy cup.
Nora watches people and is interested in what is happening
around her, recognizes familiar people and children, likes toys
that make sounds, demonstrates recognition of toys and objects
by looking at them when named. Nora plays by reaching for and
batting toys, patting pictures, and is able to hold toys when they
are placed in her hand.
Nora is able to hold her head up when placed in her
adapted seat, held supported in a sitting or standing position.
She is also able to hold her head up when placed or her side.
She is able to roll from her back to her stomach and move short
distances. She is motivated to get to her toys but is unable if
they are more than 12 inches away.
Nora is able to make throaty guttural sounds to let her
family know when she wants held, when she doesn't like a
particular food, and if she wants some attention. She enjoys
books, sound play with familiar adults and is beginning to
attempt to imitate sounds. Nora enjoys being with familiar
adults, she watches her siblings play. She is able to laugh and
smile at others. She often cries and fusses when her needs are
not understood. Nora is also not able to assist with dressing or
bathing.
Scenario # 2
Sopheap is a 22 month month female of Cambodian
descent. The Family Resource Network referred her for early
intervention services. She has a visual impairment in her left
eye and the ophthalmologist at the County Hospital estimates
that she only has 20 percent vision in that eye. Since Sopheap is
completely non verbal he is unable to completely assess the
extent of her sight.
Sopheap is physically a very active child when "dancing"
and moving to music. She does little else. When there is no
music playing in the house, she gets highly agitated, flapping
her hands, spits on the walls, and runs through the house. As
soon as Mom or Grandmother puts on the music, she is able to
calm down within 3-5 minutes. Once calm she is able to play
with her favorite toys (Disney Princess figurines). She is able to
stay on this task for approximately 5 minutes. The only other
activity she enjoys is scribbling in her Disney Princess coloring
book.
Sopheap is non verbal, but is capable of expressing her
needs accurately by pointing, gesturing, and physically guiding
her parents to her desired object. Sopheap is entirely cared for
by mother and maternal grandmother. Father works long hours,
at
different shifts and sees his daughter for about an hour a day.
Sopheap rarely will respond to her father. She also does
not interact with her 7 year old brother and 5-year-old sister.
Both children are typically developing.
Sopheap is very uncooperative in dressing. It is a struggle to get
her dressed in the morning. She refuses to wear socks or shoes
at all times. Sopheap will only eat cold food with a smooth
consistency, such as applesauce, cold cream of wheat, and cold
mashed potatoes.
Scenario # 3
Juan is a 28-month-old first-born male to a Hispanic
family. The family lives with her parents and maternal
grandmother in Stockton. He was referred to early intervention
services by the Concillio, for suspected developmental delays.
Both parents are employed full-time and Grandmother is the
sole caregiver during the day. The parents speak English to Juan
at home, however Grandmother speaks only Spanish to Juan
during the weekdays. Both Mom and dad leave for work before
Juan wakes in the morning.
Juan has very little intelligible language in either English
or Spanish. He does babble and make sounds. He understands
simple commands in Spanish and understands "No", Hi, and can
wave “Bye Bye”. He never attempts to ask questions or make
demands. Grandmother seems to attend to his every need. Juan
is well behaved and quiet and poses no problem behaviors at
home or in the community.
Juan is able to feed himself finger food, but does not use a
spoon or spork. He has no interest in being toilet training and is
still in a diaper. He does drink from a sippy cup on weekends
with his parents, but Grandmother still bottle-feeds Juan during
the day.
Juan spends hours watching TV with his Grandmother. He
does play on his own, but cannot sort objects by colors and can
only identify 3 body parts when asked.
The family has no relatives or friends with children in the area
and Juan has never played or interacted directly with another
toddler. He rarely has any opportunity to interact with adults
other than his family.
EARLY START PROGRAM
San Joaquin County Five Points of Contact
Stockton Unified School District - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209)
933-7315 x7745
Lodi Unified School District - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209)
331-7366
San Joaquin County Office of Education - - - - - - - - - (209)
931-4514
Valley Mountain Regional Center - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209)
473-0951
Family Resource Network - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209)
472-3674
Individual Family Service Plan(IFSP)
IFSP Date: *mdMeeting Location: *ml
Referral Date:*rd Intake interview Date: *itd Last
IFSP: *pid
6 month review by: *6mr Transition Plan by: *tp
IEP/IPP by: *iep
Child’s Name: *fn *ln VMRC#: *uci
DOB: *dob Age: *mAge months Adj. Age: months
Sex: *sex
Ethnicity: *eth Primary Language: *pl Interpreter:
*trans
Health Insurance:
Parent(s): *mfn *mln & *ffn *fln
Address: *address (Mail to *maddress)
Phone(s): *phone1*phone2
e-mail: *email
Resides with: , , , , ,
Guardian: Phone: (209) , Fax (209)
School District: *sd SELPA: *selpa
Early Start Eligibility
*fn’s Early Start eligibility determination was based on the
review of pertinent medical records and/or results of our initial
evaluation(s) completed by qualified personnel. Applicable
item(s) is/are checked below.
Developmental Delay –% or greater delay(s) in , , , , skills
Established Risk –medical diagnosis that is likely to result in
developmental delay:
High Risk –
Informed Clinical Opinion –
Solely Low Incidence (SLI) –
Suspected of SLI –Intake Coordinator to refer *fn to LEA
Qualifies for
Not eligible for Early Start Program
Tell us about your child and family (parent statement)
You (*mfn and *ffn) do not have to give any information on this
section in order to receive services. However, information
provided will help us develop meaningful outcomes for *fn and
you, based on your family routines and focus.
What does *fn do well? (Strengths)
·
What interests or motivates *fn? What are *herhis favorite
things? What does *shehe like to do? (cont’d Strengths)
·
What is difficult about your daily routine? What would you like
to change? (Concerns & Needs)
·
How/Where do *fn and you spend your day together? (Natural
Environment)
·
What people or community resources are helpful to your
family? Are there other resources you would like to learn more
about? (Resources)
·
What would you like the intervention team to focus on? Is there
anything you would like to have *fn or family do next?
(Priorities)
·
What is your family interested in learning more about? (cont’d
Priorities/Resources)
·
Child Health Information
Current Primary Physician:
Specialists:
Summary of *fn’s Health Status based on review of pertinent
records (including birth history, medical conditions and
diagnosis (if any), illnesses, hospitalizations, medications and
any relevant evaluations.
*fn has enjoyed excellent health since birth. *shehe has no
history of recurring ear infections and/or upper respiratory
infections
Current Medications:None
What else should your team know about *fn’s health so that we
can better plan and provide services for *herhim and your
family? (current medical concerns, immunizations, allergies,
sleeping concerns)
*fn has no unusual prenatal and neonatal medical history.
No No
Nutrition, Diet, Eating Preferences, Oral-Motor Concerns
*fn takes ounces every hours. *shehe also takes , , and .
*shehe .
*fn eats with , and drinks from and only at nap and bed time.
*shehe has no
Current weight: pounds ounces th percentile
Current height: inches th percentile
Head circumference: inches th percentile
Immunizations:
Additional Information
Autism screening (M-CHAT) was completed with parent’s input
by *ier on *itd. The results were non-critical and critical
failed responses.
Behavioral Observations
*itd
·
*md, during evaluation/assessment
·
Steps to Transition
· *ier, Intake Coordinator, informed *mfn and *ffn that the
Early Start Program serves children from birth to third birthday.
· IFSP team will be promoting developmental skills, that will
help *fn be ready for preschool, such as staying on task,
imitating actions/sounds, following instructions, taking turns,
etc.
Use of Private Health Insurance
Parent/Family was advised that *fn’s private insurance or health
care service plan is required to be accessed to pay for medical
(therapy, nursing, etc.) services specified in the IFSP, other
than for evaluation and assessment. (TBL Section 1:Gov. Code
Section 95004)
+ =Assessments Used/Professional’s Title/Date
On *fmd, *fn was evaluated at *ml by using the . The
evaluation included observation, parent interview and medical
record review as applicable.
In accordance with Educational Code 56320, the following was
considered regarding the procedures and materials used during
this evaluation to ensure compliance with state and federal
regulations:
This evaluation was conducted by qualified persons. Test and
assessment materials and procedures used for the purposes of
assessment and placement of individuals with exceptional needs
were selected and administered to as not to be racially,
culturally, or sexually discriminatory. The student’s dominant
language was considered in selecting assessment instruments.
Tests have been validated for the specific purpose for which
they were used. Tests and other assessment materials include
those tailored to assess specific areas of educational need and
not merely those that are designed to provide a single, general
intelligence quotient. The assessment results that have been
provided accurately reflect the student’s current skills in the
area of gross and fine motor, cognitive, communication,
social/emotional and adaptive behavior.
CHILD’S NAME will participate in Statewide Assessment
Program through DRDP access two times per year using no
adaptations (if yes, list adaptions)
Review of Prior Outcomes:
*fn’s Present Levels of Development+
Domains & Subdomains
What *fn does now and *herhis next step
Adaptive
Self-Care
Mo
Personal Responsibility
Mo
Next Step:
Personal-Social
Adult
Interaction
Mo
Peer Interaction
Mo
Self-Concept and
Social Role
Mo
Next Step:
Communication
Receptive
Mo
Expressive
Mo
Next Step:
Motor
Gross Motor
Mo
Fine Motor
Mo
Perceptual Motor
Mo
Next Step:
Cognitive
Attention & Memory
Mo
Reasoning &
Academic Skills
Mo
Perception &
Concepts
Mo
Next Step:
Hearing *fn the Music 2 My Ears hearing screen by responding
to all sounds of the screening kit.
Vision *fn the Functional Vision Screening.
Child Outcomes
(What does *fn need to accomplish in order to participate in a
family routine and/or activity?)
Outcome # We want *fn to
We will know progress is made when (Criteria).
Review by *tod (Timeline)
The team plans on measuring *herhis progress by , (Procedures
for Measurement).
What are the ways in which your family and team will work
toward achieving this outcome?
Who will help and what will they do? (Strategies- the methods
and strategies used to support your child and family in order to
achieve your outcomes within your daily activities and
routines):
·
The informal supports may include family members, friends,
neighbors, church or other community organizations, special
health care programs, parent education program, etc.
Family Outcomes
(What will you need in order to help meet the developmental
needs for *fn?)
Outcome # will .
We will know we’ve succeeded when (Criteria for Progress).
Review by *tod (Timeline)
The team plans on measuring progress by (Procedures for
Measurement).
Corresponding Outcome #
Services
to achieve outcomes, & Method
Service Provider
contact information
Location
(If not natural settings, why)
Intensity
Frequency
Length
Duration
(& any plans
for service interruption)
Funding Source
Required
Non- required/
Other
Name: *fn *ln Date: *mdPage 3 of 6
Individual FamilyServicePlan
Service Summary
IFSP Date: *md Meeting Location: *mlService
Coordinator: *sc
Child’s Name: *fn *lnDOB: *dob VMRC#: *uci
Eligibility Findings Review of IFSP dated *pid
Developmental Delay –% or greater delay(s) in , , , , skills
Qualifies for
Not eligible for Early Start Program
Services Considered
on the IFSP
I to a referral and sharing of my contact information with
Family Resource Network (FRN)
I understand that my private insurance or health care service
plan is required to be accessed to pay for medical (therapy,
nursing, etc.) services specified in the IFSP, other than for
evaluation and assessment. (TBL Section 1:Gov. Code Section
95004)
I have received the summary of parent information, rights,
appeals procedures, protecting your child’s confidentiality,
VMRC Whistleblower policy and Family Resource Network
brochure, and have had them explained to me
I have been given AFPF information. I have been assessed the
AFPF fee and received forms 6009 and 6010
I have received a copy of my annual financial statement
I agree with the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)
developed today, and I authorize IFSP team members to
exchange information with service providers to promote team
work for my child
I understand that a final typed copy of this IFSP and the signed
cover sheet will be mailed to me within 30 days.
I have received a copy of the IFSP today.
It is my responsibility to notify my SC if I do not agree with the
final typed IFSP document. A new IFSP development meeting
will be scheduled within 15 days to discuss changes to the IFSP
I disagree with a portion of the IFSP. I authorize VMRC to
implement all services stated in the IFSP except .
. A new IFSP development meeting is scheduled for
IFSP Team Members:(letter code in box indicates: Attended,
Conference, Telephone input, Written input)
Name Signature Title / Agency Phone Date Copy to
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
Helping People with Developmental Disabilities Reach Their
Maximum PotentialStanislaus County
Branch Office
1820 Blue Gum Avenue
Modesto, CA 95358
Phone: (209) 529-2626
Fax: (209) 557-2174
Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne Counties
Branch Office
704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203
P. O. Box 1420
San Andreas, CA 95249
Phone: (209) 754-1871
Fax: (209) 754-3211
San Joaquin County
Main Office
702 N. Aurora St.
P. O. Box 692290
Stockton, CA 95269-2290
Phone: (209) 473-0951
Fax:
· Administration: (209) 473-0256
· Case Mgmt: (209) 473-0719
· Clinical: (209) 956-6439
Meeting Confirmation Notice
Date:
Ms. *mfn *mln
Mr. *ffn *fln
*address
Mail to *maddress
*phone1*phone2
RE: *fn *ln
DOB: *dob
Dear Ms. *mln and Mr. *fln:
This letter is to confirm our meeting that we discussed.
Annual Review
6-Month Review
Transition Plan
Quarterly Review
Exit IFSP Review
Other:
Meeting Date: *fmd
Time:
Location: *ml
We know that you want to be involved in making plans for *fn.
This meeting will give us an opportunity to discuss services for
*herhim. Staff and administrators from the agencies that serve
*herhim have been invited to attend the meeting. You may
bring a friend or relative with you to the meeting if you wish.
Please phone me at *psc if you have any questions or concerns.
As a result of recent changes in legislation in government code
section 95020 and Sections 4646 and 4646.5, Valley Mountain
Regional Center (VMRC) is required to obtain copies of all
consumers’ medical insurance cards annually (including Medi-
Cal, Medicare, and private insurance). If you have not given us
a copy of your most current insurance card, please have a copy
available for the visit.
Sincerely,
*sc, Early Start Service Coordinator
cc:
Helping People with Developmental Disabilities Reach Their
Maximum PotentialSan Joaquin County
Main Office
702 N. Aurora St.
P. O. Box 692290
Stockton, CA 95269-2290
Phone: (209) 473-0951
Fax:
· Administration: (209) 473-0256
· Case Mgmt: (209) 473-0719
· Clinical: (209) 956-6439Stanislaus County
Branch Office
1820 Blue Gum Avenue
Modesto, CA 95358
Phone: (209) 529-2626
Fax: (209) 557-2174
Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne Counties
Branch Office
704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203
P. O. Box 1420
San Andreas, CA 95249
Phone: (209) 754-1871
Fax: (209) 754-3211
Date: *fmd
Child’s Name:
*fn *ln
DOB:
*dob
Health Care Provider:
Dear Health Care Provider:
I am requesting the medical record of from to present
for the purpose of developing the Individual Family Service
plan (IFSP) based on her current needs. Enclosed is a copy of
the signed Release of Information.
Please send the record to:
Valley Mountain Regional Center
1820 Blue Gum Ave
Modesto, CA 95358
Attn: *sc
[Fax] (209) 557-2174
702 N Aurora St
PO Box 692290
Stockton, CA 95369-2290
[fax] (209) 473-0719
704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203
P. O. Box 1420
San Andreas, CA 95249
[Fax] (209) 754-3211
Thank you very much for your time and prompt action.
Sincerely
*sc
Early Start Service Coordinator
Enclosure
TEACHING ExcEptional childrEn | novEmbEr/dEcEmbEr 2014
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9
A feeling of anxiety washed over
Mrs. Thompson as she prepared her
first-grade class for reading. Many of
the students at her school love reading,
but most of the students in her new
inclusive class do not. The class was
composed mainly of students with
learning disabilities, English Language
Learners, and students at-risk. All of
her usual strategies had been
unsuccessful and she was frustrated.
Have you felt overwhelmed like
Mrs. Thompson? Do you wish you had
a guide for implementing evidence-
based practices? If so, read on …
Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are
shown by high-quality research to
meaningfully improve student
outcomes. An EBP is not a cure-all
(Gallagher, 2004), but when chosen
wisely and implemented appropriately it
can be used as a guide to the practices
most likely to work for students with
disabilities (Cook, Tankersley, Cook, &
Landrum, 2008). Using an EBP can help
eliminate many of the frustrations and
guesswork from teaching by providing
specific approaches for improving
student performance. The following is
intended to serve as a step-by-step
guide for special educators in
understanding, locating, selecting, and
successfully implementing an EBP.
Evidence-Based Practices
and the Importance of
Implementation
EBPs are instructional approaches that
have proven to be effective through
rigorous research. When implemented
with fidelity, or as designed, EBPs in
special education have been shown to
meaningfully improve the performance
of students with disabilities (Cook
et al., 2008). For this reason, it is
important that educators seek out EBPs
and incorporate them into their daily
instruction to help all students realize
their full potential. To be considered an
EBP, the program or practice must be
shown to be effective by multiple
research studies that meet strict criteria
related to research design, quality, and
effect on student outcomes (e.g., Gersten
et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; see box).
Although not guaranteed to work for
everyone, EBPs have been shown to be
effective for the majority of students.
Despite the considerable potential of
EBPs to improve student outcomes and
ease teachers’ burdens for finding the
most effective instructional practices,
educators must be aware of how to
locate and effectively apply them.
To help teachers effectively apply
EBPs, we provide a list of prominent
sources of EBPs for students with
disabilities (Table 1) and a 10-step
implementation framework for
planning successful integration of EBPs
(see Figures 1 and 2).
A 10-Step Implementation
Process for EBPs
Using an EBP does not lessen the
important role of an effective teacher.
However, some practices are consistently
more effective than others (Forness,
Kavale, Blum, & Lloyd, 1997), and EBPs
are such practices. EBPs grew out of the
medical field, which outlined a model for
practitioners to follow for choosing,
appraising, implementing, and analyzing
a treatment (Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, &
553209TCXXXX10.1177/0040059914553209Council for
Exceptional ChildrenTeaching Exceptional Children
research-article2014
A Special Educator’s
Guide to Successfully
Implementing Evidence-
Based Practices
This article originally appeared in the September/October 2012
issue of TEC
Caroline Torres, Cynthia A. Farley, and Bryan G. Cook
University of Hawaii
BEST
OF
TEC
at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on
January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from
http://tcx.sagepub.com/
86 council for ExcEptional childrEn
Table 1. Sources for Evidence-Based Practices
Source Population
Evidence-Based
Classifications Resources
Best Evidence Encyclopedia
(BEE)
www.bestevidence.org
Early childhood–high school
reading,
Elementary–high school
math,
English Language Learners,
Technology in reading &
math
Strong evidence
Moderate evidence
Limited evidence (modest
effects)
Limited evidence (weak
effects)
No qualifying studies
Program description
Contact information
Website
Research reports
National Autism Center (NAC)
www.nationalautismcenter.org
(download the National
Standards Report for EBPs)
Individuals with Autism age
3-21
Established
Emerging
Unestablished
Ineffective/harmful
Program description
Treatment strategies
when possible
Research study citations
National Professional
Development Center on Autism
Spectrum Disorders (NPDC on
ASD)
autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu
Individuals with Autism
ages 3–21
Evidence-based practice Program description
Contact information
Review websites
Research citations
Step-by-step instructions
Implementation fidelity
checklists
Data tools
National Secondary Transition
Technical Assistance Center
(NSTTAC)
www.nsttac.org
Secondary students
Life skills
Strong
Moderate
Potential (needs additional
research)
Program description
Contact information
Website
Research citations
What Works Clearinghouse
(WWC)
ies.ed.gov
Elementary–high school Positive effects (++)
Potentially positive effects (+)
Mixed effects (+-)
No discernible effects (0)
Potentially negative effects (-)
Negative effects (-)
Program description
Contact information
Website
Research citations
Cost
EBPs are supported by multiple high-quality research studies
designed to determine whether a practice causes positive
changes in student outcomes. Although a variety of approaches
for identifying EBP exist, the following guidelines are often
used in special education:
Group Experimental & Quasi-Experimental Studies
At least two high-quality or four acceptable-quality studies
must support the practice as effective, with a weighted effect
size
across studies significantly greater than zero. High-quality
studies must meet criteria in at least three of the following
areas:
description of participants, intervention and comparison
condition, outcome measures, data analysis, and at least four of
eight “desirable” indicators, such as attrition rate (Gersten et
al.,2005).
Single Subject Studies
Five or more high-quality studies with 20 or more participants
that meet criteria related to participants and setting;
independent and dependent variables; baseline; and internal,
external, and social validity must support the practice as
effective (Horner et al., 2005).
Qualitative Studies
Although qualitative studies are useful for many purposes, they
are not designed to determine whether a practice causes
improved student outcomes (McDuffie & Scruggs, 2008).
What Makes a Practice Evidence-Based?
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Schultz, 2005). The 10-step guide
described in the following and
summarized in Figures 1 and 2 is aligned
to the medical framework and tailored to
education, with the intention of assisting
special educators in effectively
integrating EBPs into instruction.
Step 1: Determine Student,
Environmental, and Instructor
Characteristics
Mrs. Thompson asked her colleague,
Mrs. Alexander, who was experiencing
success with a similar class, about her
“secrets of success.” Mrs. Alexander
said that she used a variety of EBPs.
She suggested that Mrs. Thompson’s
first step should be to think about the
students in her class and her own
personal teaching style because it is
important to match those variables to
an EBP in order to have success.
Figure 1. Flowchart for 10-Step Implementation Process
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88 council for ExcEptional childrEn
Figure 2. 10-Step EBP Implementation Process Checklist
Process Steps
1. Determine student, environmental, and
instructor characteristics
s, and school variables
o Teacher’s expertise/ability to implement new strategies
o Teacher’s philosophy/style and alignment to instructional
methods
o Schedule/available class time
o Additional personnel
o Additional resources/funding
2. Search sourc
-reference EBP to student need and
instructor ability
4. Identify essential components of the
selected EBP
If not available:
5. Implement the EBP within a cycle of
effective instruction
-by-step instructions or implementation fidelity
checklist to
ensure critical components are included in step-by-step lesson
plan
within effective instruction, which includes:
o Pace appropriately
o Preview instruction
o Review previous instruction
o Monitor student performance
o Circulate and scan instructional environment
o Recognize appropriate behavior
o Exhibit enthusiasm
o Display awareness of what is happening
o Use wait time after questioning
fidelity checklist to self-assess implementation
fidelity
fidelity
checklist
progress monitoring tool
o Consider commercially or freely available Curriculum Based
Measurements (CBM)
uate effectiveness
increased with the use of the EBP?
If yes, no adaptations are necessary.
If not:
observation
fidelity optimal?
If no, try implementing again with fidelity.
If yes:
components
9. Make instructional decisions based on
progress monitoring data
If adaptations have been implemented:
interested in implementing EBPs
ion results and materials
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The first step is to successfully
determine relevant student,
environmental (e.g., classroom), and
teacher characteristics that an EBP
must match or address. The following
are some of the important
characteristics to identify and evaluate
before choosing an EBP:
•• Student characteristics: age/grade,
subject, language/culture,
disability/learning need
•• Environmental characteristics: class
grouping, available time, resources,
funding
•• Instructor characteristics:
knowledge, experience, teaching
philosophy, teaching style
Collecting these characteristics will
be valuable in deciding which practice
is the right fit.
Step 2: Search Sources of EBPs
Mrs. Alexander shared a list of sources
for EBPs, and although Mrs. Thompson
was apprehensive about getting
information from the Internet, she
started browsing the Best Evidence
Encyclopedia (BEE) website. Her fears
began to fade as she explored the
practices on the site and found new
ideas, some of which seemed to
potentially fit her needs.
Special educators often do not have
the time or expertise necessary to
independently analyze research studies
on effective practices (Cook et al.,
2008). For this reason, we located a
variety of sources that conducted
systematic evidence-based reviews and
catalogued EBPs for students with
disabilities. These websites, along with
the population(s) of students targeted,
how EBPs are categorized, and
additional resources provided are
summarized in Table 1. These excellent
resources eliminate much of the time
and work associated with searching for,
reading, and evaluating multiple
research studies on different
instructional practices to find out what
works. Educators should revisit the
sources periodically, as additional
practices may be added when new
reviews are conducted.
Step 3: Select an EBP
Mrs. Thompson was pleased to find
that the BEE provided short summaries
describing the practices reviewed and
the characteristics of the students for
which each EBP has been shown to
work, as well as full research reports.
The site also provided links and
references with more information.
Mrs. Thompson decided to try Peer
Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in
which students work in pairs to
improve reading fluency. PALS was
designed to supplement existing
reading programs for beginning and
struggling readers. The characteristics
described in the report matched her
students, and she decided PALS would
be a good fit for her and her students.
After reviewing EBPs of interest
from the sources in Step 2, the
characteristics in Step 1 should be
considered and the most relevant and
feasible practice should be selected.
Selecting an EBP can be tricky. Perfect
matches between EBP and student,
environmental, and teacher
characteristics are unlikely; but the
closer the match, the more likely it is
that the desired outcomes will be
achieved (Cook et al., 2008). All of the
EBP sources in Table 1 provide
references for the studies used. The
studies provide detailed information on
the specific student, environmental,
and teacher characteristics with which
the practice has been shown to work.
Some characteristics such as student
disability and content area may need to
be weighted more heavily than others
(e.g., teaching style). Teachers will
need to use their judgment in deciding
which relevant EBP is most likely to
work for them and their students.
Step Four: Identify the Essential
Components of the Selected EBP
For information on how to implement
PALS, the EBP that Mrs. Thompson
selected, she followed a link on the
BEE’s website to IRIS (http://iris
.peabody.vanderbilt.edu) training
modules that includes step-by-step
instructions, printable materials, and
even video demonstrations of the
practice in action. She reviewed the
directions and identified core elements
of the practice to make sure that she
wouldn’t miss any important steps.
After selecting an EBP to
implement, educators should identify
the essential components of the
practice. If critical elements of the EBP
are omitted or fundamentally altered,
the positive effects reported for the EBP
in the research studies are unlikely to
be duplicated (Cook & Smith, 2012).
Therefore, identification of these key
elements needs to occur prior to
implementation in order for educators
to understand how to deliver the
intervention correctly.
Several evidence-based practice
sources, such as the National
Professional Development Center on
Autism Spectrum Disorders, include
step-by-step instructions and
implementation fidelity checklists for
EBPs featured on their site (see Table
1). These are great resources for
quickly identifying the essential
components of an EBP. If step-by-step
instructions are not available,
educators can access original research
articles to identify the essential
components of EBPs.
Step 5: Implement the Practice
Within a Cycle of Effective
Instruction
When it came time to implement PALS,
Mrs. Thompson felt confident but knew
the practice wouldn’t work if her
general instruction and classroom
management weren’t effective. She
knew that sometimes she went through
material too quickly, so she focused on
presenting PALS with enthusiasm, but
with appropriate pacing. She also set a
buzzer in her pocket at 30-second
intervals to cue her to stop and
reinforce appropriate student behavior.
In addition, she used reading material
that the students were familiar with
and enjoyed, so that they weren’t
learning difficult content the first time
they tried PALS.
Effective teaching consists of more
than merely choosing the best program
or practice to implement. Even the most
effective practices can have little impact
on student outcomes if implemented
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90 council for ExcEptional childrEn
through ineffective teaching (Billingsley,
2004). Some components of effective
instruction that are a foundation for
successful EBP implementation include
maximizing academic engagement, using
appropriate pacing, preteaching key
vocabulary, previewing instruction,
reviewing previous instruction,
monitoring student performance,
circulating and scanning the instructional
environment, recognizing appropriate
behavior, exhibiting enthusiasm,
displaying awareness of what is
happening in the classroom, and using
wait time after questioning (Brigham,
Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 1992; Brophy &
Good, 1986; Cook, Tankersley, &
Harjusola-Webb, 2008). Effective
teaching techniques combined with the
use of an EBP provide the opportunity to
maximize student outcomes.
Step 6: Monitor Implementation
Fidelity
Mrs. Thompson was excited to try the
new practice. She took care to script
out how she would model, explain,
and implement PALS for the first time,
referring to the list of essential
components. It seemed to go well as
the students worked in their pairs and
remained engaged in the lesson. She
shared the implementation fidelity
checklist that she made with Mrs.
Alexander and asked her to observe
and give feedback on her
implementation of PALS.
During initial implementation of a
new instructional practice, educators
need to clearly teach all of the
components, procedures, and
expectations to the students. The
practice should then be implemented
regularly and monitored with an
implementation fidelity checklist to
ensure the integrity of the practice.
Ideally, an observer uses the fidelity
checklist regularly (e.g., weekly) to
collect data to help assess if the EBP is
being implemented correctly. If an
outside observer or coach is not
available, teachers can self-assess using
the checklist. Fidelity can be assessed
in many ways (Durlak & DuPre, 2008),
but it typically includes assessing the
number of critical elements or steps
accomplished and number and length
of lessons. Teachers can use
implementation fidelity data to identify
areas they need to emphasize or on
which they need to receive additional
training to ensure the practice is
implemented as designed.
Step 7: Progress Monitor Student
Outcomes
The students seemed to be engaged
and learning, but Mrs. Thompson
didn’t really know for sure whether
PALS was improving outcomes for all
of her students. So she decided to use
weekly curriculum-based
measurements for oral reading fluency,
which assessed the number of words
read correctly in a minute from grade-
level passages, to reliably monitor
students’ performance.
Before implementing an EBP, a
progress-monitoring plan needs to be
created to track the effects of its
implementation across time. Although
they are highly likely to work, an
EBP–like any practice–may be
ineffective for specific students for any
number of reasons. Moreover, the
effectiveness of an EBP can change
over time because of such factors as
changes in implementation and
students’ needs. It is important, then,
to monitor student progress through
regular, formative assessments to
evaluate the ongoing effectiveness of
the practice. By using an appropriate
progress monitoring tool, educators
generate reliable data and feedback on
the effects of the EBP, which they can
use as the basis for instructional
decisions (see Step 9).
One commonly used progress-
monitoring tool is curriculum-based
measurement (CBM), which is short
and simple to administer, provides
reliable (i.e., consistent) and valid (i.e.,
meaningful) measures of student
performance, and yields results that can
be graphed to show progress over time
(Hosp, Hosp, & Howell, 2007). These
formative assessments should be done
frequently—as often as twice weekly,
depending on student need—and can be
as short as 1 minute to administer. The
National Research Center on Learning
Disabilities (2007) suggested that CBM
is the optimal progress-monitoring
procedure for teachers. Some EBP
sources, such as the National
Professional Development Center on
Autism Spectrum Disorders, provide
progress monitoring and data collection
tools for identified EBPs. The National
Center on Response to Intervention
(www.rti4success.org) provides a useful
chart rating the effectiveness of a variety
of progress monitoring tools.
Step 8: Adapt the Practice If
Necessary
After 3 weeks, Mrs. Thompson was
very pleased that CBM results indicated
that the performance of most of her
students was improving. For the few
students who did not show meaningful
improvement in reading fluency, she
decided to adapt the practice slightly
by building background knowledge and
preteaching key vocabulary to help
make the material more accessible and
increase its effectiveness.
Mrs. Thompson was careful not to
change any of the essential
components of PALS when she added
these adaptations.
After implementing and becoming
familiar with an EBP, teachers may be
able to improve its effects on student
outcomes by adapting the practice to
optimize its fit with their teaching
style, learners’ needs, or both. Overly
rigid implementation can sometimes
reduce the positive effects of a practice
because special educators usually need
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to individualize and personalize
instruction to meet the unique needs of
their students (Harn, Parisi, &
Stollmiller, in press; Hogue et al.,
2008). Adapting EBPa in ways that
maximize their fit without altering the
essential components of the practice is
an important way for teachers to take
ownership of an EBP, increasing the
likelihood that it will be maintained
and increasing its effectiveness.
Teachers should use the expertise
accumulated over their careers
(Whitehurst, 2002) to guide the
adaptation of EBP to meet the unique
needs of their students without diluting
its effectiveness by altering essential
elements. Savvy educators will also
access the wisdom of other experts
when considering how to adapt EBP. It
is important to closely monitor the
progress of students (see Step 7) to
evaluate the effects of the adaptation.
Step 9: Make Instructional
Decisions Based on Progress
Monitoring Data
After continuing to monitor progress, it
was clear that the adaptations were
helping, and all but one of
Mrs. Thompson’s students were now
making meaningful gains on their
weekly CBM assessments.
Mrs. Thompson asked a mentor teacher
to observe her to ensure that she was
using effective teaching skills and
implementing the practice with
fidelity—which she was. Then, for her
one student not showing sufficient
gains, she recommended more PALS
sessions as a Tier 2 intervention.
If an EBP is achieving desired
outcomes for target students, teachers
should continue to monitor progress to
ensure continued gains, but no
adaptations are needed. If some
students are not performing adequately
in response to the EBP, teachers should
consider the following to help decide
the best course of action:
•• Make sure that the EBP has been
implemented and progress
monitoring has been conducted for
a sufficient amount of time—a few
weeks or more. Both the students
and teacher need time to get used to
new practices. Collecting and
evaluating progress monitoring data
over time will help to accurately
determine how the student is
responding to the EBP.
•• Examine the implementation fidelity
(see Step 6). If one or more critical
elements of the EBP are not being
implemented appropriately (e.g.,
student participation), then these
issues should be addressed before
deciding that the EBP is ineffective.
•• Check that the EBP is being
implemented in the context of
effective teaching (see Step 5).
Teachers may wish to have an
expert colleague, coach, or mentor
come and observe them
implementing the EBP in order to
provide feedback on improving
general teaching effectiveness (e.g.,
enthusiasm, wait time, classroom
management).
•• Assure that the EBP has been
adapted (see Step 8) to optimize its
fit with the students, instructional
environment, and educator
strengths.
If continued progress-monitoring
data (see Step 7) indicate that a
practice is not effective with a
particular student or group of students
even after addressing these issues, the
non-responding students may be
“treatment resistors,” one of the
relatively few individuals for whom the
EBP will not be effective (Torgeson,
2000). In this case, it is time to increase
the intensity of the EBP (if it is having
some positive effects) or select another
EBP (if it is having minimal, no, or
negative effects). If another EBP is not
found that is a match, teachers can
turn to practices that are not yet
identified as EBPs but have been
shown to be promising practices (see
box).
Step 10: Become a Leader and an
Advocate
After her initial success,
Mrs. Thompson thanked and shared
her first experiences with Mrs.
Alexander, who offered to meet
regularly during their common prep
period to discuss successes and
challenges in continuing to implement
the new practice. After sticking with
PALS for a couple of months, Mrs.
Thompson continued to see increases
in reading fluency with her students.
She shared her experience with the rest
of the department, and when Mr.
Yoshita, a new teacher, came to her for
advice, she coached him on how to
find and implement an EBP. Many
What if I Don’t Find an EBP That Fits?. Additional sources
listed here evaluate and summarize educational
research and provide information on the effectiveness of
practices and curricula. Although these sources do not
identify specific practices as evidence-based, educators can use
the information reported to make an informed decision
as to the effectiveness of practices reviewed. Many of the
sources in Table 1 also include information on promising
practices.
•• National Center on Response to Intervention
(www.rti4success.org)
•• Florida Center for Reading Research (http://www.fcrr.org)
•• Promising Practices Network (www.promisingpractices.net)
•• IRIS (http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu; a resource for free
online training modules).
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92 council for ExcEptional childrEn
other teachers became interested and
started meeting regularly to help each
other with EBPs.
Educators tend to look to colleagues
for guidance (Landrum, Cook,
Tankersley, & Fitzgerald, 2002; Nelson,
Leffler, & Hansen, 2009), particularly if
they share similar students, grade levels,
and subject areas. As teachers become
knowledgeable about implementing an
EBP, sharing their expertise with their
colleagues will help spread the use of the
most effective teaching practices.
Teachers will produce “practice-based
evidence” for an EBP through sharing
their positive experiences (Simons,
Kushner, Jones, & James, 2003). Teachers
put special trust in this practice-based
evidence, because, in contrast to many
research studies, it comes from trusted
colleagues who have used the practice in
real classrooms. Practice-based evidence
can compel other teachers to adopt the
EBP, influence school culture, and help
reach a “tipping point” in which use of
an EBP becomes the norm (Fixsen,
Blasé, Horner, & Sugai, 2009).
Instructional innovations (e.g.,
adoption of an EBP) without structured
and consistent support are less likely to
be sustained by teachers over time
(Odom, 2009); therefore, teachers need
support with the implementation of EBP.
Creating a supportive community
culture, which includes administrative
and peer support, is extremely valuable
(e.g., Buysse, Sparkman, & Wesley,
2003). One way to do this is to create
communities of practice. Communities of
practice are groups of people who have a
common goal, such as improving student
learning. They work together regularly to
develop and apply worthwhile practices
through collaborative inquiry, research,
and skill building (Lassonde & Israel,
2009; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder,
2002). After ample time to implement,
monitor, and adapt the practice, these
communities could then share their
materials, suggestions, and testimonials
with other teachers or even an entire
faculty, and invite others to try
implementing their EBP with the newly
created expert cadre serving as coaches
and mentors. This would help to create a
“scaling-up” effect where small groups of
individuals become experts in a practice
and gradually spread the expertise and
interest to larger and larger groups
(Odom, 2009), creating widespread and
sustained implementation of an EBP.
Conclusion
When students are not responding to
“business as usual” and not making
desired gains, teachers need to ask
themselves if they have really tried the
most effective teaching approaches
available. Many teachers are not aware
that EBPs have already been identified
and may be the key to success.
Teachers can use this step-by-step
guide as they begin the process of
incorporating EBPs in their classrooms.
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Early Learning Center PortfolioSPED 293C Assignment Outline.docx

  • 1. Early Learning Center Portfolio SPED 293C Assignment Outline *For this assignment you will be creating an Early Learning Center. You must include young children with exceptional needs within your program. You may work in teams or individuals for this assignment.* The following outline is required for the Early Learning Center: Name of Center · Create a name for your center. (Ex. Bright Minds Early Learning Academy) Philosophy · What type of Early Learning philosophy will your center embrace? Please describe. (Ex. Waldorf, Montessori, Reggio, co-op, play-based, art infused, etc.) Mission Statement · What is the mission of your Early Learning Center? What are your goals? What is your target population? · You can create an inclusive center that includes students with exceptional needs, or it can be a center exclusively for young children with exceptional needs. · It can be a center for children 6 weeks to 5 years or just preschool age (4-5). · What is your target population? (Ex. lower SES, local community or college parents) Are you going to partner with a university, YMCA, or school district? Center Layout(Physical Layout) · Create a layout of your entire center with a visual and written description. · Please indicate the number of classrooms. · Indicate other types of rooms- sensory room, indoor gym/motor room, therapy room, cafeteria, offices, support staff rooms, etc. Staffing/Personnel
  • 2. · Indicate the number of staff required for your Early Learning Center. You do not have to include all indicated below, but those pertinent to your program. · Teachers · Teaching Assistants · Directors/Lead Staff · Support Staff: OT, PT, Speech Therapist, Counselor, or Nursing · Additional Staff: parent volunteers, fieldwork students Classroom Layout · Create a layout of one of your classrooms. · Indicate a carpet area, quiet area, various stations (i.e. blocks, dress up), table areas, etc. Classroom Management · Outline procedures for the learning center/classrooms: · Indicate 3-5 learning center/classroom rules · Acknowledgment system · Corrective consequence system Thematic Lesson Plan Outline · Using the thematic lesson plan outline provided to you, create a theme based lesson plan outline. Design at least 2activities in each of the eight designated topic areas. Please be prepared to formally share out your Early Learning Center with a PowerPoint. DUE: May 4th Sensory Activities for Early Childhood SPED 293C All preschool teachers, especially those working with children with exceptional needs, are using important techniques utilized by skilled Occupational Therapists. When a child stimulates their senses they are sending signals to their brain that helps to create and strengthen neural pathways important for: Motor Skills, Cognitive Development, Communication, Social and
  • 3. Emotional Skills, Functional Tasks, and the development of Sense of Self. Activity: You have just viewed a clip of an Occupational Therapist demonstrating some sensory activities to use with a child with special needs. Break up into small groups and discuss and then create a sensory activity that you can use on a pre-school child with special needs. Your activity needs to address and stimulate at least three of the above mentioned developmental areas. Be prepared to share out with the class. Lesson Title: _____________________________________________________ ___________ Targeted Skill: _____________________________________________________ ___________ Age Level: ___________ Student Needs: Describe exceptional/student’s needs being addressed in the class. _____________________________________________________ _________________________ Objectives: (for the lesson) 1. _____________________________________________________ ___________________ 2. _____________________________________________________ ___________________ Materials/Classroom Setup: _____________________________________________________
  • 4. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ______________________ Vocabulary: Identify vocabulary used in lesson with students (language development). _____________________________________________________ _________________________ Curriculum Lesson: Describe the lesson from beginning to end in detail. Intro:________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ______________________Body:__________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________ClosingActiv ity__________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ______ Technology Used: (Optional) Including adaptive technology needed to assist in the activity. _____________________________________________________ _________________________ _____________________________________________________ _________________________ Scenario # 1 Nora J, currently 17 months of age was referred for early
  • 5. intervention services by her pediatrician due to failure to thrive associated with encephalitis, cardiac anomalies, seizures, and spasticity, most likely cerebral palsy. A cardiologist and neurologist are also monitoring Nora. Nora is on an NG tube and has not had a complete night's sleep due to night tube feeding. Nora is able to drink about one ounce of liquid from a sprouted cup when it is held for her. She is able to accept a variety of foods and is able to move them around in her mouth with her tongue. She can swallow about 5 spoonfuls of familiar baby foods without choking. She had choked on everything until about 8 and a half months. Sometimes Nora will choke or gag when new foods are introduced, does not scoop food or bring spoon to mouth. She does not finger feed, and needs assistance when drinking from a sippy cup. Nora watches people and is interested in what is happening around her, recognizes familiar people and children, likes toys that make sounds, demonstrates recognition of toys and objects by looking at them when named. Nora plays by reaching for and batting toys, patting pictures, and is able to hold toys when they are placed in her hand. Nora is able to hold her head up when placed in her adapted seat, held supported in a sitting or standing position. She is also able to hold her head up when placed or her side. She is able to roll from her back to her stomach and move short distances. She is motivated to get to her toys but is unable if they are more than 12 inches away. Nora is able to make throaty guttural sounds to let her family know when she wants held, when she doesn't like a particular food, and if she wants some attention. She enjoys books, sound play with familiar adults and is beginning to attempt to imitate sounds. Nora enjoys being with familiar
  • 6. adults, she watches her siblings play. She is able to laugh and smile at others. She often cries and fusses when her needs are not understood. Nora is also not able to assist with dressing or bathing. Scenario # 2 Sopheap is a 22 month month female of Cambodian descent. The Family Resource Network referred her for early intervention services. She has a visual impairment in her left eye and the ophthalmologist at the County Hospital estimates that she only has 20 percent vision in that eye. Since Sopheap is completely non verbal he is unable to completely assess the extent of her sight. Sopheap is physically a very active child when "dancing" and moving to music. She does little else. When there is no music playing in the house, she gets highly agitated, flapping her hands, spits on the walls, and runs through the house. As soon as Mom or Grandmother puts on the music, she is able to calm down within 3-5 minutes. Once calm she is able to play with her favorite toys (Disney Princess figurines). She is able to stay on this task for approximately 5 minutes. The only other activity she enjoys is scribbling in her Disney Princess coloring book. Sopheap is non verbal, but is capable of expressing her needs accurately by pointing, gesturing, and physically guiding her parents to her desired object. Sopheap is entirely cared for by mother and maternal grandmother. Father works long hours, at different shifts and sees his daughter for about an hour a day. Sopheap rarely will respond to her father. She also does not interact with her 7 year old brother and 5-year-old sister. Both children are typically developing.
  • 7. Sopheap is very uncooperative in dressing. It is a struggle to get her dressed in the morning. She refuses to wear socks or shoes at all times. Sopheap will only eat cold food with a smooth consistency, such as applesauce, cold cream of wheat, and cold mashed potatoes. Scenario # 3 Juan is a 28-month-old first-born male to a Hispanic family. The family lives with her parents and maternal grandmother in Stockton. He was referred to early intervention services by the Concillio, for suspected developmental delays. Both parents are employed full-time and Grandmother is the sole caregiver during the day. The parents speak English to Juan at home, however Grandmother speaks only Spanish to Juan during the weekdays. Both Mom and dad leave for work before Juan wakes in the morning. Juan has very little intelligible language in either English or Spanish. He does babble and make sounds. He understands simple commands in Spanish and understands "No", Hi, and can wave “Bye Bye”. He never attempts to ask questions or make demands. Grandmother seems to attend to his every need. Juan is well behaved and quiet and poses no problem behaviors at home or in the community. Juan is able to feed himself finger food, but does not use a spoon or spork. He has no interest in being toilet training and is still in a diaper. He does drink from a sippy cup on weekends with his parents, but Grandmother still bottle-feeds Juan during the day. Juan spends hours watching TV with his Grandmother. He does play on his own, but cannot sort objects by colors and can only identify 3 body parts when asked. The family has no relatives or friends with children in the area
  • 8. and Juan has never played or interacted directly with another toddler. He rarely has any opportunity to interact with adults other than his family. EARLY START PROGRAM San Joaquin County Five Points of Contact Stockton Unified School District - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209) 933-7315 x7745 Lodi Unified School District - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209) 331-7366 San Joaquin County Office of Education - - - - - - - - - (209) 931-4514 Valley Mountain Regional Center - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209) 473-0951 Family Resource Network - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (209) 472-3674 Individual Family Service Plan(IFSP) IFSP Date: *mdMeeting Location: *ml Referral Date:*rd Intake interview Date: *itd Last IFSP: *pid 6 month review by: *6mr Transition Plan by: *tp IEP/IPP by: *iep Child’s Name: *fn *ln VMRC#: *uci DOB: *dob Age: *mAge months Adj. Age: months Sex: *sex Ethnicity: *eth Primary Language: *pl Interpreter: *trans Health Insurance: Parent(s): *mfn *mln & *ffn *fln Address: *address (Mail to *maddress) Phone(s): *phone1*phone2 e-mail: *email
  • 9. Resides with: , , , , , Guardian: Phone: (209) , Fax (209) School District: *sd SELPA: *selpa Early Start Eligibility *fn’s Early Start eligibility determination was based on the review of pertinent medical records and/or results of our initial evaluation(s) completed by qualified personnel. Applicable item(s) is/are checked below. Developmental Delay –% or greater delay(s) in , , , , skills Established Risk –medical diagnosis that is likely to result in developmental delay: High Risk – Informed Clinical Opinion – Solely Low Incidence (SLI) – Suspected of SLI –Intake Coordinator to refer *fn to LEA Qualifies for Not eligible for Early Start Program Tell us about your child and family (parent statement) You (*mfn and *ffn) do not have to give any information on this section in order to receive services. However, information provided will help us develop meaningful outcomes for *fn and you, based on your family routines and focus. What does *fn do well? (Strengths) · What interests or motivates *fn? What are *herhis favorite things? What does *shehe like to do? (cont’d Strengths) · What is difficult about your daily routine? What would you like to change? (Concerns & Needs) · How/Where do *fn and you spend your day together? (Natural Environment) · What people or community resources are helpful to your
  • 10. family? Are there other resources you would like to learn more about? (Resources) · What would you like the intervention team to focus on? Is there anything you would like to have *fn or family do next? (Priorities) · What is your family interested in learning more about? (cont’d Priorities/Resources) · Child Health Information Current Primary Physician: Specialists: Summary of *fn’s Health Status based on review of pertinent records (including birth history, medical conditions and diagnosis (if any), illnesses, hospitalizations, medications and any relevant evaluations. *fn has enjoyed excellent health since birth. *shehe has no history of recurring ear infections and/or upper respiratory infections Current Medications:None What else should your team know about *fn’s health so that we can better plan and provide services for *herhim and your family? (current medical concerns, immunizations, allergies, sleeping concerns) *fn has no unusual prenatal and neonatal medical history.
  • 11. No No Nutrition, Diet, Eating Preferences, Oral-Motor Concerns *fn takes ounces every hours. *shehe also takes , , and . *shehe . *fn eats with , and drinks from and only at nap and bed time. *shehe has no Current weight: pounds ounces th percentile Current height: inches th percentile Head circumference: inches th percentile Immunizations: Additional Information Autism screening (M-CHAT) was completed with parent’s input by *ier on *itd. The results were non-critical and critical failed responses. Behavioral Observations *itd · *md, during evaluation/assessment · Steps to Transition · *ier, Intake Coordinator, informed *mfn and *ffn that the
  • 12. Early Start Program serves children from birth to third birthday. · IFSP team will be promoting developmental skills, that will help *fn be ready for preschool, such as staying on task, imitating actions/sounds, following instructions, taking turns, etc. Use of Private Health Insurance Parent/Family was advised that *fn’s private insurance or health care service plan is required to be accessed to pay for medical (therapy, nursing, etc.) services specified in the IFSP, other than for evaluation and assessment. (TBL Section 1:Gov. Code Section 95004) + =Assessments Used/Professional’s Title/Date On *fmd, *fn was evaluated at *ml by using the . The evaluation included observation, parent interview and medical record review as applicable. In accordance with Educational Code 56320, the following was considered regarding the procedures and materials used during this evaluation to ensure compliance with state and federal regulations: This evaluation was conducted by qualified persons. Test and assessment materials and procedures used for the purposes of assessment and placement of individuals with exceptional needs were selected and administered to as not to be racially, culturally, or sexually discriminatory. The student’s dominant language was considered in selecting assessment instruments. Tests have been validated for the specific purpose for which they were used. Tests and other assessment materials include those tailored to assess specific areas of educational need and not merely those that are designed to provide a single, general intelligence quotient. The assessment results that have been provided accurately reflect the student’s current skills in the area of gross and fine motor, cognitive, communication,
  • 13. social/emotional and adaptive behavior. CHILD’S NAME will participate in Statewide Assessment Program through DRDP access two times per year using no adaptations (if yes, list adaptions) Review of Prior Outcomes: *fn’s Present Levels of Development+ Domains & Subdomains What *fn does now and *herhis next step Adaptive Self-Care Mo Personal Responsibility Mo Next Step: Personal-Social Adult Interaction Mo
  • 14. Peer Interaction Mo Self-Concept and Social Role Mo Next Step: Communication Receptive Mo Expressive Mo Next Step: Motor Gross Motor Mo Fine Motor Mo
  • 15. Perceptual Motor Mo Next Step: Cognitive Attention & Memory Mo Reasoning & Academic Skills Mo Perception & Concepts Mo Next Step: Hearing *fn the Music 2 My Ears hearing screen by responding to all sounds of the screening kit. Vision *fn the Functional Vision Screening. Child Outcomes (What does *fn need to accomplish in order to participate in a family routine and/or activity?) Outcome # We want *fn to
  • 16. We will know progress is made when (Criteria). Review by *tod (Timeline) The team plans on measuring *herhis progress by , (Procedures for Measurement). What are the ways in which your family and team will work toward achieving this outcome? Who will help and what will they do? (Strategies- the methods and strategies used to support your child and family in order to achieve your outcomes within your daily activities and routines): · The informal supports may include family members, friends, neighbors, church or other community organizations, special health care programs, parent education program, etc. Family Outcomes (What will you need in order to help meet the developmental needs for *fn?) Outcome # will . We will know we’ve succeeded when (Criteria for Progress). Review by *tod (Timeline) The team plans on measuring progress by (Procedures for Measurement). Corresponding Outcome # Services to achieve outcomes, & Method Service Provider contact information Location (If not natural settings, why)
  • 17. Intensity Frequency Length Duration (& any plans for service interruption) Funding Source Required Non- required/ Other Name: *fn *ln Date: *mdPage 3 of 6 Individual FamilyServicePlan Service Summary IFSP Date: *md Meeting Location: *mlService Coordinator: *sc Child’s Name: *fn *lnDOB: *dob VMRC#: *uci Eligibility Findings Review of IFSP dated *pid Developmental Delay –% or greater delay(s) in , , , , skills Qualifies for Not eligible for Early Start Program Services Considered on the IFSP
  • 18. I to a referral and sharing of my contact information with Family Resource Network (FRN) I understand that my private insurance or health care service plan is required to be accessed to pay for medical (therapy, nursing, etc.) services specified in the IFSP, other than for evaluation and assessment. (TBL Section 1:Gov. Code Section 95004) I have received the summary of parent information, rights, appeals procedures, protecting your child’s confidentiality, VMRC Whistleblower policy and Family Resource Network brochure, and have had them explained to me I have been given AFPF information. I have been assessed the AFPF fee and received forms 6009 and 6010 I have received a copy of my annual financial statement I agree with the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) developed today, and I authorize IFSP team members to exchange information with service providers to promote team work for my child I understand that a final typed copy of this IFSP and the signed cover sheet will be mailed to me within 30 days. I have received a copy of the IFSP today. It is my responsibility to notify my SC if I do not agree with the final typed IFSP document. A new IFSP development meeting
  • 19. will be scheduled within 15 days to discuss changes to the IFSP I disagree with a portion of the IFSP. I authorize VMRC to implement all services stated in the IFSP except . . A new IFSP development meeting is scheduled for IFSP Team Members:(letter code in box indicates: Attended, Conference, Telephone input, Written input) Name Signature Title / Agency Phone Date Copy to [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
  • 20. Helping People with Developmental Disabilities Reach Their Maximum PotentialStanislaus County Branch Office 1820 Blue Gum Avenue Modesto, CA 95358 Phone: (209) 529-2626 Fax: (209) 557-2174 Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne Counties Branch Office 704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203 P. O. Box 1420 San Andreas, CA 95249 Phone: (209) 754-1871 Fax: (209) 754-3211 San Joaquin County Main Office 702 N. Aurora St. P. O. Box 692290 Stockton, CA 95269-2290 Phone: (209) 473-0951 Fax: · Administration: (209) 473-0256 · Case Mgmt: (209) 473-0719 · Clinical: (209) 956-6439
  • 21. Meeting Confirmation Notice Date: Ms. *mfn *mln Mr. *ffn *fln *address Mail to *maddress *phone1*phone2 RE: *fn *ln DOB: *dob Dear Ms. *mln and Mr. *fln: This letter is to confirm our meeting that we discussed. Annual Review 6-Month Review Transition Plan Quarterly Review Exit IFSP Review Other: Meeting Date: *fmd Time: Location: *ml We know that you want to be involved in making plans for *fn. This meeting will give us an opportunity to discuss services for *herhim. Staff and administrators from the agencies that serve *herhim have been invited to attend the meeting. You may bring a friend or relative with you to the meeting if you wish. Please phone me at *psc if you have any questions or concerns. As a result of recent changes in legislation in government code section 95020 and Sections 4646 and 4646.5, Valley Mountain Regional Center (VMRC) is required to obtain copies of all consumers’ medical insurance cards annually (including Medi-
  • 22. Cal, Medicare, and private insurance). If you have not given us a copy of your most current insurance card, please have a copy available for the visit. Sincerely, *sc, Early Start Service Coordinator cc: Helping People with Developmental Disabilities Reach Their Maximum PotentialSan Joaquin County Main Office 702 N. Aurora St. P. O. Box 692290 Stockton, CA 95269-2290 Phone: (209) 473-0951 Fax: · Administration: (209) 473-0256 · Case Mgmt: (209) 473-0719 · Clinical: (209) 956-6439Stanislaus County Branch Office 1820 Blue Gum Avenue Modesto, CA 95358 Phone: (209) 529-2626 Fax: (209) 557-2174 Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne Counties Branch Office 704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203 P. O. Box 1420 San Andreas, CA 95249 Phone: (209) 754-1871 Fax: (209) 754-3211
  • 23. Date: *fmd Child’s Name: *fn *ln DOB: *dob Health Care Provider: Dear Health Care Provider: I am requesting the medical record of from to present for the purpose of developing the Individual Family Service plan (IFSP) based on her current needs. Enclosed is a copy of the signed Release of Information. Please send the record to: Valley Mountain Regional Center 1820 Blue Gum Ave Modesto, CA 95358 Attn: *sc [Fax] (209) 557-2174 702 N Aurora St PO Box 692290 Stockton, CA 95369-2290 [fax] (209) 473-0719 704 Mountain Ranch Road, Suite 203 P. O. Box 1420 San Andreas, CA 95249 [Fax] (209) 754-3211
  • 24. Thank you very much for your time and prompt action. Sincerely *sc Early Start Service Coordinator Enclosure TEACHING ExcEptional childrEn | novEmbEr/dEcEmbEr 2014 85 T E A C H IN G E xc ep ti
  • 27. 00 59 91 45 53 20 9 A feeling of anxiety washed over Mrs. Thompson as she prepared her first-grade class for reading. Many of the students at her school love reading, but most of the students in her new inclusive class do not. The class was composed mainly of students with learning disabilities, English Language Learners, and students at-risk. All of her usual strategies had been unsuccessful and she was frustrated. Have you felt overwhelmed like Mrs. Thompson? Do you wish you had a guide for implementing evidence- based practices? If so, read on … Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are shown by high-quality research to meaningfully improve student outcomes. An EBP is not a cure-all (Gallagher, 2004), but when chosen wisely and implemented appropriately it can be used as a guide to the practices most likely to work for students with
  • 28. disabilities (Cook, Tankersley, Cook, & Landrum, 2008). Using an EBP can help eliminate many of the frustrations and guesswork from teaching by providing specific approaches for improving student performance. The following is intended to serve as a step-by-step guide for special educators in understanding, locating, selecting, and successfully implementing an EBP. Evidence-Based Practices and the Importance of Implementation EBPs are instructional approaches that have proven to be effective through rigorous research. When implemented with fidelity, or as designed, EBPs in special education have been shown to meaningfully improve the performance of students with disabilities (Cook et al., 2008). For this reason, it is important that educators seek out EBPs and incorporate them into their daily instruction to help all students realize their full potential. To be considered an EBP, the program or practice must be shown to be effective by multiple research studies that meet strict criteria related to research design, quality, and effect on student outcomes (e.g., Gersten et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; see box). Although not guaranteed to work for everyone, EBPs have been shown to be
  • 29. effective for the majority of students. Despite the considerable potential of EBPs to improve student outcomes and ease teachers’ burdens for finding the most effective instructional practices, educators must be aware of how to locate and effectively apply them. To help teachers effectively apply EBPs, we provide a list of prominent sources of EBPs for students with disabilities (Table 1) and a 10-step implementation framework for planning successful integration of EBPs (see Figures 1 and 2). A 10-Step Implementation Process for EBPs Using an EBP does not lessen the important role of an effective teacher. However, some practices are consistently more effective than others (Forness, Kavale, Blum, & Lloyd, 1997), and EBPs are such practices. EBPs grew out of the medical field, which outlined a model for practitioners to follow for choosing, appraising, implementing, and analyzing a treatment (Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, & 553209TCXXXX10.1177/0040059914553209Council for Exceptional ChildrenTeaching Exceptional Children research-article2014 A Special Educator’s Guide to Successfully
  • 30. Implementing Evidence- Based Practices This article originally appeared in the September/October 2012 issue of TEC Caroline Torres, Cynthia A. Farley, and Bryan G. Cook University of Hawaii BEST OF TEC at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ 86 council for ExcEptional childrEn Table 1. Sources for Evidence-Based Practices Source Population Evidence-Based Classifications Resources Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) www.bestevidence.org Early childhood–high school reading, Elementary–high school math, English Language Learners, Technology in reading &
  • 31. math Strong evidence Moderate evidence Limited evidence (modest effects) Limited evidence (weak effects) No qualifying studies Program description Contact information Website Research reports National Autism Center (NAC) www.nationalautismcenter.org (download the National Standards Report for EBPs) Individuals with Autism age 3-21 Established Emerging Unestablished Ineffective/harmful Program description Treatment strategies when possible Research study citations National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC on
  • 32. ASD) autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu Individuals with Autism ages 3–21 Evidence-based practice Program description Contact information Review websites Research citations Step-by-step instructions Implementation fidelity checklists Data tools National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center (NSTTAC) www.nsttac.org Secondary students Life skills Strong Moderate Potential (needs additional research) Program description Contact information Website Research citations What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) ies.ed.gov
  • 33. Elementary–high school Positive effects (++) Potentially positive effects (+) Mixed effects (+-) No discernible effects (0) Potentially negative effects (-) Negative effects (-) Program description Contact information Website Research citations Cost EBPs are supported by multiple high-quality research studies designed to determine whether a practice causes positive changes in student outcomes. Although a variety of approaches for identifying EBP exist, the following guidelines are often used in special education: Group Experimental & Quasi-Experimental Studies At least two high-quality or four acceptable-quality studies must support the practice as effective, with a weighted effect size across studies significantly greater than zero. High-quality studies must meet criteria in at least three of the following areas: description of participants, intervention and comparison condition, outcome measures, data analysis, and at least four of eight “desirable” indicators, such as attrition rate (Gersten et al.,2005). Single Subject Studies Five or more high-quality studies with 20 or more participants
  • 34. that meet criteria related to participants and setting; independent and dependent variables; baseline; and internal, external, and social validity must support the practice as effective (Horner et al., 2005). Qualitative Studies Although qualitative studies are useful for many purposes, they are not designed to determine whether a practice causes improved student outcomes (McDuffie & Scruggs, 2008). What Makes a Practice Evidence-Based? at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ TEACHING ExcEptional childrEn | novEmbEr/dEcEmbEr 2014 87 Schultz, 2005). The 10-step guide described in the following and summarized in Figures 1 and 2 is aligned to the medical framework and tailored to education, with the intention of assisting special educators in effectively integrating EBPs into instruction. Step 1: Determine Student, Environmental, and Instructor Characteristics Mrs. Thompson asked her colleague, Mrs. Alexander, who was experiencing success with a similar class, about her
  • 35. “secrets of success.” Mrs. Alexander said that she used a variety of EBPs. She suggested that Mrs. Thompson’s first step should be to think about the students in her class and her own personal teaching style because it is important to match those variables to an EBP in order to have success. Figure 1. Flowchart for 10-Step Implementation Process at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ 88 council for ExcEptional childrEn Figure 2. 10-Step EBP Implementation Process Checklist Process Steps 1. Determine student, environmental, and instructor characteristics s, and school variables o Teacher’s expertise/ability to implement new strategies o Teacher’s philosophy/style and alignment to instructional methods o Schedule/available class time o Additional personnel
  • 36. o Additional resources/funding 2. Search sourc -reference EBP to student need and instructor ability 4. Identify essential components of the selected EBP If not available: 5. Implement the EBP within a cycle of effective instruction -by-step instructions or implementation fidelity checklist to ensure critical components are included in step-by-step lesson plan within effective instruction, which includes: o Pace appropriately o Preview instruction o Review previous instruction o Monitor student performance o Circulate and scan instructional environment
  • 37. o Recognize appropriate behavior o Exhibit enthusiasm o Display awareness of what is happening o Use wait time after questioning fidelity checklist to self-assess implementation fidelity fidelity checklist progress monitoring tool o Consider commercially or freely available Curriculum Based Measurements (CBM) uate effectiveness increased with the use of the EBP? If yes, no adaptations are necessary. If not: observation fidelity optimal? If no, try implementing again with fidelity. If yes: components
  • 38. 9. Make instructional decisions based on progress monitoring data If adaptations have been implemented: interested in implementing EBPs ion results and materials at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ TEACHING ExcEptional childrEn | novEmbEr/dEcEmbEr 2014 89 The first step is to successfully determine relevant student, environmental (e.g., classroom), and teacher characteristics that an EBP must match or address. The following are some of the important characteristics to identify and evaluate before choosing an EBP: •• Student characteristics: age/grade, subject, language/culture, disability/learning need
  • 39. •• Environmental characteristics: class grouping, available time, resources, funding •• Instructor characteristics: knowledge, experience, teaching philosophy, teaching style Collecting these characteristics will be valuable in deciding which practice is the right fit. Step 2: Search Sources of EBPs Mrs. Alexander shared a list of sources for EBPs, and although Mrs. Thompson was apprehensive about getting information from the Internet, she started browsing the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) website. Her fears began to fade as she explored the practices on the site and found new ideas, some of which seemed to potentially fit her needs. Special educators often do not have the time or expertise necessary to independently analyze research studies on effective practices (Cook et al., 2008). For this reason, we located a variety of sources that conducted systematic evidence-based reviews and catalogued EBPs for students with disabilities. These websites, along with the population(s) of students targeted,
  • 40. how EBPs are categorized, and additional resources provided are summarized in Table 1. These excellent resources eliminate much of the time and work associated with searching for, reading, and evaluating multiple research studies on different instructional practices to find out what works. Educators should revisit the sources periodically, as additional practices may be added when new reviews are conducted. Step 3: Select an EBP Mrs. Thompson was pleased to find that the BEE provided short summaries describing the practices reviewed and the characteristics of the students for which each EBP has been shown to work, as well as full research reports. The site also provided links and references with more information. Mrs. Thompson decided to try Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in which students work in pairs to improve reading fluency. PALS was designed to supplement existing reading programs for beginning and struggling readers. The characteristics described in the report matched her students, and she decided PALS would be a good fit for her and her students. After reviewing EBPs of interest from the sources in Step 2, the
  • 41. characteristics in Step 1 should be considered and the most relevant and feasible practice should be selected. Selecting an EBP can be tricky. Perfect matches between EBP and student, environmental, and teacher characteristics are unlikely; but the closer the match, the more likely it is that the desired outcomes will be achieved (Cook et al., 2008). All of the EBP sources in Table 1 provide references for the studies used. The studies provide detailed information on the specific student, environmental, and teacher characteristics with which the practice has been shown to work. Some characteristics such as student disability and content area may need to be weighted more heavily than others (e.g., teaching style). Teachers will need to use their judgment in deciding which relevant EBP is most likely to work for them and their students. Step Four: Identify the Essential Components of the Selected EBP For information on how to implement PALS, the EBP that Mrs. Thompson selected, she followed a link on the BEE’s website to IRIS (http://iris .peabody.vanderbilt.edu) training modules that includes step-by-step instructions, printable materials, and even video demonstrations of the practice in action. She reviewed the
  • 42. directions and identified core elements of the practice to make sure that she wouldn’t miss any important steps. After selecting an EBP to implement, educators should identify the essential components of the practice. If critical elements of the EBP are omitted or fundamentally altered, the positive effects reported for the EBP in the research studies are unlikely to be duplicated (Cook & Smith, 2012). Therefore, identification of these key elements needs to occur prior to implementation in order for educators to understand how to deliver the intervention correctly. Several evidence-based practice sources, such as the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, include step-by-step instructions and implementation fidelity checklists for EBPs featured on their site (see Table 1). These are great resources for quickly identifying the essential components of an EBP. If step-by-step instructions are not available, educators can access original research articles to identify the essential components of EBPs. Step 5: Implement the Practice Within a Cycle of Effective
  • 43. Instruction When it came time to implement PALS, Mrs. Thompson felt confident but knew the practice wouldn’t work if her general instruction and classroom management weren’t effective. She knew that sometimes she went through material too quickly, so she focused on presenting PALS with enthusiasm, but with appropriate pacing. She also set a buzzer in her pocket at 30-second intervals to cue her to stop and reinforce appropriate student behavior. In addition, she used reading material that the students were familiar with and enjoyed, so that they weren’t learning difficult content the first time they tried PALS. Effective teaching consists of more than merely choosing the best program or practice to implement. Even the most effective practices can have little impact on student outcomes if implemented at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ 90 council for ExcEptional childrEn through ineffective teaching (Billingsley, 2004). Some components of effective
  • 44. instruction that are a foundation for successful EBP implementation include maximizing academic engagement, using appropriate pacing, preteaching key vocabulary, previewing instruction, reviewing previous instruction, monitoring student performance, circulating and scanning the instructional environment, recognizing appropriate behavior, exhibiting enthusiasm, displaying awareness of what is happening in the classroom, and using wait time after questioning (Brigham, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 1992; Brophy & Good, 1986; Cook, Tankersley, & Harjusola-Webb, 2008). Effective teaching techniques combined with the use of an EBP provide the opportunity to maximize student outcomes. Step 6: Monitor Implementation Fidelity Mrs. Thompson was excited to try the new practice. She took care to script out how she would model, explain, and implement PALS for the first time, referring to the list of essential components. It seemed to go well as the students worked in their pairs and remained engaged in the lesson. She shared the implementation fidelity checklist that she made with Mrs. Alexander and asked her to observe and give feedback on her implementation of PALS.
  • 45. During initial implementation of a new instructional practice, educators need to clearly teach all of the components, procedures, and expectations to the students. The practice should then be implemented regularly and monitored with an implementation fidelity checklist to ensure the integrity of the practice. Ideally, an observer uses the fidelity checklist regularly (e.g., weekly) to collect data to help assess if the EBP is being implemented correctly. If an outside observer or coach is not available, teachers can self-assess using the checklist. Fidelity can be assessed in many ways (Durlak & DuPre, 2008), but it typically includes assessing the number of critical elements or steps accomplished and number and length of lessons. Teachers can use implementation fidelity data to identify areas they need to emphasize or on which they need to receive additional training to ensure the practice is implemented as designed. Step 7: Progress Monitor Student Outcomes The students seemed to be engaged and learning, but Mrs. Thompson didn’t really know for sure whether PALS was improving outcomes for all
  • 46. of her students. So she decided to use weekly curriculum-based measurements for oral reading fluency, which assessed the number of words read correctly in a minute from grade- level passages, to reliably monitor students’ performance. Before implementing an EBP, a progress-monitoring plan needs to be created to track the effects of its implementation across time. Although they are highly likely to work, an EBP–like any practice–may be ineffective for specific students for any number of reasons. Moreover, the effectiveness of an EBP can change over time because of such factors as changes in implementation and students’ needs. It is important, then, to monitor student progress through regular, formative assessments to evaluate the ongoing effectiveness of the practice. By using an appropriate progress monitoring tool, educators generate reliable data and feedback on the effects of the EBP, which they can use as the basis for instructional decisions (see Step 9). One commonly used progress- monitoring tool is curriculum-based measurement (CBM), which is short and simple to administer, provides reliable (i.e., consistent) and valid (i.e.,
  • 47. meaningful) measures of student performance, and yields results that can be graphed to show progress over time (Hosp, Hosp, & Howell, 2007). These formative assessments should be done frequently—as often as twice weekly, depending on student need—and can be as short as 1 minute to administer. The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (2007) suggested that CBM is the optimal progress-monitoring procedure for teachers. Some EBP sources, such as the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, provide progress monitoring and data collection tools for identified EBPs. The National Center on Response to Intervention (www.rti4success.org) provides a useful chart rating the effectiveness of a variety of progress monitoring tools. Step 8: Adapt the Practice If Necessary After 3 weeks, Mrs. Thompson was very pleased that CBM results indicated that the performance of most of her students was improving. For the few students who did not show meaningful improvement in reading fluency, she decided to adapt the practice slightly by building background knowledge and preteaching key vocabulary to help make the material more accessible and increase its effectiveness.
  • 48. Mrs. Thompson was careful not to change any of the essential components of PALS when she added these adaptations. After implementing and becoming familiar with an EBP, teachers may be able to improve its effects on student outcomes by adapting the practice to optimize its fit with their teaching style, learners’ needs, or both. Overly rigid implementation can sometimes reduce the positive effects of a practice because special educators usually need at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/ TEACHING ExcEptional childrEn | novEmbEr/dEcEmbEr 2014 91 to individualize and personalize instruction to meet the unique needs of their students (Harn, Parisi, & Stollmiller, in press; Hogue et al., 2008). Adapting EBPa in ways that maximize their fit without altering the essential components of the practice is an important way for teachers to take ownership of an EBP, increasing the likelihood that it will be maintained and increasing its effectiveness.
  • 49. Teachers should use the expertise accumulated over their careers (Whitehurst, 2002) to guide the adaptation of EBP to meet the unique needs of their students without diluting its effectiveness by altering essential elements. Savvy educators will also access the wisdom of other experts when considering how to adapt EBP. It is important to closely monitor the progress of students (see Step 7) to evaluate the effects of the adaptation. Step 9: Make Instructional Decisions Based on Progress Monitoring Data After continuing to monitor progress, it was clear that the adaptations were helping, and all but one of Mrs. Thompson’s students were now making meaningful gains on their weekly CBM assessments. Mrs. Thompson asked a mentor teacher to observe her to ensure that she was using effective teaching skills and implementing the practice with fidelity—which she was. Then, for her one student not showing sufficient gains, she recommended more PALS sessions as a Tier 2 intervention. If an EBP is achieving desired outcomes for target students, teachers should continue to monitor progress to ensure continued gains, but no
  • 50. adaptations are needed. If some students are not performing adequately in response to the EBP, teachers should consider the following to help decide the best course of action: •• Make sure that the EBP has been implemented and progress monitoring has been conducted for a sufficient amount of time—a few weeks or more. Both the students and teacher need time to get used to new practices. Collecting and evaluating progress monitoring data over time will help to accurately determine how the student is responding to the EBP. •• Examine the implementation fidelity (see Step 6). If one or more critical elements of the EBP are not being implemented appropriately (e.g., student participation), then these issues should be addressed before deciding that the EBP is ineffective. •• Check that the EBP is being implemented in the context of effective teaching (see Step 5). Teachers may wish to have an expert colleague, coach, or mentor come and observe them implementing the EBP in order to provide feedback on improving general teaching effectiveness (e.g., enthusiasm, wait time, classroom
  • 51. management). •• Assure that the EBP has been adapted (see Step 8) to optimize its fit with the students, instructional environment, and educator strengths. If continued progress-monitoring data (see Step 7) indicate that a practice is not effective with a particular student or group of students even after addressing these issues, the non-responding students may be “treatment resistors,” one of the relatively few individuals for whom the EBP will not be effective (Torgeson, 2000). In this case, it is time to increase the intensity of the EBP (if it is having some positive effects) or select another EBP (if it is having minimal, no, or negative effects). If another EBP is not found that is a match, teachers can turn to practices that are not yet identified as EBPs but have been shown to be promising practices (see box). Step 10: Become a Leader and an Advocate After her initial success, Mrs. Thompson thanked and shared her first experiences with Mrs. Alexander, who offered to meet
  • 52. regularly during their common prep period to discuss successes and challenges in continuing to implement the new practice. After sticking with PALS for a couple of months, Mrs. Thompson continued to see increases in reading fluency with her students. She shared her experience with the rest of the department, and when Mr. Yoshita, a new teacher, came to her for advice, she coached him on how to find and implement an EBP. Many What if I Don’t Find an EBP That Fits?. Additional sources listed here evaluate and summarize educational research and provide information on the effectiveness of practices and curricula. Although these sources do not identify specific practices as evidence-based, educators can use the information reported to make an informed decision as to the effectiveness of practices reviewed. Many of the sources in Table 1 also include information on promising practices. •• National Center on Response to Intervention (www.rti4success.org) •• Florida Center for Reading Research (http://www.fcrr.org) •• Promising Practices Network (www.promisingpractices.net) •• IRIS (http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu; a resource for free online training modules). at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from http://tcx.sagepub.com/
  • 53. 92 council for ExcEptional childrEn other teachers became interested and started meeting regularly to help each other with EBPs. Educators tend to look to colleagues for guidance (Landrum, Cook, Tankersley, & Fitzgerald, 2002; Nelson, Leffler, & Hansen, 2009), particularly if they share similar students, grade levels, and subject areas. As teachers become knowledgeable about implementing an EBP, sharing their expertise with their colleagues will help spread the use of the most effective teaching practices. Teachers will produce “practice-based evidence” for an EBP through sharing their positive experiences (Simons, Kushner, Jones, & James, 2003). Teachers put special trust in this practice-based evidence, because, in contrast to many research studies, it comes from trusted colleagues who have used the practice in real classrooms. Practice-based evidence can compel other teachers to adopt the EBP, influence school culture, and help reach a “tipping point” in which use of an EBP becomes the norm (Fixsen, Blasé, Horner, & Sugai, 2009). Instructional innovations (e.g., adoption of an EBP) without structured and consistent support are less likely to be sustained by teachers over time (Odom, 2009); therefore, teachers need
  • 54. support with the implementation of EBP. Creating a supportive community culture, which includes administrative and peer support, is extremely valuable (e.g., Buysse, Sparkman, & Wesley, 2003). One way to do this is to create communities of practice. Communities of practice are groups of people who have a common goal, such as improving student learning. They work together regularly to develop and apply worthwhile practices through collaborative inquiry, research, and skill building (Lassonde & Israel, 2009; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002). After ample time to implement, monitor, and adapt the practice, these communities could then share their materials, suggestions, and testimonials with other teachers or even an entire faculty, and invite others to try implementing their EBP with the newly created expert cadre serving as coaches and mentors. This would help to create a “scaling-up” effect where small groups of individuals become experts in a practice and gradually spread the expertise and interest to larger and larger groups (Odom, 2009), creating widespread and sustained implementation of an EBP. Conclusion When students are not responding to “business as usual” and not making desired gains, teachers need to ask
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  • 62. article to Caroline Torres, 2818 Leialoha Avenue, #205, Honolulu, HI 96816 (e-mail: [email protected]). TEACHING Exceptional Children, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 85–93. Copyright 2014 The Author(s). at COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (CEC) on January 7, 2016tcx.sagepub.comDownloaded from www.rti4success.org www.promisingpractices.net http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001440290507100203 http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/palsk1/chalcycle.htm http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193250202300106 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1053451208321564 http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/311 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271121408329171 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152032000176855 http://tcx.sagepub.com/