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DUE 11/6/2017 10 P.M EST
THIS IS A 4 PART HIV SPSS PROJECT. ATTACHED IS THE
PREVIOUS PARTS. PLEASE READ IT ALL. WHEN YOU
GENERATE IT, I’M SURE IT WILL BE A LITTLE
DIFFERENT BUT THAT’S O.K.. THE ANALYSIS IS ALSO
ATTACHED.
For your Final Project submission, you have the opportunity to
share the significance of your results in the practice of public
health. With your disease and data in mind, integrate instructor
and peer feedback you have received throughout the course, in
completing your statistical analyses.
The Assignment: (7 PAGES)
· Section I: Introduction (3 pages)
· Brief description of your identified disease
· Summary of other studies that directly relate to your identified
disease outcome (Note: This is essentially the Literature Review
you submitted in Week 6. There is no need to include the
Annotated Bibliography as well since it was developed into
your Literature Review.)
· Statement of the Problem/Research question
· Written statements for both your null and
alternative/research hypothesis
· Brief description of the significance of why this disease is
important for examination
·
· Section II: Methodology (1 page)
· Brief description of the study sample
· Description of the data gathering methods for your variables
of interest
· Explanation of the types of statistical analyses you conducted
and why
·
· Section III: Results (2 PAGES)
· Description of the steps you took to conduct your statistical
analyses
· Summary of your statistical findings
· Narrative description
· Tables and graphs (Be careful—too many tables and graphs
decreases clarity)
·
· Section IV: Conclusions and Discussion (1 PAGE
· Explanation of your major results (Be sure to answer your
research question.)
· If appropriate, report on statistical significance (or not) of
your results; including any relationship between your variables
of interest.
· Social change implications of your results for the population
that was sampled from.
· Suggestions for future research.
· Appendices
· SPSS Codebook
· Syntax Code (step-by-step instructions of how to run the
different analyses)
· References
Include 4–6 peer-reviewed resources.
Be sure to follow APA format.
FINAL PROJECT: TOPIC, STATEMENT OF PROBLEM, AND
ANNOTATED BIOGRAPHY
(DIRECTIONS) As a public health professional, you may
research many areas of interest. For example, in studying how
economics affects global health, what variables might you
consider? In examining these variables, you may consider the
significance of why this issue is essential for analysis.
For this Assignment, you will explore the Final Project dataset
provided in the Course Information tab and select one of the
following diseases (dependent variables): H.I.V. You will
examine the other (independent) variables available in the
dataset. They include demographic variables (i.e., gender, age,
race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance, urban residence,
and region), clinical risk factors (i.e., BMI and cholesterol), and
behavioral risk factors (i.e., alcohol and tobacco consumption,
injection drug use, condom use, exercise, and fruit/vegetable
intake). You will then develop a problem statement (or research
question) related to your disease H.I.V and 1–2 independent
variables of your choice. Finally, you will begin to research this
disease in the literature.
The Assignment: (2 pages)
· Provide a brief (e.g., 2-paragraph) background summary of the
disease (dependent variable) you have selected from the Final
Project dataset.
· Identify and provide a brief description of the independent and
dependent variables you will consider for your Final Project.
· Run and save the Data Dictionary from the Final
Project SPSS datafile. Include the output as an appendix to your
assignment.
· Identify your “Statement of the Problem” (or research
question). Be sure your statement or question makes mention of
both the independent and dependent variables you are
examining. (This will be important for later assignments when
you complete statistical analysis using the Final Project
dataset.).
· Provide an Annotated bibliography which is to include:
· Sources: Four recent (less than 3 years old) primary peer-
reviewed research articles related to the disease of your paper.
Beyond the minimum four primary research articles, you may
add additional, high-quality secondary literature (reviews or
meta-analyses), and you may use websites if from a scholarly
and relevant source (e.g. CDC, NCHS, etc.). Your sources must
follow APA formatting.
· Annotation: For each research article, include a brief
description of the study aim, the methods used, and the major
findings. For each non research source, provide a concise
description of the relevant key points addressed in the source.
Include in the annotation a brief description of how you plan to
use each source (e.g. provides statistics for the problem, etc.)
**Please include the following header ON THIS and ALL
FUTURE Assignments for the Final Project.**
One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor
keep track of what you are attempting.
RQ:
Dependent Variable:
Independent Variable(s):
Null Hypothesis:
Alternate Hypothesis:
Statistical Test:
RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV?
Dependent Variable: HIV
Independent Variable(s): Condoms
Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use
and HIV
Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom
use and HIV
Statistical Test: (To be determined in Week 7)
_____________________________________________________
________________________
Introduction
According to a study carried out in Mozambique, an estimation
of adults between fifteen and forty-nine, 12% were HIV
positive. Most studies indicated an increased prevalence of the
infection, and new opportunistic infections occurring among
fifteen to twenty-four-year olds. Nevertheless, as per
Mozambique DHS 1997, the rate of condom use was low among
young adults. These citizens are educated on the use of condoms
in prevention of HIV and its opportunistic infections, thereby
allowing room for informed choices. However, program
officials and policymakers lack access to key population data
for young adults to assist in development of evaluation
strategies and targeted programs according to Dokubo et al.
2014. It is a prerequisite to be informed about HIV and AIDS in
recognition of risky behavior, avoidance and changing it, based
on the model that reduces the risk, though findings related to
the relationship of HIV and condom use have been inconsistent.
There is no associationbetween [condom use] and [HIV] with
prevalent infection because the recall period of prevention
practice was short during the whole study, with a possible
reflection of an increased-reporting use, and reduced exposure
to the infection among the never-users, resulting from engaging
with fewer partners. The Final Project dataset includes a variety
of independent and dependent variables. The present study will
utilize the following variables: [HIV] as the dependent variable
and [condom use] as the independent variable(s). Therefore, this
study will examine whether there is an association between
[condom use] and [HIV].
Annotated Bibliography
1. Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E.,
Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect
of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV
incidence and social and behavioral outcomes (NIMH Project
Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomized trial. The lancet
global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277.
Condom use is also high among those that knew their HIV
status through testing but it varied among unmarried partners
and couples. The use of protection was high among the
unmarried and males than females. Similarly, condom use was
high among those who utilized testing and counseling services,
but only the unmarried men and women. These differences
could be caused by the factors influencing one’s decision to
utilize the testing and counseling services. According to Sweat
et al., those that obtained the services reported a high risk of
unprotected sex with commercial and non-primary partners, and
an increase in the use of condoms by 66% upon utilization of
the testing and counseling services. In addition, condom use is
less likely associated with the use of these services in
Mozambique due to their inaccessibility and unavailability. In
Africa, sub-Saharan, 90% of those in the reproductive age
would utilize the testing services if they were accessible and
available. With a high prevalence of HIV infection, it is
essential to educate both unmarried and married partners on the
infection and the disease, and the use of condoms to prevent the
spread, since they are all involved in various sexual
relationships, including legal and consensual unions.
Furthermore, most people believe that condom use signals
mistrust and hence the need to sensitize the importance of
protection, including the use of testing and counseling services
to increase self-awareness. The study was used to determine the
effects of voluntary counseling practiced in communities and
HIV testing on its incidence and behavioral and social outcomes
through a trial that is cluster-randomized.
2. Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J.,
Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014).
Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom
use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one,
version 9, number 9, e106760.
Other studies reported a null hypothesis between sexual
behavior and HIV knowledge. A survey carried out among
Rwandan women indicated only a small portion of most who
were informed about HIV used protection. In Tanzania, those
who knew condom use prevents the spread of HIV had reduced
chances of using protection. In Ethiopia, a study among factory
workers who were HIV pervasive reported an increased sexual
behavior risk and low condom use, though most knew about the
advantages of using condoms to prevent the spread of the
infection. Based on the Kenyan health survey and demographic
data, sexual behavior was risky and very high among women
and men who knew their risk was high and a lack of association
between sexual behavior and HIV spread knowledge. The
various variables that are associated with HIV risk awareness
vary from fear and shame of the disease, number of active
sexual partners, awareness of your partner’s sexual status or
past sexual behaviors, AIDS discussion with family members,
religious affiliation, and the community’s perception of AIDS.
In the sub-Saharan, sociocultural practices and norms,
determine the risk s in sexual behavior. A study among South
African partners indicated that women who knew they were at
risk of the infection used condoms unlike those who lacked
awareness. Students in university in Nigeria and Zimbabwe that
used condoms were more informed about the infection than
those that did not use protection. In Ghana and Cameroon,
youths increased condom use, as they perceived themselves as
vulnerable persons. This study examines correct HIV risk
assessment associated with the use of condoms among youths or
young adults.
3. Friedman, M. R., Stall, R., Plankey, M., Shoptaw, S.,
Herrick, A. L., Surkan, P. J., ... & Silvestre, A. J. (2017).
Stability of Bisexual Behavior and Extent of Viral Bridging
Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women.
Archives of sexual behavior, 46(4), 903-912.
In a recent review study, Joseph and Becker found an
interrelationship between the two among homosexuals and
heterosexuals, but lacked a solid mechanism evidence of this
relationship and concluded that there could be a third factor
linking knowledge to sexual behavior. The aim was to assess
five hypotheses over viral bridging and bisexual behavior
transience. Men who reported to have (n = 111) female and male
sexual partners were grouped as bisexual behaviorally through
the Cohort study of the Multicenter AIDS. This source will be
used to determine the bisexual behavior in males with both
female and male sexual partners.
4. Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and
public health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7.
The results on the association between HIV/AIDS and condom
use are mixed and not clearly understood. Some authors and
researchers have concluded positive associations, while others
have found no association among various population subgroups.
A set of questions, for example, “how can someone become
infected?”, were used to measure the level of awareness about
AIDS, HIV transmission, and the accuracy of feedback about
the disease. In this study own risk assessment accuracy is
predicted, based on the past and present sexual behavior. Young
men more than women who thought were at low risk were in
reality at high or moderate risk of contracting the infection, and
lacked the knowhow of their risk assessment. This difference is
caused by women being unable to apply that knowledge in their
risk assessment upon sexual intercourse and they were reluctant
to report that self-assessment risk than men. Existing literature
indicates mixed results in the relationship between sexual
behavior and risk perception. In this case, behavioral and
demographic variables were used to determine condom use, and
if there is a positive association between condom use and
education, except among higher educated women.
5. Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood,
C., & Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian
street youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3),
254-268.
In Zambia on the other hand, Magnani et al. deduced an
association between HIV knowledge with reduced or lack of
sexual experience and increased condom use among men and
boys. Demographic and health survey model used in Kenya,
Zambia, and Uganda indicated that awareness of someone’s HIV
status led to protective sex, most people were knowledgeable of
condom use in HIV prevention, and most had correct beliefs
about AIDS patients. These authors inferred that someone
knowing of another person’s death out of the infection-
increased awareness of the causes and results, which led to an
increase in condom, use, hence safe sex. The source was used to
know the risk factors for HIV among Zambian street youths.
References
Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E.,
Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect
of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV
incidence and social and behavioural outcomes (NIMH Project
Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomised trial. The lancet
global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277.
Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J.,
Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014).
Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom
use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one,
version 9, number 9, e106760.
Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and public
health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7.
Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood, C.,
& Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian street
youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3), 254-268.
WEEK 6: FINAL PROJECT: LITERATURE REVIEW,
HYPOTHESIS AND SIGNIFICANCE
(DIRECTIONS) With your Final Project disease in mind,
consider other related studies in the literature, reflect on how to
develop a hypothesis and consider the significance of the issue
you are exploring for your Final Project.
The Assignment: 2 PAGES
· Provide a summary of other studies that directly relate to your
identified disease. Be sure to refer back to the sources used for
your annotated bibliography in week 4.
· Considering the feedback you received on your week 4
assignment, restate your “Statement of the Problem” (or
research question).
· Identify both your null and alternative/research hypothesis.
· Provide a brief description of the significance of why this
issue is important for examination.
RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV?
Dependent Variable: HIV
Independent Variable(s): Condoms
Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use
and HIV
Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom
use and HIV
Statistical Test: (To be determined in Week 7)
Summary of Sources
According to Coates et al. (2014), most people believe that
condom use signals mistrust and hence the need to sensitize the
importance of protection, including the use of testing and
counseling services to increase self-awareness. This study
determined that effects of voluntary counseling practiced in
communities and HIV testing on its incidence and behavioral
and social outcomes through a trial that is cluster-randomized
which puts it directly related the current study. Specifically, the
study found that condom use is less likely associated with the
use of these services in Mozambique due to their inaccessibility
and unavailability. In Africa, sub-Saharan, 90% of those in the
reproductive age would utilize the testing services if they were
accessible and available.
Additionally, Dokubo et al. (2014) is another study specifically
important to the current study. The authors found that Rwandan
women indicated only a small portion of most who were
informed about HIV used protection. They also found that in
Tanzania, those who knew condom use prevents the spread of
HIV had reduced chances of using protection. In Ethiopia, a
study among factory workers who were HIV pervasive reported
an increased sexual behavior risk and low condom use, though
most knew about the advantages of using condoms to prevent
the spread of the infection. Based on the Kenyan health survey
and demographic data, sexual behavior was risky and very high
among women and men who knew their risk was high and a lack
of association between sexual behavior and HIV spread
knowledge.
Friedman et al., (2017) investigated the interrelationship
between the two among homosexuals and heterosexuals and
found that it lacked a solid mechanism evidence of this
relationship and concluded that there could be a third factor
linking knowledge to sexual behavior. The source proved
crucial in determining the bisexual behavior in males with both
female and male sexual partners.
Katikiro and Njau (2011) found concluded positive associations
on the association between HIV/AIDS and condom. This
difference is caused by women being unable to apply that
knowledge in their risk assessment upon sexual intercourse and
they were reluctant to report that self-assessment risk than men.
Close to that, Tyler et al. (2016) established that health survey
model used in Kenya, Zambia, and Uganda indicated that
awareness of someone’s HIV status led to protective sex, most
people were knowledgeable of condom use in HIV prevention,
and most had corrected beliefs about AIDS patients.
Statement of the Problem
It is a prerequisite to be informed about HIV and AIDS in
recognition of risky behavior, avoidance and changing it, based
on the model that reduces the risk, though findings related to
the relationship of HIV and condom use have been inconsistent.
There is no associationbetween [condom use] and [HIV] with
prevalent infection because the recall period of prevention
practice was short during the whole study, with a possible
reflection of an increased-reporting use, and reduced exposure
to the infection among the never-users, resulting from engaging
with fewer partners. The Final Project dataset includes a variety
of independent and dependent variables. The present study will
utilize the following variables: [HIV] as the dependent variable
and [condom use] as the independent variable(s). Therefore, this
study will examine whether there is an association between
[condom use] and [HIV].
Significance of the Study
The importance of investigating the HIV scourge is ultimately
to help save lives. A lot of studies have been done all over the
world regarding the disease. However, the use of condoms and
the relationship that it has on the disease as a whole has not
received as much attention because most people assume that it
prevents the disease and that is all there is about it. The study
will be important to scholars in that field in providing empirical
results on the use of condoms. It will also be useful for
governments in the world in making policies that are related to
the HIV.
References
Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E.,
Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect
of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV
incidence and social and behavioural outcomes (NIMH Project
Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomised trial. The lancet
global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277.
Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J.,
Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014).
Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom
use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one,
version 9, number 9, e106760.
Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and public
health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7.
Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood, C.,
& Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian street
youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3), 254-268.
PART 3 METHODS
RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV?
Dependent Variable: HIV
Independent Variable(s): Condoms
Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use
and HIV
Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom
use and HIV
Statistical Test: Mean, Standard Deviation, andRegression -
Linear
WEEK 7 FINAL PROJECT: METHODS
(DIRECTIONS) For this Assignment, consider the data
gathering method(s) that would be necessary to examine your
statement of the problem (research question) as well as the
statistical analyses required to test your null hypothesis. Review
this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the types of
statistical analyses you may use to explore the variables of
interest for your Final Project.
The Assignment (1 page)
· Methods
· Brief description of possible study participants*
· Description of the possible data gathering methods*
· Explanation of the types of statistical analyses you will
conduct and why (Be sure to include an explanation of how your
variables of interest helped determine the appropriate analyses.)
Methods
Study sample
The population for this study was made up of 280 patients
diagnosed with HIV at John Kennedy Hospital between the
years 2015 and 2016. Staging of the disease would be
determined by the following criteria. Firstly, the patient must
have been diagnosed with the illness after 2015 and be above 21
years of age. They must also have been able to lender consent
for the study to be done on them. The patients would be
excluded from the study if they did not meet the minimum age,
and were not in a position to communicate their consent to the
researchers.
A majority of the cases were male (52.5%) with a mean age was
(41.5 ±). The standard deviation was 14 for the ages within the
cohort. Further, the HIV infection spread amongst the cohort
was at 41.8% which means the rest of the cohort had a single
strain of HIV in their blood stream as opposed to many. Further,
it was established that 68.6% of the patients had used condoms
which prevented further infection.
Data collection
The collection of data was through the medical files provided
by the institution. All that was needed was the blood results
showing the number if HIV infections in the blood as well as
the sputum samples. These documents were used to compare
patients who used a condom after being diagnosed and those
that did not. It was hoped that the data would answer the
question as to whether the condom use affected the rate of
further infection in HIV patients (Little & Rubin, 2014).
Statistical analyses
In describing the sample, mean and standard deviation were
used to analyze the age and gender of the cohort. From there,
the use of condoms and HIV infection were analyzed through
regression process to establish if there was significance. The
dependent variable was HIV while the independent was the use
of condoms. From the results tabled in the attached output, use
of condom was negatively and significantly related to HIV
infection at significance of .302. This implies that the reduction
of lack of use of the condom led to an increase in HIV or led to
further HIV infections. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis
was proven right (Selvin, 2004).
References
Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (2014). Statistical analysis with
missing data. John Wiley & Sons.
Selvin, S. (2004). Statistical analysis of epidemiologic data.
Oxford University Press.
WEEK 9 FINAL PROJECT RESULTS
(DIRECTIONS) With your disease in mind, and the instructor
feedback you received on your methods section, conduct the
appropriate statistical analyses using SPSS and review the
output obtained. For this Final Project Assignment, review this
week's Learning Resources. Reflect on the significance of the
results. Be sure to save the code for your statistical analysisand
include it as an appendix with your submission for this week
The Assignment: (1 page of narrative plus charts
and SPSS syntax code)
· Description of the steps you took to conduct your statistical
analyses.
· Summary of your statistical ***
· Narrative description
· Tables and graphs (Be careful – too many tables and graphs
decreases clarity)
· Be sure to include your SPSS codebook as well as the syntax
code used in SPSS to conduct your statistical analyses. The
page length of your code may vary according to the types of
analyses conducted.
PART 4 NARRATIVE PLUS CHARTS
In this study, different statistical analyses for which various
variables are analyzed are significant in determining the
characteristics and the properties of the available data variable
so as to provide the researchers with enough information about
the area of study. According to this study the number of people
infected with HIV is found to be 286 while those found without
were assumed to be 210. The study again had 85 different
observations which lacked the needed variable races. As from
the study 279 males and 221 males took part to ensure that the
needed data was obtained. According to the statistics carried
out, more than 81 people did not give responses about the study.
Again the minimum ages of the participants is observed to be
0.1 while on the other hand the maximum age was observed to
be 85. The study provided the standard deviation of all its
variables in the output section. The P-values of the
autocorrelations of the study were found to be 0.00 and again
this was below the level of importance value which was 0.05
hence the null hypothesis is neglected and identified as less
important. Therefore the study proofed that the autocorrelations
of the entire involved variable are statistically important. Some
of the variables are age and sex which are skewed in nature.
The SPSS output of the statistical analysis of the study is as
shown below:
Output created
Comment
Data
Active Dataset
C:/User/ASHOKK-1?AppData/Local/Temp/7zO
B6FE.tmp/abm.sav
Dataset1
Input
Filter
Weight
Split file
N of Rows in Working Data File
Date
Definition of missing
None
None
None
None
User defined missing values are treated as missing.
Missing Value Handling
The information of the missing data is analyzed using graphs
and table so as to ensure that the study is understandable.
Missing value handling is important as it makes the study
precise hence preserving the data for future use.
RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV?
Dependent Variable: HIV
Independent Variable(s): Condoms
Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use
and HIV
Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom
use and HIV
Statistical Test: Mean, Standard Deviation, andRegression -
Linear
References
Stevens, J. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social
sciences. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Griffith, A. (2007). SPSS for dummies. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Weaver, K. F. (2017). An introduction to statistical analysis in
research: With applications in the biological and life sciences.
WORD FROM PROFESSOR You must run a statistical test.
Some of you have run descriptive statistics, but not a hypothesis
driven test, such as a t test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, or
Chi-Square.
2. Make sure that the test you choose is the best test to answer
your problem statement and test your hypothesis. Running
multiple tests gives the reader (and me) the impression that you
are not sure which test to run. Also, running multiple tests
impacts the validity of your study.
3. Only run graphs that are related to the test you run. Again,
running all of the graphs on all of the variables creates
confusion.
4. Get in the habit of using APA style in your paper.
Presentation of the information is important. Also, you will be
using APA in your dissertation so you might as well learn it
now.
DUE 1162017 10 P.M ESTTHIS IS A 4 PART HIV SPSS PROJECT. ATTAC.docx

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  • 1. DUE 11/6/2017 10 P.M EST THIS IS A 4 PART HIV SPSS PROJECT. ATTACHED IS THE PREVIOUS PARTS. PLEASE READ IT ALL. WHEN YOU GENERATE IT, I’M SURE IT WILL BE A LITTLE DIFFERENT BUT THAT’S O.K.. THE ANALYSIS IS ALSO ATTACHED. For your Final Project submission, you have the opportunity to share the significance of your results in the practice of public health. With your disease and data in mind, integrate instructor and peer feedback you have received throughout the course, in completing your statistical analyses. The Assignment: (7 PAGES) · Section I: Introduction (3 pages) · Brief description of your identified disease · Summary of other studies that directly relate to your identified disease outcome (Note: This is essentially the Literature Review you submitted in Week 6. There is no need to include the Annotated Bibliography as well since it was developed into your Literature Review.) · Statement of the Problem/Research question · Written statements for both your null and alternative/research hypothesis · Brief description of the significance of why this disease is important for examination · · Section II: Methodology (1 page) · Brief description of the study sample · Description of the data gathering methods for your variables of interest · Explanation of the types of statistical analyses you conducted and why · · Section III: Results (2 PAGES) · Description of the steps you took to conduct your statistical
  • 2. analyses · Summary of your statistical findings · Narrative description · Tables and graphs (Be careful—too many tables and graphs decreases clarity) · · Section IV: Conclusions and Discussion (1 PAGE · Explanation of your major results (Be sure to answer your research question.) · If appropriate, report on statistical significance (or not) of your results; including any relationship between your variables of interest. · Social change implications of your results for the population that was sampled from. · Suggestions for future research. · Appendices · SPSS Codebook · Syntax Code (step-by-step instructions of how to run the different analyses) · References Include 4–6 peer-reviewed resources. Be sure to follow APA format. FINAL PROJECT: TOPIC, STATEMENT OF PROBLEM, AND ANNOTATED BIOGRAPHY (DIRECTIONS) As a public health professional, you may research many areas of interest. For example, in studying how economics affects global health, what variables might you consider? In examining these variables, you may consider the significance of why this issue is essential for analysis. For this Assignment, you will explore the Final Project dataset provided in the Course Information tab and select one of the following diseases (dependent variables): H.I.V. You will examine the other (independent) variables available in the dataset. They include demographic variables (i.e., gender, age,
  • 3. race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance, urban residence, and region), clinical risk factors (i.e., BMI and cholesterol), and behavioral risk factors (i.e., alcohol and tobacco consumption, injection drug use, condom use, exercise, and fruit/vegetable intake). You will then develop a problem statement (or research question) related to your disease H.I.V and 1–2 independent variables of your choice. Finally, you will begin to research this disease in the literature. The Assignment: (2 pages) · Provide a brief (e.g., 2-paragraph) background summary of the disease (dependent variable) you have selected from the Final Project dataset. · Identify and provide a brief description of the independent and dependent variables you will consider for your Final Project. · Run and save the Data Dictionary from the Final Project SPSS datafile. Include the output as an appendix to your assignment. · Identify your “Statement of the Problem” (or research question). Be sure your statement or question makes mention of both the independent and dependent variables you are examining. (This will be important for later assignments when you complete statistical analysis using the Final Project dataset.). · Provide an Annotated bibliography which is to include: · Sources: Four recent (less than 3 years old) primary peer- reviewed research articles related to the disease of your paper. Beyond the minimum four primary research articles, you may add additional, high-quality secondary literature (reviews or meta-analyses), and you may use websites if from a scholarly and relevant source (e.g. CDC, NCHS, etc.). Your sources must follow APA formatting. · Annotation: For each research article, include a brief description of the study aim, the methods used, and the major findings. For each non research source, provide a concise description of the relevant key points addressed in the source. Include in the annotation a brief description of how you plan to
  • 4. use each source (e.g. provides statistics for the problem, etc.) **Please include the following header ON THIS and ALL FUTURE Assignments for the Final Project.** One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor keep track of what you are attempting. RQ: Dependent Variable: Independent Variable(s): Null Hypothesis: Alternate Hypothesis: Statistical Test: RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV? Dependent Variable: HIV Independent Variable(s): Condoms Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use and HIV Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom use and HIV Statistical Test: (To be determined in Week 7) _____________________________________________________ ________________________ Introduction According to a study carried out in Mozambique, an estimation of adults between fifteen and forty-nine, 12% were HIV positive. Most studies indicated an increased prevalence of the infection, and new opportunistic infections occurring among fifteen to twenty-four-year olds. Nevertheless, as per Mozambique DHS 1997, the rate of condom use was low among young adults. These citizens are educated on the use of condoms in prevention of HIV and its opportunistic infections, thereby allowing room for informed choices. However, program officials and policymakers lack access to key population data for young adults to assist in development of evaluation strategies and targeted programs according to Dokubo et al.
  • 5. 2014. It is a prerequisite to be informed about HIV and AIDS in recognition of risky behavior, avoidance and changing it, based on the model that reduces the risk, though findings related to the relationship of HIV and condom use have been inconsistent. There is no associationbetween [condom use] and [HIV] with prevalent infection because the recall period of prevention practice was short during the whole study, with a possible reflection of an increased-reporting use, and reduced exposure to the infection among the never-users, resulting from engaging with fewer partners. The Final Project dataset includes a variety of independent and dependent variables. The present study will utilize the following variables: [HIV] as the dependent variable and [condom use] as the independent variable(s). Therefore, this study will examine whether there is an association between [condom use] and [HIV]. Annotated Bibliography 1. Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E., Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV incidence and social and behavioral outcomes (NIMH Project Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomized trial. The lancet global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277. Condom use is also high among those that knew their HIV status through testing but it varied among unmarried partners and couples. The use of protection was high among the unmarried and males than females. Similarly, condom use was high among those who utilized testing and counseling services, but only the unmarried men and women. These differences could be caused by the factors influencing one’s decision to utilize the testing and counseling services. According to Sweat et al., those that obtained the services reported a high risk of unprotected sex with commercial and non-primary partners, and an increase in the use of condoms by 66% upon utilization of the testing and counseling services. In addition, condom use is less likely associated with the use of these services in Mozambique due to their inaccessibility and unavailability. In
  • 6. Africa, sub-Saharan, 90% of those in the reproductive age would utilize the testing services if they were accessible and available. With a high prevalence of HIV infection, it is essential to educate both unmarried and married partners on the infection and the disease, and the use of condoms to prevent the spread, since they are all involved in various sexual relationships, including legal and consensual unions. Furthermore, most people believe that condom use signals mistrust and hence the need to sensitize the importance of protection, including the use of testing and counseling services to increase self-awareness. The study was used to determine the effects of voluntary counseling practiced in communities and HIV testing on its incidence and behavioral and social outcomes through a trial that is cluster-randomized. 2. Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J., Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014). Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one, version 9, number 9, e106760. Other studies reported a null hypothesis between sexual behavior and HIV knowledge. A survey carried out among Rwandan women indicated only a small portion of most who were informed about HIV used protection. In Tanzania, those who knew condom use prevents the spread of HIV had reduced chances of using protection. In Ethiopia, a study among factory workers who were HIV pervasive reported an increased sexual behavior risk and low condom use, though most knew about the advantages of using condoms to prevent the spread of the infection. Based on the Kenyan health survey and demographic data, sexual behavior was risky and very high among women and men who knew their risk was high and a lack of association between sexual behavior and HIV spread knowledge. The various variables that are associated with HIV risk awareness vary from fear and shame of the disease, number of active sexual partners, awareness of your partner’s sexual status or past sexual behaviors, AIDS discussion with family members,
  • 7. religious affiliation, and the community’s perception of AIDS. In the sub-Saharan, sociocultural practices and norms, determine the risk s in sexual behavior. A study among South African partners indicated that women who knew they were at risk of the infection used condoms unlike those who lacked awareness. Students in university in Nigeria and Zimbabwe that used condoms were more informed about the infection than those that did not use protection. In Ghana and Cameroon, youths increased condom use, as they perceived themselves as vulnerable persons. This study examines correct HIV risk assessment associated with the use of condoms among youths or young adults. 3. Friedman, M. R., Stall, R., Plankey, M., Shoptaw, S., Herrick, A. L., Surkan, P. J., ... & Silvestre, A. J. (2017). Stability of Bisexual Behavior and Extent of Viral Bridging Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women. Archives of sexual behavior, 46(4), 903-912. In a recent review study, Joseph and Becker found an interrelationship between the two among homosexuals and heterosexuals, but lacked a solid mechanism evidence of this relationship and concluded that there could be a third factor linking knowledge to sexual behavior. The aim was to assess five hypotheses over viral bridging and bisexual behavior transience. Men who reported to have (n = 111) female and male sexual partners were grouped as bisexual behaviorally through the Cohort study of the Multicenter AIDS. This source will be used to determine the bisexual behavior in males with both female and male sexual partners. 4. Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and public health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7. The results on the association between HIV/AIDS and condom use are mixed and not clearly understood. Some authors and researchers have concluded positive associations, while others have found no association among various population subgroups. A set of questions, for example, “how can someone become infected?”, were used to measure the level of awareness about
  • 8. AIDS, HIV transmission, and the accuracy of feedback about the disease. In this study own risk assessment accuracy is predicted, based on the past and present sexual behavior. Young men more than women who thought were at low risk were in reality at high or moderate risk of contracting the infection, and lacked the knowhow of their risk assessment. This difference is caused by women being unable to apply that knowledge in their risk assessment upon sexual intercourse and they were reluctant to report that self-assessment risk than men. Existing literature indicates mixed results in the relationship between sexual behavior and risk perception. In this case, behavioral and demographic variables were used to determine condom use, and if there is a positive association between condom use and education, except among higher educated women. 5. Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood, C., & Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian street youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3), 254-268. In Zambia on the other hand, Magnani et al. deduced an association between HIV knowledge with reduced or lack of sexual experience and increased condom use among men and boys. Demographic and health survey model used in Kenya, Zambia, and Uganda indicated that awareness of someone’s HIV status led to protective sex, most people were knowledgeable of condom use in HIV prevention, and most had correct beliefs about AIDS patients. These authors inferred that someone knowing of another person’s death out of the infection- increased awareness of the causes and results, which led to an increase in condom, use, hence safe sex. The source was used to know the risk factors for HIV among Zambian street youths. References Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E., Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV incidence and social and behavioural outcomes (NIMH Project
  • 9. Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomised trial. The lancet global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277. Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J., Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014). Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one, version 9, number 9, e106760. Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and public health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7. Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood, C., & Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian street youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3), 254-268. WEEK 6: FINAL PROJECT: LITERATURE REVIEW, HYPOTHESIS AND SIGNIFICANCE (DIRECTIONS) With your Final Project disease in mind, consider other related studies in the literature, reflect on how to develop a hypothesis and consider the significance of the issue you are exploring for your Final Project. The Assignment: 2 PAGES · Provide a summary of other studies that directly relate to your identified disease. Be sure to refer back to the sources used for your annotated bibliography in week 4. · Considering the feedback you received on your week 4 assignment, restate your “Statement of the Problem” (or research question). · Identify both your null and alternative/research hypothesis. · Provide a brief description of the significance of why this issue is important for examination. RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV? Dependent Variable: HIV Independent Variable(s): Condoms
  • 10. Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use and HIV Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom use and HIV Statistical Test: (To be determined in Week 7) Summary of Sources According to Coates et al. (2014), most people believe that condom use signals mistrust and hence the need to sensitize the importance of protection, including the use of testing and counseling services to increase self-awareness. This study determined that effects of voluntary counseling practiced in communities and HIV testing on its incidence and behavioral and social outcomes through a trial that is cluster-randomized which puts it directly related the current study. Specifically, the study found that condom use is less likely associated with the use of these services in Mozambique due to their inaccessibility and unavailability. In Africa, sub-Saharan, 90% of those in the reproductive age would utilize the testing services if they were accessible and available. Additionally, Dokubo et al. (2014) is another study specifically important to the current study. The authors found that Rwandan women indicated only a small portion of most who were informed about HIV used protection. They also found that in Tanzania, those who knew condom use prevents the spread of HIV had reduced chances of using protection. In Ethiopia, a study among factory workers who were HIV pervasive reported an increased sexual behavior risk and low condom use, though most knew about the advantages of using condoms to prevent the spread of the infection. Based on the Kenyan health survey and demographic data, sexual behavior was risky and very high among women and men who knew their risk was high and a lack of association between sexual behavior and HIV spread knowledge. Friedman et al., (2017) investigated the interrelationship between the two among homosexuals and heterosexuals and found that it lacked a solid mechanism evidence of this
  • 11. relationship and concluded that there could be a third factor linking knowledge to sexual behavior. The source proved crucial in determining the bisexual behavior in males with both female and male sexual partners. Katikiro and Njau (2011) found concluded positive associations on the association between HIV/AIDS and condom. This difference is caused by women being unable to apply that knowledge in their risk assessment upon sexual intercourse and they were reluctant to report that self-assessment risk than men. Close to that, Tyler et al. (2016) established that health survey model used in Kenya, Zambia, and Uganda indicated that awareness of someone’s HIV status led to protective sex, most people were knowledgeable of condom use in HIV prevention, and most had corrected beliefs about AIDS patients. Statement of the Problem It is a prerequisite to be informed about HIV and AIDS in recognition of risky behavior, avoidance and changing it, based on the model that reduces the risk, though findings related to the relationship of HIV and condom use have been inconsistent. There is no associationbetween [condom use] and [HIV] with prevalent infection because the recall period of prevention practice was short during the whole study, with a possible reflection of an increased-reporting use, and reduced exposure to the infection among the never-users, resulting from engaging with fewer partners. The Final Project dataset includes a variety of independent and dependent variables. The present study will utilize the following variables: [HIV] as the dependent variable and [condom use] as the independent variable(s). Therefore, this study will examine whether there is an association between [condom use] and [HIV]. Significance of the Study The importance of investigating the HIV scourge is ultimately to help save lives. A lot of studies have been done all over the world regarding the disease. However, the use of condoms and the relationship that it has on the disease as a whole has not received as much attention because most people assume that it
  • 12. prevents the disease and that is all there is about it. The study will be important to scholars in that field in providing empirical results on the use of condoms. It will also be useful for governments in the world in making policies that are related to the HIV. References Coates, T. J., Kulich, M., Celentano, D. D., Zelaya, C. E., Chariyalertsak, S., Chingono, A., ... & Sweat, M. (2014). Effect of community-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV incidence and social and behavioural outcomes (NIMH Project Accept; HPTN 043): a cluster-randomised trial. The lancet global health, version 2, number 5, e267-e277. Dokubo, E. K., Shiraishi, R. W., Young, P. W., Neal, J. J., Aberle-Grasse, J., Honwana, N., & Mbofana, F. (2014). Awareness of HIV status, prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV in Mozambique. Plos one, version 9, number 9, e106760. Katikiro, E., & Njau, B. Global journal of medicine and public health. age, version 4, edition 6. Pp. 7. Tyler, K. A., Handema, R., Schmitz, R. M., Phiri, F., Wood, C., & Olson, K. (2016). Risk factors for HIV among Zambian street youth. Journal of HIV/AIDS & social services, 15(3), 254-268. PART 3 METHODS RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV? Dependent Variable: HIV Independent Variable(s): Condoms Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use and HIV Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom use and HIV Statistical Test: Mean, Standard Deviation, andRegression - Linear WEEK 7 FINAL PROJECT: METHODS (DIRECTIONS) For this Assignment, consider the data
  • 13. gathering method(s) that would be necessary to examine your statement of the problem (research question) as well as the statistical analyses required to test your null hypothesis. Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the types of statistical analyses you may use to explore the variables of interest for your Final Project. The Assignment (1 page) · Methods · Brief description of possible study participants* · Description of the possible data gathering methods* · Explanation of the types of statistical analyses you will conduct and why (Be sure to include an explanation of how your variables of interest helped determine the appropriate analyses.) Methods Study sample The population for this study was made up of 280 patients diagnosed with HIV at John Kennedy Hospital between the years 2015 and 2016. Staging of the disease would be determined by the following criteria. Firstly, the patient must have been diagnosed with the illness after 2015 and be above 21 years of age. They must also have been able to lender consent for the study to be done on them. The patients would be excluded from the study if they did not meet the minimum age, and were not in a position to communicate their consent to the researchers. A majority of the cases were male (52.5%) with a mean age was (41.5 ±). The standard deviation was 14 for the ages within the cohort. Further, the HIV infection spread amongst the cohort was at 41.8% which means the rest of the cohort had a single strain of HIV in their blood stream as opposed to many. Further, it was established that 68.6% of the patients had used condoms which prevented further infection. Data collection
  • 14. The collection of data was through the medical files provided by the institution. All that was needed was the blood results showing the number if HIV infections in the blood as well as the sputum samples. These documents were used to compare patients who used a condom after being diagnosed and those that did not. It was hoped that the data would answer the question as to whether the condom use affected the rate of further infection in HIV patients (Little & Rubin, 2014). Statistical analyses In describing the sample, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the age and gender of the cohort. From there, the use of condoms and HIV infection were analyzed through regression process to establish if there was significance. The dependent variable was HIV while the independent was the use of condoms. From the results tabled in the attached output, use of condom was negatively and significantly related to HIV infection at significance of .302. This implies that the reduction of lack of use of the condom led to an increase in HIV or led to further HIV infections. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis was proven right (Selvin, 2004). References Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (2014). Statistical analysis with missing data. John Wiley & Sons. Selvin, S. (2004). Statistical analysis of epidemiologic data. Oxford University Press. WEEK 9 FINAL PROJECT RESULTS (DIRECTIONS) With your disease in mind, and the instructor feedback you received on your methods section, conduct the appropriate statistical analyses using SPSS and review the output obtained. For this Final Project Assignment, review this week's Learning Resources. Reflect on the significance of the results. Be sure to save the code for your statistical analysisand include it as an appendix with your submission for this week
  • 15. The Assignment: (1 page of narrative plus charts and SPSS syntax code) · Description of the steps you took to conduct your statistical analyses. · Summary of your statistical *** · Narrative description · Tables and graphs (Be careful – too many tables and graphs decreases clarity) · Be sure to include your SPSS codebook as well as the syntax code used in SPSS to conduct your statistical analyses. The page length of your code may vary according to the types of analyses conducted. PART 4 NARRATIVE PLUS CHARTS In this study, different statistical analyses for which various variables are analyzed are significant in determining the characteristics and the properties of the available data variable so as to provide the researchers with enough information about the area of study. According to this study the number of people infected with HIV is found to be 286 while those found without were assumed to be 210. The study again had 85 different observations which lacked the needed variable races. As from the study 279 males and 221 males took part to ensure that the needed data was obtained. According to the statistics carried out, more than 81 people did not give responses about the study. Again the minimum ages of the participants is observed to be 0.1 while on the other hand the maximum age was observed to be 85. The study provided the standard deviation of all its variables in the output section. The P-values of the autocorrelations of the study were found to be 0.00 and again this was below the level of importance value which was 0.05 hence the null hypothesis is neglected and identified as less important. Therefore the study proofed that the autocorrelations of the entire involved variable are statistically important. Some of the variables are age and sex which are skewed in nature. The SPSS output of the statistical analysis of the study is as
  • 16. shown below: Output created Comment Data Active Dataset C:/User/ASHOKK-1?AppData/Local/Temp/7zO B6FE.tmp/abm.sav Dataset1 Input Filter Weight Split file N of Rows in Working Data File Date Definition of missing None None None None User defined missing values are treated as missing. Missing Value Handling The information of the missing data is analyzed using graphs and table so as to ensure that the study is understandable. Missing value handling is important as it makes the study precise hence preserving the data for future use. RQ: Is there an association between condom use and HIV? Dependent Variable: HIV Independent Variable(s): Condoms
  • 17. Null Hypothesis: There is no associationbetween condom use and HIV Alternate Hypothesis: There is an associationbetween condom use and HIV Statistical Test: Mean, Standard Deviation, andRegression - Linear References Stevens, J. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Griffith, A. (2007). SPSS for dummies. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Weaver, K. F. (2017). An introduction to statistical analysis in research: With applications in the biological and life sciences. WORD FROM PROFESSOR You must run a statistical test. Some of you have run descriptive statistics, but not a hypothesis driven test, such as a t test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, or Chi-Square. 2. Make sure that the test you choose is the best test to answer your problem statement and test your hypothesis. Running multiple tests gives the reader (and me) the impression that you are not sure which test to run. Also, running multiple tests impacts the validity of your study. 3. Only run graphs that are related to the test you run. Again, running all of the graphs on all of the variables creates confusion. 4. Get in the habit of using APA style in your paper. Presentation of the information is important. Also, you will be using APA in your dissertation so you might as well learn it now.