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Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences
General Academic Strand | Humanities and Social Sciences
Lesson 1.2
Disciplines in the Social
Sciences
The social
sciences help us
understand
what is
happening
around us.
2
Learning
Competencies
3
● Compare and contrast the various social
science disciplines and their fields, main
areas of inquiry, and methods
(HUMSS_DIS11- IIIb-d-3).
● Trace the historical foundations and social
contexts that led to the development of each
discipline (HUMSS_DIS11- IIId-4).
Learning
Objectives
4
● Compare and contrast the different
disciplines of social science.
● Explain the historical development and social
context of each social science discipline.
● Identify the importance and practical
applications of each social science discipline.
● Explain the interconnectivity among the
different fields of social science.
Explore
5
Word Finder
1. Recall what the social sciences are about.
2. Based on that, find five words related to the topics in
each social science.
3. The words may be found across, downwards, or
diagonally.
Explore
6
Word Finder
A N I M A L H A R M
H P L I N T E F C A
E O L E L P R O U C
B E H A V I O R L H
R T E A C H A C T I
A W A T H E R E U N
W H V E R B S S R E
L A N G U A G E E S
Essential
Question
7
How are the various disciplines of social
science interconnected?
8
Disciplines in the Social Sciences
● human mind and behavior
● societies or communities
Each discipline
studies a
particular
aspect of
society.
9
Sociology
What is sociology about?
Sociology
studies society
and human
relationships.
10
Sociology
Important Figures and Ideas
Auguste Comte
● the father of sociology
● introduced positivism
Sociology
Important Figures and Ideas
Herbert Spencer
one of the pioneers of Social
Darwinism
"survival of the fittest,"
11
12
Sociology
Important Figures and Ideas
● Max Weber
● Karl Marx
● Harriet Martineau
Karl Marx
Max Weber
Harriet Martineau
13
Sociology
Sociology in our lives
● social change
● solutions to societal problems
14
Demography
Demography
studies
populations
statistically.
What is demography about?
15
Demography
Demography also studies. . .
● birth and death rates
● migration and emigration
● life expectancy
16
Demography
Important Figures and Ideas
John Graunt
● founder of demography
● created the life table
17
Demography
Important Figures and Ideas
Benjamin Franklin
examined population growth
18
Demography
Important Figures and Ideas
Thomas Malthus
● influenced by Franklin
● analyzed population and
economic growth
19
Demography
Demography in our lives
● census conducted by the national
government
● other methods:
- migration models
- rate construction
- population projection
20
Anthropology
What is anthropology about?
Anthropology
studies human
culture and
evolution.
21
Anthropology
Important Figures and Ideas
Charles Darwin
theory of evolution
Out of Africa
spread of Homo sapiens from
Africa
22
Anthropology
Biological Anthropology
● human evolution
● physical features of human
beings
● biological evidence
23
Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
● culture
● ethnographic method
24
Anthropology
Archaeology
● relics from the past
● figuring out the story of a culture
in the past
25
Anthropology
Anthropology at present
● overlapping with the natural and
social sciences
● studied in combination with
linguistics, genetics
26
Psychology
What is psychology about?
Psychology
investigates
the human
mind and
behavior.
27
Psychology
Important Figures and Ideas
Wilhelm Wundt
experimental psychology
William James
● pragmatism
● functionalism Wilhelm Wundt
William James
28
Psychology
Important Figures and Ideas
John Watson
Watsonian behaviorism
B. F. Skinner
operant and classical
conditioning
John Watson
B. F. Skinner
29
Psychology
Important Figures and Ideas
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis: the conscious
and unconscious parts of the
mind
30
Psychology
Important Figures and Ideas
● objections to behaviorism
● objections to psychoanalysis
31
Psychology
Psychology in our lives
● contributions of neuroscience
● importance of cognitive science
Check
Your
Progress
32
How did sociology, demography, anthropology,
and psychology develop through time?
33
Geography
What is geography about?
● physical characteristics of the
earth
● how an area affects human
societies and vice versa
34
Geography
Important Figures and Ideas
● Eratosthenes and the term
geographia
● compass made by the Chinese
(10th century)
35
Geography
Important Figures and Ideas
● mapmaking among early Islamic
scholars
● Marco Polo’s journey (13th
century)
36
Geography
Human Geography
● distribution of people around the
world
● effects of geography on people
and vice versa
37
Geography
Physical Geography
● natural and environmental
systems
● waters and landforms
● climate and environment
38
Geography
Geography in our lives
● geography and economics
● geography and politics
39
Linguistics
What is linguistics about?
● structure of language
● meanings expressed in language
Linguistics
studies the
different
aspects of
language.
40
Linguistics
What is linguistics about?
● changes in language
● how language is used
41
Linguistics
What is linguistics about?
Approaches in linguistics
● synchronic or diachronic
● applied or theoretical
● microlinguistics or
macrolinguistics
42
Linguistics
Important Figures and Ideas
● Neogrammarians
● Ferdinand de Saussure and
Structuralism
● Noam Chomsky and universal
grammar
Noam Chomsky
Ferdinand de
Saussure
Check
Your
Progress
43
How do geography and linguistics help in
investigating aspects of society?
44
History
History studies
past events
and their
causes and
effects.
What is history about?
45
History
What is history about?
● obtaining the truth
● evidence from letters or
expositions from witnesses
46
History
Historiography
● the writing of history
● can be seen in cuneiform and
hieroglyphics
47
History
Important Figures and Ideas
Herodotus
● The father of history
● Ancient Greece, Egypt, Asia
48
History
History in our lives
● increased historical awareness
● more rational decisions
49
Economics
Economics is
about how
wealth is used
and managed.
What is economics about?
50
Economics
Important Figures and
Ideas
● David Ricardo: laissez-faire
● John Stuart Mill:
utilitarianism
John Stuart Mill
David Ricardo
51
Economics
Important Figures and Ideas
● Adam Smith: free markets
● Karl Marx: critic of capitalism
Karl Marx
Adam Smith
52
Economics
Economics in our lives
● addressing scarcity
● improving overall economic
welfare
Check
Your
Progress
53
What roles do history and economics play in
the development of individuals and societies?
Try This!
Identify the social science discipline that can be
associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters
in the boxes.
54
1. culture, evolution, fossils
1. places, environment, landforms
Try This!
Identify the social science discipline that can be
associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters
in the boxes.
55
3. wealth, resources, management
4. behavior, knowledge, memory
Try This!
Identify the social science discipline that can be
associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters
in the boxes.
56
5. birth, migration, fertility
Wrap-Up
● Each discipline or subfield of the social sciences is a
specialized study of a particular aspect of human
society.
● Sociology is concerned with the study of society
and the different facets of human social
relationships.
● Demography is defined as the statistical analysis of
populations.
● Anthropology aims to study humans’ culture and
evolution.
57
Wrap-Up
● Psychology is the branch of social science that
examines different mental states and behaviors.
● Geography is the study of the earth’s physical
properties and the distribution of human societies
and other elements across it.
58
Wrap-Up
● Linguistics is referred to as the systematic study of
language.
● History studies past events and their causes and
effects.
● Economics looks into how wealth is produced,
distributed, and consumed.
59
Wrap-Up
60
61
Challenge
Yourself
What are the factors and events that led to the
emergence of the different disciplines of social
science? Cite at least two specific examples.
Photo Credit
62
Slide 3: Protest Rally at UP Diliman Condemning Negros Killings by Ryomaandres is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via
Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 19: Thomas Robert Malthus Wellcome L0069037 -crop by John Linnell (painter) is licensed under CC BY 4.0 via
Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 21: Women in traditional Manobo dress (Kaamulan Festival 2017, Bukidnon, Philippines) by Constantine Agustin is
licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 24: Bagobo woman by Shubert Ciencia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 25: Manunggul Jar by Philip Maise is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Photo Credit
63
Slide 26: 201812 DNA double-strand A by DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS) is licensed under CC BY 4.0 via
Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 29: B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950 by Silly rabbit is licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 43: Ferdinand de Saussure by Jullien Restored by "F. Jullien Genève", maybe Frank-Henri Jullien (1882–1938) is
licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 43: Noam Chomsky portrait 2015 by Augusto Starita / Ministerio de Cultura de la Nación is licensed under CC BY-
SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Slide 47: Minnakht 01 by Clio20 is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
Bibliography
Blaug, Mark. “Economics.” Encyclopædia Britannica. October 23, 2020.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/economics#ref38849.
Chandler, Daniel. “Semiotics for Beginners. Princeton University. Last modified August 1, 2019.
https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~chazelle/courses/BIB/semio2.htm.
Dick, Bob. “Reflections on the SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research and what it says about action research and its
methodologies.” 2015. Action Research. 13. 431-444. 10.1177/1476750315573593.
Dorman, Peter F. “Hierogylphic writing.” Encyclopædia Britannica. March 21, 2019.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/hieroglyphic-writing#ref53614.
Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Social Darwinism.” Encyclopædia Britannica. October 2, 2019.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-Darwinism.
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65
Hawkins, Mike. “Postscript: Social Darwinism old and new: the case of sociobiology.” In Social Darwinism in European and
American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as model and nature as threat, 292-311. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1997.
Holdcroft, David. “Structuralism in Linguistics.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Accessed November 4, 2020.
https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/structuralism-in-linguistics/v-1.
“Homo Sapiens: Out of Africa.” BBC World Service. Accessed November 4, 2020.
https://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/2chapter2.shtml#:~:text=The%20first%20theor
y%2C%20known%20as,are%20ultimately%20of%20African%20descent.
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Hudis, Peter. “Marx’s Concept of Socialism.” In The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, edited by
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“Kaamulan Festival.” Provincial Government of Bukidnon. November 20, 2012.
https://bukidnon.gov.ph/2012/11/20/kaamulan-festival/.
Kagan, Jerome. The Three Cultures: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Humanities in the 21st Century. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Kihlstrom, John F. “Critique of Psychoanalysis.” Open Computing Facility at the University of
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Bibliography
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Bibliography
68
Nisbet, Robert A. “Social Science.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Oct. 16, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-
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DIS 11_12 Q3 0102 PS.pptx

  • 1. Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences General Academic Strand | Humanities and Social Sciences Lesson 1.2 Disciplines in the Social Sciences
  • 2. The social sciences help us understand what is happening around us. 2
  • 3. Learning Competencies 3 ● Compare and contrast the various social science disciplines and their fields, main areas of inquiry, and methods (HUMSS_DIS11- IIIb-d-3). ● Trace the historical foundations and social contexts that led to the development of each discipline (HUMSS_DIS11- IIId-4).
  • 4. Learning Objectives 4 ● Compare and contrast the different disciplines of social science. ● Explain the historical development and social context of each social science discipline. ● Identify the importance and practical applications of each social science discipline. ● Explain the interconnectivity among the different fields of social science.
  • 5. Explore 5 Word Finder 1. Recall what the social sciences are about. 2. Based on that, find five words related to the topics in each social science. 3. The words may be found across, downwards, or diagonally.
  • 6. Explore 6 Word Finder A N I M A L H A R M H P L I N T E F C A E O L E L P R O U C B E H A V I O R L H R T E A C H A C T I A W A T H E R E U N W H V E R B S S R E L A N G U A G E E S
  • 7. Essential Question 7 How are the various disciplines of social science interconnected?
  • 8. 8 Disciplines in the Social Sciences ● human mind and behavior ● societies or communities Each discipline studies a particular aspect of society.
  • 9. 9 Sociology What is sociology about? Sociology studies society and human relationships.
  • 10. 10 Sociology Important Figures and Ideas Auguste Comte ● the father of sociology ● introduced positivism
  • 11. Sociology Important Figures and Ideas Herbert Spencer one of the pioneers of Social Darwinism "survival of the fittest," 11
  • 12. 12 Sociology Important Figures and Ideas ● Max Weber ● Karl Marx ● Harriet Martineau Karl Marx Max Weber Harriet Martineau
  • 13. 13 Sociology Sociology in our lives ● social change ● solutions to societal problems
  • 15. 15 Demography Demography also studies. . . ● birth and death rates ● migration and emigration ● life expectancy
  • 16. 16 Demography Important Figures and Ideas John Graunt ● founder of demography ● created the life table
  • 17. 17 Demography Important Figures and Ideas Benjamin Franklin examined population growth
  • 18. 18 Demography Important Figures and Ideas Thomas Malthus ● influenced by Franklin ● analyzed population and economic growth
  • 19. 19 Demography Demography in our lives ● census conducted by the national government ● other methods: - migration models - rate construction - population projection
  • 20. 20 Anthropology What is anthropology about? Anthropology studies human culture and evolution.
  • 21. 21 Anthropology Important Figures and Ideas Charles Darwin theory of evolution Out of Africa spread of Homo sapiens from Africa
  • 22. 22 Anthropology Biological Anthropology ● human evolution ● physical features of human beings ● biological evidence
  • 24. 24 Anthropology Archaeology ● relics from the past ● figuring out the story of a culture in the past
  • 25. 25 Anthropology Anthropology at present ● overlapping with the natural and social sciences ● studied in combination with linguistics, genetics
  • 26. 26 Psychology What is psychology about? Psychology investigates the human mind and behavior.
  • 27. 27 Psychology Important Figures and Ideas Wilhelm Wundt experimental psychology William James ● pragmatism ● functionalism Wilhelm Wundt William James
  • 28. 28 Psychology Important Figures and Ideas John Watson Watsonian behaviorism B. F. Skinner operant and classical conditioning John Watson B. F. Skinner
  • 29. 29 Psychology Important Figures and Ideas Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis: the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind
  • 30. 30 Psychology Important Figures and Ideas ● objections to behaviorism ● objections to psychoanalysis
  • 31. 31 Psychology Psychology in our lives ● contributions of neuroscience ● importance of cognitive science
  • 32. Check Your Progress 32 How did sociology, demography, anthropology, and psychology develop through time?
  • 33. 33 Geography What is geography about? ● physical characteristics of the earth ● how an area affects human societies and vice versa
  • 34. 34 Geography Important Figures and Ideas ● Eratosthenes and the term geographia ● compass made by the Chinese (10th century)
  • 35. 35 Geography Important Figures and Ideas ● mapmaking among early Islamic scholars ● Marco Polo’s journey (13th century)
  • 36. 36 Geography Human Geography ● distribution of people around the world ● effects of geography on people and vice versa
  • 37. 37 Geography Physical Geography ● natural and environmental systems ● waters and landforms ● climate and environment
  • 38. 38 Geography Geography in our lives ● geography and economics ● geography and politics
  • 39. 39 Linguistics What is linguistics about? ● structure of language ● meanings expressed in language Linguistics studies the different aspects of language.
  • 40. 40 Linguistics What is linguistics about? ● changes in language ● how language is used
  • 41. 41 Linguistics What is linguistics about? Approaches in linguistics ● synchronic or diachronic ● applied or theoretical ● microlinguistics or macrolinguistics
  • 42. 42 Linguistics Important Figures and Ideas ● Neogrammarians ● Ferdinand de Saussure and Structuralism ● Noam Chomsky and universal grammar Noam Chomsky Ferdinand de Saussure
  • 43. Check Your Progress 43 How do geography and linguistics help in investigating aspects of society?
  • 44. 44 History History studies past events and their causes and effects. What is history about?
  • 45. 45 History What is history about? ● obtaining the truth ● evidence from letters or expositions from witnesses
  • 46. 46 History Historiography ● the writing of history ● can be seen in cuneiform and hieroglyphics
  • 47. 47 History Important Figures and Ideas Herodotus ● The father of history ● Ancient Greece, Egypt, Asia
  • 48. 48 History History in our lives ● increased historical awareness ● more rational decisions
  • 49. 49 Economics Economics is about how wealth is used and managed. What is economics about?
  • 50. 50 Economics Important Figures and Ideas ● David Ricardo: laissez-faire ● John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism John Stuart Mill David Ricardo
  • 51. 51 Economics Important Figures and Ideas ● Adam Smith: free markets ● Karl Marx: critic of capitalism Karl Marx Adam Smith
  • 52. 52 Economics Economics in our lives ● addressing scarcity ● improving overall economic welfare
  • 53. Check Your Progress 53 What roles do history and economics play in the development of individuals and societies?
  • 54. Try This! Identify the social science discipline that can be associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters in the boxes. 54 1. culture, evolution, fossils 1. places, environment, landforms
  • 55. Try This! Identify the social science discipline that can be associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters in the boxes. 55 3. wealth, resources, management 4. behavior, knowledge, memory
  • 56. Try This! Identify the social science discipline that can be associated with the concepts listed. Write the letters in the boxes. 56 5. birth, migration, fertility
  • 57. Wrap-Up ● Each discipline or subfield of the social sciences is a specialized study of a particular aspect of human society. ● Sociology is concerned with the study of society and the different facets of human social relationships. ● Demography is defined as the statistical analysis of populations. ● Anthropology aims to study humans’ culture and evolution. 57
  • 58. Wrap-Up ● Psychology is the branch of social science that examines different mental states and behaviors. ● Geography is the study of the earth’s physical properties and the distribution of human societies and other elements across it. 58
  • 59. Wrap-Up ● Linguistics is referred to as the systematic study of language. ● History studies past events and their causes and effects. ● Economics looks into how wealth is produced, distributed, and consumed. 59
  • 61. 61 Challenge Yourself What are the factors and events that led to the emergence of the different disciplines of social science? Cite at least two specific examples.
  • 62. Photo Credit 62 Slide 3: Protest Rally at UP Diliman Condemning Negros Killings by Ryomaandres is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 19: Thomas Robert Malthus Wellcome L0069037 -crop by John Linnell (painter) is licensed under CC BY 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 21: Women in traditional Manobo dress (Kaamulan Festival 2017, Bukidnon, Philippines) by Constantine Agustin is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 24: Bagobo woman by Shubert Ciencia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 25: Manunggul Jar by Philip Maise is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
  • 63. Photo Credit 63 Slide 26: 201812 DNA double-strand A by DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS) is licensed under CC BY 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 29: B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950 by Silly rabbit is licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 43: Ferdinand de Saussure by Jullien Restored by "F. Jullien Genève", maybe Frank-Henri Jullien (1882–1938) is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 43: Noam Chomsky portrait 2015 by Augusto Starita / Ministerio de Cultura de la Nación is licensed under CC BY- SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Slide 47: Minnakht 01 by Clio20 is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
  • 64. Bibliography Blaug, Mark. “Economics.” Encyclopædia Britannica. October 23, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/economics#ref38849. Chandler, Daniel. “Semiotics for Beginners. Princeton University. Last modified August 1, 2019. https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~chazelle/courses/BIB/semio2.htm. Dick, Bob. “Reflections on the SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research and what it says about action research and its methodologies.” 2015. Action Research. 13. 431-444. 10.1177/1476750315573593. Dorman, Peter F. “Hierogylphic writing.” Encyclopædia Britannica. March 21, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/topic/hieroglyphic-writing#ref53614. Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Social Darwinism.” Encyclopædia Britannica. October 2, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-Darwinism. 64
  • 65. Bibliography 65 Hawkins, Mike. “Postscript: Social Darwinism old and new: the case of sociobiology.” In Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as model and nature as threat, 292-311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Holdcroft, David. “Structuralism in Linguistics.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/structuralism-in-linguistics/v-1. “Homo Sapiens: Out of Africa.” BBC World Service. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/2chapter2.shtml#:~:text=The%20first%20theor y%2C%20known%20as,are%20ultimately%20of%20African%20descent.
  • 66. Bibliography 66 Hudis, Peter. “Marx’s Concept of Socialism.” In The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, edited by Vidal, Matt, Tony Smith, Tomás Rotta, and Paul Prew, 1-17. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190695545.001.0001/oxfordhb- 9780190695545-e-50?print=pdf. “Kaamulan Festival.” Provincial Government of Bukidnon. November 20, 2012. https://bukidnon.gov.ph/2012/11/20/kaamulan-festival/. Kagan, Jerome. The Three Cultures: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Humanities in the 21st Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Kihlstrom, John F. “Critique of Psychoanalysis.” Open Computing Facility at the University of California, Berkeley. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~jfkihlstrom/PersonalityWeb/Ch8CritiquePsychoanalysis.htm.
  • 67. Bibliography 67 Kim, Eric. “Differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning.” Lane Community College. December 28, 2018. https://media.lanecc.edu/users/kime/Psy202learningC.pdf. Macionis, John J. Sociology, 16th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2017. Macionis, John J., and Linda M. Gerber. Sociology, 5th Canadian ed. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2003. Murphy, Alexander. “Geography.” nationalgeographic.org. National Geographic. Last accessed October 10, 2020. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/geography/.
  • 68. Bibliography 68 Nisbet, Robert A. “Social Science.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Oct. 16, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/social- science. “Participant Observation,” Sage Publications. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/48454_ch_3.pdf. “Pragmatism.” The SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research. Edited by David Coghlan and Mary Brydon-Miller. SAGE Publications, 2014. https://methods.sagepub.com/reference/sage-encyc-qualitative-research-methods/n336.xml. Stolley, Kathy S. The Basics of Sociology. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2005. Trubek, Anne. “What the Heck is Cuneiform, Anyway?” Smithsonian Magazine. October 20, 2015. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/what-heck-cuneiform-anyway-180956999/.

Editor's Notes

  1. Answer Key: behavior (across), culture (down), places (diagonal), language (across), wealth (diagonal)
  2. Positivism, as formulated by Auguste Comte, is a philosophical and scientific approach that emphasizes the importance of empirical observation and the scientific method in understanding the world. Comte believed that knowledge should be based on observable facts and phenomena rather than speculation or metaphysics. He argued for a rigorous application of the scientific method to all areas of inquiry, including sociology.
  3. "survival of the fittest,"
  4. s marked by class conflict between the bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (the working class). Martineau's examination of social inequality.
  5. For the answer key, please refer to the Answer Key of the study guide provided in the Teacher's Content.
  6. For the answer key, please refer to the Answer Key of the study guide provided in the Teacher's Content.
  7. For the answer key, please refer to the Answer Key of the study guide provided in the Teacher's Content.
  8. For the suggested rubric, please refer to the study guide.