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Unit 1
Introduction: The Understanding of
Culture, Society, and Politics
Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics
3
LEARNING TARGET
At the end of this unit, you should be able to
articulate observations on human cultural
variation, social differences, social change, and
political identities.
4
VALUES AND ATTITUDES
● Appreciate the diversity that exists among individuals and groups.
● Comprehend differences with an open mind.
● Treat others with kindness and love.
In this unit, the learners should be able to do the
following:
5
Social Media and
Society
CONTEMPORARY EXPERIENCE
6
UNIT STIMULUS
Society
7
What constitutes a
society?
CENTRAL QUESTION
8
Cultural Variations and Social
Differences in Gender
Lesson 1
Unit 1| Introduction: The Understanding of Culture,
Society, and Politics
Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics
Act It Out
9
Demonstrate through role-
playing how each gender might
act, react, or perform in a given
task or situation.
Show creativity and critical
thinking by presenting the issues,
dynamics, and perspectives in
each scenario.
Use any of the following scenario or situation:
● cleaning the house
● working as a professional
● taking care of the children
● acting as the head of the family
● caring for the elderly member of the family
● participating in politics
Act It Out
10
1. What were your considerations in depicting the role of each gender?
2. In your opinion, how does society affect gender?
3. What are the positive and negative effects of society's expectations
toward gender?
Activation
11
Act It Out
The Difference Between Sex and Gender
Sex
Gender
Insert illustration here
12
13
Two Main Categories of Sex
Female
Male
14
Gender Roles
● Culturally-assigned tasks and
activities to sexes
● Social constructs
○ Examples:
■ Only males can handle
physically demanding
activities.
■ Females should
handle domestic
tasks.
Sex-Gender Systems
15
Gender and gender roles are
associated with one’s biological sex.
However, the constructs of gender
and gender roles are challenged in
contemporary and modern societies.
16
Culture, Society, and Gender
Culture is largely involved in
defining gender in societies.
17
Culture, Society, and Gender
Gender is more malleable and
changing across societies.
18
Culture, Society, and Gender
As culture dictates appropriate
characteristics for each gender,
society propagates these
definitions and characteristics.
LGBT and Feminist Movements and
Gender Equality
19
20
What Is Gender
Equality?
PERSPECTIVE-AT-WORK
Stoplight
STOP START
CONTINUE
21
22
PHOTO CREDITS
Slide 5: Tick Tock Tiktok Tree Structure Networks Internet by Gerd Altmann is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 9: Women Men People Human Gender by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay
license via Pixabay.
Slides 12, 13 and 15: Male Female Gender Sign by Venita Oberholster is free for commercial use under the Pixabay
license via Pixabay.
Slide 12: Gender Transsexual Communication Talk by Gerd Altmann is free for commercial use under the Pixabay
license via Pixabay.
Slide 14: Boy Cartoon Comic Comic Characters Dad by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 14: Mom Daughter Teach Child Mother And Son by André Santana AndreMS is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 15: Father Son Silhouette Boy Child Family Human by Gordon Johnson is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
23
PHOTO CREDITS
Slide 15: Office Young Woman Manager Woman Work Beautiful by Alexey Marcov is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 16: People Hunter Energy Hunting Cultivation Island Device by RoadLight is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 17: Woman Technician Work Worker Lady Plans Helm by GraphicMama team is free for commercial use under
the Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 18: Association Community Group Meeting People by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 18: Association Community Group Meeting People by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the
Pixabay license via Pixabay.
24
PHOTO CREDITS
Slide 19: Emancipation Eurythmics Feminism Muscle Energy by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under
the Pixabay license via Pixabay.
Slide 19: Lgbt Lesbian Gay Trans Rainbow by Maicon Fonseca Zanco is free for commercial use under the Pixabay
license via Pixabay.
Slide 20: Equality Rights Women Men Equal by Mohamed Hassan is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license
via Pixabay.
25
Eviota, Elizabeth. Sex and Gender in Philippine Society: A Discussion of Issues on the Relations Between Women and
Men. Manila: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, 1994.
Lin, Justin. “Social Media has Changed the Lives of Modern Society.” Summitpsnews.org. Updated March 24, 2020.
https://summitpsnews.org/2020/03/24/social-media-has-changed-the-lives-of-modern-society/.
Macionis, John. Sociology. 17th ed. Boston: Pearson Education Inc, 2018.
Mohan, Brij. Introduction to Sociology Concepts and Theories. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2022.
Nobelius, Ann-Maree. “What is the difference between sex and gender?”. Monash University: Medicine, Nursing,
and Health Sciences. December 20, 2021. http://www.med.monash.edu.au/gendermed/sexandgender.html.
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). “Gender Equality.” UNICEF. Accessed October 5,
2022. https://www.unicef.org/gender-equality.
REFERENCES

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UCSP 11_12 Q1 0101 Cultural Variations and Social Differences in Gender PS.pptx

  • 1. 1 Make a copy and edit in Google Slides. 1. On the menu bar, click File and then Make a copy and Entire Presentation. 2. Type a name for the file. 3. Choose where to save it on your Google Drive. 4. Click Ok. 5. A new tab will open. Wait for the file to be completely loaded on a new tab. 6. Once the file has loaded, edit this presentation using Google Slides. Download an offline copy and edit in Microsoft PowerPoint. 1. On the menu bar, click File and then Download as. 2. Choose a file type. Select Microsoft PowerPoint (.pptx). 3. Wait for the file to be downloaded to your local disk. 4. Once completely downloaded, open the file and edit it using Microsoft PowerPoint or any offline presentation program. Do You Want to Edit This Presentation?
  • 2. Unit 1 Introduction: The Understanding of Culture, Society, and Politics Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics
  • 3. 3 LEARNING TARGET At the end of this unit, you should be able to articulate observations on human cultural variation, social differences, social change, and political identities.
  • 4. 4 VALUES AND ATTITUDES ● Appreciate the diversity that exists among individuals and groups. ● Comprehend differences with an open mind. ● Treat others with kindness and love. In this unit, the learners should be able to do the following:
  • 8. 8 Cultural Variations and Social Differences in Gender Lesson 1 Unit 1| Introduction: The Understanding of Culture, Society, and Politics Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics
  • 9. Act It Out 9 Demonstrate through role- playing how each gender might act, react, or perform in a given task or situation. Show creativity and critical thinking by presenting the issues, dynamics, and perspectives in each scenario.
  • 10. Use any of the following scenario or situation: ● cleaning the house ● working as a professional ● taking care of the children ● acting as the head of the family ● caring for the elderly member of the family ● participating in politics Act It Out 10
  • 11. 1. What were your considerations in depicting the role of each gender? 2. In your opinion, how does society affect gender? 3. What are the positive and negative effects of society's expectations toward gender? Activation 11 Act It Out
  • 12. The Difference Between Sex and Gender Sex Gender Insert illustration here 12
  • 13. 13 Two Main Categories of Sex Female Male
  • 14. 14 Gender Roles ● Culturally-assigned tasks and activities to sexes ● Social constructs ○ Examples: ■ Only males can handle physically demanding activities. ■ Females should handle domestic tasks.
  • 15. Sex-Gender Systems 15 Gender and gender roles are associated with one’s biological sex. However, the constructs of gender and gender roles are challenged in contemporary and modern societies.
  • 16. 16 Culture, Society, and Gender Culture is largely involved in defining gender in societies.
  • 17. 17 Culture, Society, and Gender Gender is more malleable and changing across societies.
  • 18. 18 Culture, Society, and Gender As culture dictates appropriate characteristics for each gender, society propagates these definitions and characteristics.
  • 19. LGBT and Feminist Movements and Gender Equality 19
  • 22. 22 PHOTO CREDITS Slide 5: Tick Tock Tiktok Tree Structure Networks Internet by Gerd Altmann is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 9: Women Men People Human Gender by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slides 12, 13 and 15: Male Female Gender Sign by Venita Oberholster is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 12: Gender Transsexual Communication Talk by Gerd Altmann is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 14: Boy Cartoon Comic Comic Characters Dad by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 14: Mom Daughter Teach Child Mother And Son by André Santana AndreMS is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 15: Father Son Silhouette Boy Child Family Human by Gordon Johnson is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay.
  • 23. 23 PHOTO CREDITS Slide 15: Office Young Woman Manager Woman Work Beautiful by Alexey Marcov is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 16: People Hunter Energy Hunting Cultivation Island Device by RoadLight is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 17: Woman Technician Work Worker Lady Plans Helm by GraphicMama team is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 18: Association Community Group Meeting People by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 18: Association Community Group Meeting People by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay.
  • 24. 24 PHOTO CREDITS Slide 19: Emancipation Eurythmics Feminism Muscle Energy by OpenClipart Vectors is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 19: Lgbt Lesbian Gay Trans Rainbow by Maicon Fonseca Zanco is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay. Slide 20: Equality Rights Women Men Equal by Mohamed Hassan is free for commercial use under the Pixabay license via Pixabay.
  • 25. 25 Eviota, Elizabeth. Sex and Gender in Philippine Society: A Discussion of Issues on the Relations Between Women and Men. Manila: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, 1994. Lin, Justin. “Social Media has Changed the Lives of Modern Society.” Summitpsnews.org. Updated March 24, 2020. https://summitpsnews.org/2020/03/24/social-media-has-changed-the-lives-of-modern-society/. Macionis, John. Sociology. 17th ed. Boston: Pearson Education Inc, 2018. Mohan, Brij. Introduction to Sociology Concepts and Theories. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. Nobelius, Ann-Maree. “What is the difference between sex and gender?”. Monash University: Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences. December 20, 2021. http://www.med.monash.edu.au/gendermed/sexandgender.html. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). “Gender Equality.” UNICEF. Accessed October 5, 2022. https://www.unicef.org/gender-equality. REFERENCES

Editor's Notes

  1. Teacher’s Script “Welcome to the first unit of Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics or UCSP. In this unit, we will introduce basic concepts in culture, society, and politics. Specifically, we will be discussing cultural variations and social differences in terms of gender, socioeconomic class, ethnicity and religion, exceptionality or nonexceptionality, and nationality.”
  2. Teacher’s Script “Here is the learning target for this unit. We will give the class a minute to go through this silently, and let me know if you have any questions.”
  3. Teacher’s Script “Listed here are what we expect everyone to do as part of our values and attitudes integration. We will give the class two minutes to go through them silently, and let me know if you have any questions.”
  4. Teacher’s Script “Can you still imagine life without social media? There is no denying that social media has become part of people’s daily lives. All aspects of social existence have adapted its use, especially for communication and information. Through social media, people have developed a sense of belonging beyond national and geographic boundaries. It has allowed people to interact with those who otherwise they would not have met face to face. However, just like society, the virtual world is not free from inequalities and imperfections. As a mediator, the interactions in social media also reflect and, at times, magnify the inequities that exist in society.” Note: The teacher may elaborate on the relationship between inequalities and inequities. Inequality refer to the condition of not being equal (e.g., income, educational attainment, social class, etc) while inequities refer to the lack of justice and fairness (e.g., inaccessible education and information and poor healthcare for the lower income classes). The inequities in society causes and reproduces inequalities among the people.
  5. Teacher’s Script “What comes into your mind when you hear the word ‘society.’ What is it composed of?” Provide the following instructions to the class: Write your answers on the classroom or virtual board.
  6. Teacher’s Script “Thank you for your answers. Like all other societies, the Philippine society is complex yet functioning because its members find ways to thrive despite the existing difference. These similarities and differences shed light on what constitutes a society. Now, let us discuss these similarities and differences to know more about the essence of society.”
  7. Teacher’s Script Provide the following instructions to the class: Divide the class into four groups. Each group will be given a task or situation while each member will be assigned a gender to act out. The group must demonstrate through role-playing how each gender might act, react, or perform in a given task or situation.
  8. Teacher’s Script Provide the following instruction to the class: I will assign a scenario to each group Each group is given 10 minutes to prepare for the activity and 3 to 5 minutes to present.
  9. Teacher’s Script Provide the following instructions to the class: Process the activity by discussing these questions.
  10. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts: (You may refer to the discussions in pages 5–9 of the study guide) “Sex refers to biological differences that distinguish humans and other animals into two main categories: male and female.” “Gender encompasses all the social, cultural, and psychological characteristics that a culture assigns to males and females. It categorizes which behaviors and traits are appropriate for men and women. There are two main types of gender: masculine and feminine.” Ask the following question: “What makes sex and gender two different concepts?”
  11. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts: “Biological differences between males and females include variations in the following: chromosomal structure, XX for female and XY for male hormone production, generally more testosterone production for males and more estrogen production in females, which facilitate the development of secondary sex characteristics (e.g., lower voice for males, wider hips for females) internal and external reproductive organs (penis and testes for males, and vagina and ovaries for females)” Ask the learners: “What makes male and female biologically different from each other?”
  12. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts: “There are two main types of gender: masculine and feminine.” “Each gender has its own gender role, which is defined as culturally-assigned tasks and activities to the sexes.” Ask the question to process the activity: “Can you give more examples of gender roles for both men and women?”
  13. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concept: “In a society with a sex-gender system, males are typically expected to be masculine and females to be feminine. However, these expectations are now challenged, especially in contemporary and modern societies.” Ask the students the following questions: What do you think is the significance of the sex-gender system to society? Can you give concrete examples that prove the presence of a sex-gender system in your society?
  14. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts and examples: Discuss and expound on these statements: “The cultural construction of gender entails that different societies, having different cultures, will have varying definitions of masculinity and femininity. The concept of gender as a cultural construction tells us that gender is a product of how societies and their culture adapt to the conditions of their natural and social environment.” Give the following examples: “Let us consider a hunting and gathering society as an example. In such societies, gender differentiation is evident in their division of labor, as gender roles are determined through sex differences. Since male members are physically stronger than females, they are largely in charge of hunting wild animals for food. On the other hand, females manage the home due to their natural ability to nurture children (through breastfeeding). They also gather plant resources to serve different functions (e.g., food and shelter) for the survival of their family and tribes. Another example is the agricultural societies in Cordillera. The Ifugao communities living in Banaue still assign planting activities to their female members because they believe a woman’s touch is nurturing. Male Ifugao members are mainly associated with rituals that deal with slaughtering animals such as pigs and chickens. In these examples, it can be seen how a group’s adaptive strategy shapes gender roles in society. Besides adaptive strategies and environment, other researchers also suggest that factors such as economy and type of political systems contribute to determining gender and gender roles in society.” Ask the students the question: “Can you give more examples that illustrate how culture shapes gender in societies?”
  15. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts: Discuss and expound this statement: “Unlike sex, which is relatively absolute and universal because of biological structures (e.g., chromosomes, hormones, genitalia), gender is more malleable and changing across societies.” Give the following example: “For example, in the Philippines, manual work in construction sites is considered “man’s work,” but in other countries like Thailand, women perform manual labor.” Ask the students the question: “Can you give more examples illustrating how gender is malleable and changing across societies?”
  16. Teacher’s Script Discuss the following concepts: Discuss and expound this statement: “Through socialization among different social groups, members of society can learn and shape their conceptions and expectations of what is feminine and what is masculine.” Give an example: “The learning starts with families who encourage behaviors and characteristics that are suitable for each sex (male or female) and discourage those that are not. Peer, church, school, and media further strengthen this learning.” Ask the students the question: “How do the LGBTQIA+ and feminist movements challenge common conceptions of gender?”
  17. Teacher’s Script Ask the learners: “Do you know what LGBTQIA+ stands for?” “How do the LGBTQIA+ and feminist movements challenge common conceptions of gender?” Discuss the following: “In a heteronormative society that propagates the worldview that heterosexuality is the norm, males are expected to act ‘manly’ and females ‘womanly.’ However, these conceptions of gender are constantly being challenged as the LGBTQIA+ and feminist movements struggle to normalize gender equality, not only for men and women but also lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, and other categories. Gender does not only function to distinguish males and females. From a larger perspective, gender provides organization in society as it dictates which roles are assumed by males and females. However, these perceptions of gender and gender roles are constantly changing, alongside social and cultural changes occurring in different societies.”
  18. Teacher’s Script “According to the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), gender equality is equal rights and opportunities for girls and boys that help all children fulfill their potential. Therefore, gender inequality is the absence of gender equality, and it has many faces still reflected in our society. UNICEF shares that ‘nearly one in four girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are neither employed nor in education or training—compared to one in ten boys.’ Gender inequality appears in various forms, from child marriage and female genital mutilation to female infanticide, which persist despite recognition as a human rights violation. Harmful gender norms like restrictions toward property inheritance for women, child labor, gang violence, and recruitment into armed groups for men are affecting the population in different parts of the world. Despite the persistence of age-old problems and issues concerning gender, UNICEF continues the work towards awareness and gender equality. They work tirelessly to address gender-specific discrimination and disadvantages. They team up with different sectors to provide equal opportunities for men and women to achieve their fullest potential.”
  19. Teacher’s Script Randomly call learners for their key takeaways. Use the following questions as your guide: What are the things that you will stop doing? What are the things that you will start doing? What are the things that you will continue doing?