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CHAPTER THREE
INDIVIDUAL
DIFFERENCES AND
TRAITS
Individual Differences Framework
Personality
Leadership Style and
Behaviors
Abilities &
Skills
Values
Environment
Culture & education
Parental Influence
Physical Environment
Heredity
Genes
Race/Ethnicity
Gender
INDIVIDUAL CHARATERISTICS
The Effect Of Individual Characteristics On
Behavior
Zone of
Discomfort
Zone of
Discomfort
BEHAVIORAL RANGE
Individual
characteristics
Comfort Zone
Personality
 Psychological
characteristics
 Stable over time and
across situations
 A set of
characteristics, rather
than one trait
 Makes the person
unique and different
from others
Abilities and Skills
 Ability, or aptitude, is a stable
natural talent for doing something
mental or physical.
 A skill is an acquired talent that a
person develops related to a specific
task.
Values And Value System
Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is
worthwhile and desirable
Factors that affect values include:
 Culture
 Personality
 Gender
 Ethnicity
 Generational differences
Views of Ethics
 The relativist view of ethics
suggests a belief that what is
right or wrong depends on the
situation or the culture.
 The universalist view of ethics
suggests that all activities should
be judged by the same
standards, regardless of the
situation or culture.
Components Of Emotional Intelligence
 Self-awareness
 Managing
emotions
 Self-motivation
 Empathy for
others
 Interpersonal
skills
Characteristics Of Creative Leaders
 Perseverance when facing obstacles
 Self-confidence
 Willingness to take risks
 Willingness to grow and openness to
new experiences
 Tolerance for ambiguity
Three Categories Of Leadership Skills
1. Technical skills
2. Interpersonal skills
3. Conceptual skills
Perception, Attribution
and Learning
Social Perception
Social Perception -
interpreting information
about another person
Social Perception
Social Perception -
interpreting information
about another person
Perceiver Characteristics
• Familiarity with target
• Attitudes/Mood
• Self-Concept
• Cognitive structure
Social Perception
Social Perception -
interpreting information
about another person
Perceiver Characteristics
• Familiarity with target
• Attitudes/Mood
• Self-Concept
• Cognitive structure
Target Characteristics
• Physical appearance
• Verbal communication
• Nonverbal cues
• Intentions
Social Perception -
interpreting information
about another person
Social Perception
Perceiver Characteristics
• Familiarity with target
• Attitudes/Mood
• Self-Concept
• Cognitive structure
Target Characteristics
• Physical appearance
• Verbal communication
• Nonverbal cues
• Intentions
Situational Characteristics
• Interaction context
• Strength of situational cues
The Perception Process
ATTENTION
•The Perceived
•The Perceiver
ORGANIZATION
•Patterns
•Schemas
•Scripts
PERCEPTION
Comprehending Perception
We all have a different store of knowledge.
We all therefore interpret the world around us
differently.
Understanding relies upon the speaker and his
audience having the same perception of the required
outcome.
Perception is a 'Learned
Experience'
 It is the “awareness” of the
external world (or some aspect of
it, through one or more of our
senses and, the interpretation of
these by our mind.
Understanding
 Understanding is achieved by interpreting current
experience using past experience as a source of
reference, and establishing a context upon which to
base this new information. In other words:
• We are only able to understand today in terms of,
and because of, our past experiences.
• Yet, we also know that 'Today' is unlike 'Yesterday'.
• We inherit Yesterday's patterns and need them to
interpret what our senses are experiencing in the
present.
• These patterns are simultaneously essential and
yet out of date.
How do we perceive?
 We store a ‘model’ or memory of objects.
 The process of perceiving involves
‘matching’ what our senses are
experiencing to one of our ‘models.’
 Perception is an active pattern-matching
process.
 We recognize the world because of our
historical store of information.
 We create our own unique world, our own
interpretation of reality.
Barriers to Social Perception
 Selective perception
 Stereotyping
 First-impression
error
 Implicit personality
theory
 Self-fulfilling
prophecies
Social Perception -
interpreting information
about another person
Personality Theories
Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking
down behavior patterns into observable traits
Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious
determinants of behavior
Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth
and improvement
Integrative Approach - describes personality as a
composite of an individual’s psychological
processes
Variables Influencing
Individual Behavior
The Person
• skills & abilities
• personality
• perception
• attribution
• attitudes
• values
• ethics
Variables Influencing
Individual Behavior
The Person
• skills & abilities
• personality
• perception
• attribution
• attitudes
• values
• ethics
The Environment
• organization
• work group
• job
• personal life
The Environment
• organization
• work group
• job
• personal life
Behavior
Variables Influencing
Individual Behavior
The Person
• skills & abilities
• personality
• perception
• attribution
• attitudes
• values
• ethics
Interactional Psychology
Approach
The Environment
• organization
• work group
• job
• personal life
B = f(P,E)
Behavior
The Person
• skills & abilities
• personality
• perception
• attribution
• attitudes
• values
• ethics
 Conscientiousness
 Extraversion/introversion
 Openness to experience
 Emotional stability
 Agreeableness
The “Big Five” Personality
Dimensions
 Less anxious
 Set harder goals
 Manage stress well and adapt to
change
 More considerate of followers and
less likely to use coercive power
 Internal CEOs select risky and
innovative strategies
Characteristics Of Individuals
With Internal Locus Of Control
High need for control
“Doing more in less and less time”
Defining Characteristics
•Time urgency
• Competitiveness
• Polyphasic behaviors
• Hostility
Work-Related Behaviors
• Poor delegation
• Likes to work alone
• Jumps into action
• Sets high goals
• Hard work
• Perceives more stress
Characteristics Of Type A Individuals
 Able to read cues from the
environment
 Able to change behavior to match
situation
 Able to cope in cross-cultural
environments
 May be a key factor in leadership
effectiveness
Characteristics Of High
Self-monitors
Sensation Thinkers (ST)
Focus on hard facts
Realistic, goal-oriented but
can be impatient and jump
into action quickly
Intuitive Thinkers (NT)
Change agents
Responsive to creativity
but can be unreasonable and
unaware of others
Sensation Feelers (SF)
Practical and caring
Good understanding of
systems but can be
reluctant to accept change
THINKING (T)
FEELING (F)
INTUITIVE
(N)
SENSING
(S) Four Major MBTI Types
Intuitive Feelers (NF)
Personal charisma and
commitment to others
Many ideas, trouble with
implementation
 High Machs are:
• Skilled at controlling others
• Able to perceive and resist
manipulation
• More successful in
unstructured environments
 Low Machs are:
• Naive and trusting
 Leadership is associated with
moderate Mach score
Machiavellian Personality
* Abrasive and intimidating
* Cold and arrogant
* Untrustworthy
* Self-centered and political
* Poor performers
* Unable to delegate
Characteristics Of
Leaders Who Fail
The Johari Window
Known to Self Not Known to
Self
Known to
Others
FREE/ARENA BLIND SPOT
Not Known to
Others
FACADE UNKNOWN
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 Based on Carl Jung’s work
• People are fundamentally different
• People are fundamentally alike
• People have preference combinations for
extraversion/introversion, perception,
judgment
 Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to
understand individual differences
Take it at:
http://www.humanmetrics.com
Kiersey Temperament Sorter
 1.In most situations are you more
deliberate than spontaneous
spontaneous than deliberate
 2.Is it worse to be
a softy
hard-nosed
 3.Is it better to be
just
merciful
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 Introvert-Extrovert
• where you derive your energy
 Sensing-Intuitive
• where you obtain your
information
 Thinking-Feeling
• analysis & logic versus pleasing
people
 Judging-Perceiving
• how you make a decision
MBTI Preferences
Preferences Represents
Extraversion Introversion How one
re-energizes
Sensing Intuiting How one gathers
information
Thinking Feeling How one makes
decisions
Judging Perceiving How one orients to the
outer world
Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type
That Focuses Attention and Presents Strengths and
Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations
Extroversion
Introversion
Focuses on
people
and things;
sociable;
outgoing
Focuses on
thoughts
and concepts;
reflective;
inwardly directed
Good at social
interaction; en-
thusiastic and
confident; insti-
gates action; open
and straightforward
Good at personal
interaction; stays calm
and focused; can con-
centrate intensely;
develops ideas; uses
discretion in talking
Intellectual super-
ficiality; intrusive;
lack of respect for
others’ privacy;
easily distracted
May lose touch
with outer world;
keeps people at
a distance; easily
preoccupied
Psychological
Types
Focus and
Preferences Strengths
Weaknesses
(if Overextended)
Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That
Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths and
Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They Arise (Cont.)
Sensing
Intuitive
Thinking
Facts; data; details;
concrete; reality
based; present
oriented
Possibilities;
hunches;
speculations; theor-
etical ; future
oriented
Analysis; objective;
logic; impersonal;
justice; systematic
inquiry
Pragmatic; precise;
stable; results orient-
ed; sensible; system-
atic
Imaginative; concep-
tulizes easily; creative;
intellectually tenacious;
idealistic
Rational; analytical;
assertive; logical; care-
fully weighs alternatives;
firm but fair; explains
thoroughly
Lacks long-range
outlook; may reject
innovative ideas
Unrealistic; out of
touch; bored by
routine; scattered
Undervalues feel-
ings; overly anal-
ytical; insensitive;
critical; judgmental
Psychological
Types
Focus and
Preferences Strengths
Weaknesses
(if Overextended)
Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That
Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths
and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They
Arise (Cont.)
Feeling
Judging
Perceiving
Sympathy;
subjective; humane;
personal;
compassion; trust;
consideration
Organized; planned;
settled;control one’s
life; set goals; struc-
tured; routine
Pending; flexible;
curious; spontaneity;
tentative; let life
happen; undaunted
by surprise; open to
change
Persuasive; empathic;
warm; sensitive; demon-
strative and expressive;
loyal
Plan, organize, and
control well; persistent;
decisive; conscientious;
reliable
Open minded; adaptable;
spontaneous; under-
standing; tolerant;
inquisitive
Overly sensitive;
moody; can become
emotionally over-
burdened
Close minded; in-
flexible; can jump to
conclusions too
quickly; intolerant;
judgmental
Indecisive; procrast-
inates; unfocused;
disorganized; im-
pulsive; may collect
data too long before
deciding
Psychological
Types
Focus and
Preferences Strengths
Weaknesses
(if Overextended)

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Indivppppppppppidual Differences & Traits.ppt

  • 2. Individual Differences Framework Personality Leadership Style and Behaviors Abilities & Skills Values Environment Culture & education Parental Influence Physical Environment Heredity Genes Race/Ethnicity Gender INDIVIDUAL CHARATERISTICS
  • 3. The Effect Of Individual Characteristics On Behavior Zone of Discomfort Zone of Discomfort BEHAVIORAL RANGE Individual characteristics Comfort Zone
  • 4. Personality  Psychological characteristics  Stable over time and across situations  A set of characteristics, rather than one trait  Makes the person unique and different from others
  • 5. Abilities and Skills  Ability, or aptitude, is a stable natural talent for doing something mental or physical.  A skill is an acquired talent that a person develops related to a specific task.
  • 6. Values And Value System Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is worthwhile and desirable Factors that affect values include:  Culture  Personality  Gender  Ethnicity  Generational differences
  • 7. Views of Ethics  The relativist view of ethics suggests a belief that what is right or wrong depends on the situation or the culture.  The universalist view of ethics suggests that all activities should be judged by the same standards, regardless of the situation or culture.
  • 8. Components Of Emotional Intelligence  Self-awareness  Managing emotions  Self-motivation  Empathy for others  Interpersonal skills
  • 9. Characteristics Of Creative Leaders  Perseverance when facing obstacles  Self-confidence  Willingness to take risks  Willingness to grow and openness to new experiences  Tolerance for ambiguity
  • 10. Three Categories Of Leadership Skills 1. Technical skills 2. Interpersonal skills 3. Conceptual skills
  • 12. Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
  • 13. Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure
  • 14. Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure Target Characteristics • Physical appearance • Verbal communication • Nonverbal cues • Intentions
  • 15. Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Social Perception Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure Target Characteristics • Physical appearance • Verbal communication • Nonverbal cues • Intentions Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
  • 16. The Perception Process ATTENTION •The Perceived •The Perceiver ORGANIZATION •Patterns •Schemas •Scripts PERCEPTION
  • 17. Comprehending Perception We all have a different store of knowledge. We all therefore interpret the world around us differently. Understanding relies upon the speaker and his audience having the same perception of the required outcome.
  • 18. Perception is a 'Learned Experience'  It is the “awareness” of the external world (or some aspect of it, through one or more of our senses and, the interpretation of these by our mind.
  • 19. Understanding  Understanding is achieved by interpreting current experience using past experience as a source of reference, and establishing a context upon which to base this new information. In other words: • We are only able to understand today in terms of, and because of, our past experiences. • Yet, we also know that 'Today' is unlike 'Yesterday'. • We inherit Yesterday's patterns and need them to interpret what our senses are experiencing in the present. • These patterns are simultaneously essential and yet out of date.
  • 20. How do we perceive?  We store a ‘model’ or memory of objects.  The process of perceiving involves ‘matching’ what our senses are experiencing to one of our ‘models.’  Perception is an active pattern-matching process.  We recognize the world because of our historical store of information.  We create our own unique world, our own interpretation of reality.
  • 21. Barriers to Social Perception  Selective perception  Stereotyping  First-impression error  Implicit personality theory  Self-fulfilling prophecies Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
  • 22. Personality Theories Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
  • 23. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics
  • 24. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life
  • 25. The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life Behavior Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics
  • 26. Interactional Psychology Approach The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life B = f(P,E) Behavior The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics
  • 27.  Conscientiousness  Extraversion/introversion  Openness to experience  Emotional stability  Agreeableness The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions
  • 28.  Less anxious  Set harder goals  Manage stress well and adapt to change  More considerate of followers and less likely to use coercive power  Internal CEOs select risky and innovative strategies Characteristics Of Individuals With Internal Locus Of Control
  • 29. High need for control “Doing more in less and less time” Defining Characteristics •Time urgency • Competitiveness • Polyphasic behaviors • Hostility Work-Related Behaviors • Poor delegation • Likes to work alone • Jumps into action • Sets high goals • Hard work • Perceives more stress Characteristics Of Type A Individuals
  • 30.  Able to read cues from the environment  Able to change behavior to match situation  Able to cope in cross-cultural environments  May be a key factor in leadership effectiveness Characteristics Of High Self-monitors
  • 31. Sensation Thinkers (ST) Focus on hard facts Realistic, goal-oriented but can be impatient and jump into action quickly Intuitive Thinkers (NT) Change agents Responsive to creativity but can be unreasonable and unaware of others Sensation Feelers (SF) Practical and caring Good understanding of systems but can be reluctant to accept change THINKING (T) FEELING (F) INTUITIVE (N) SENSING (S) Four Major MBTI Types Intuitive Feelers (NF) Personal charisma and commitment to others Many ideas, trouble with implementation
  • 32.  High Machs are: • Skilled at controlling others • Able to perceive and resist manipulation • More successful in unstructured environments  Low Machs are: • Naive and trusting  Leadership is associated with moderate Mach score Machiavellian Personality
  • 33. * Abrasive and intimidating * Cold and arrogant * Untrustworthy * Self-centered and political * Poor performers * Unable to delegate Characteristics Of Leaders Who Fail
  • 34. The Johari Window Known to Self Not Known to Self Known to Others FREE/ARENA BLIND SPOT Not Known to Others FACADE UNKNOWN
  • 35. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Based on Carl Jung’s work • People are fundamentally different • People are fundamentally alike • People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment  Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences Take it at: http://www.humanmetrics.com
  • 36. Kiersey Temperament Sorter  1.In most situations are you more deliberate than spontaneous spontaneous than deliberate  2.Is it worse to be a softy hard-nosed  3.Is it better to be just merciful
  • 37. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Introvert-Extrovert • where you derive your energy  Sensing-Intuitive • where you obtain your information  Thinking-Feeling • analysis & logic versus pleasing people  Judging-Perceiving • how you make a decision
  • 38. MBTI Preferences Preferences Represents Extraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
  • 39. Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations Extroversion Introversion Focuses on people and things; sociable; outgoing Focuses on thoughts and concepts; reflective; inwardly directed Good at social interaction; en- thusiastic and confident; insti- gates action; open and straightforward Good at personal interaction; stays calm and focused; can con- centrate intensely; develops ideas; uses discretion in talking Intellectual super- ficiality; intrusive; lack of respect for others’ privacy; easily distracted May lose touch with outer world; keeps people at a distance; easily preoccupied Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)
  • 40. Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They Arise (Cont.) Sensing Intuitive Thinking Facts; data; details; concrete; reality based; present oriented Possibilities; hunches; speculations; theor- etical ; future oriented Analysis; objective; logic; impersonal; justice; systematic inquiry Pragmatic; precise; stable; results orient- ed; sensible; system- atic Imaginative; concep- tulizes easily; creative; intellectually tenacious; idealistic Rational; analytical; assertive; logical; care- fully weighs alternatives; firm but fair; explains thoroughly Lacks long-range outlook; may reject innovative ideas Unrealistic; out of touch; bored by routine; scattered Undervalues feel- ings; overly anal- ytical; insensitive; critical; judgmental Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)
  • 41. Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They Arise (Cont.) Feeling Judging Perceiving Sympathy; subjective; humane; personal; compassion; trust; consideration Organized; planned; settled;control one’s life; set goals; struc- tured; routine Pending; flexible; curious; spontaneity; tentative; let life happen; undaunted by surprise; open to change Persuasive; empathic; warm; sensitive; demon- strative and expressive; loyal Plan, organize, and control well; persistent; decisive; conscientious; reliable Open minded; adaptable; spontaneous; under- standing; tolerant; inquisitive Overly sensitive; moody; can become emotionally over- burdened Close minded; in- flexible; can jump to conclusions too quickly; intolerant; judgmental Indecisive; procrast- inates; unfocused; disorganized; im- pulsive; may collect data too long before deciding Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)