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Lec 1 socio


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Lec 1 socio

  1. 1. Subject Code: SSCN01G No. of Units: 3 Course Description: A study of society and culture with emphasis on the patterns and processes of human relations, man’s development and role in the changes that occur in the society, and social issues involving population growth, environment degradation, rural and urban poverty. Sociology with Anthropology
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: <ul><li>Cognitive – make the students understand how society works and how such is affected by individual and human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective – Encourage students to inculcate in their minds and hearts the value of good membership within a specific large scale community. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor – make the students apply in reality the various elements and values in the study of society and human development. </li></ul>
  3. 3. SCIENCE <ul><li>Is the study of various phenomena and things in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a body of systematized knowledge that shows the operation of general laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Goal: to describe particular things or events in detail and to set up hypotheses and test them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classifications of Science <ul><li>Natural Sciences – study phenomena and processes as well as objects in nature, and provide systematic information about the nonhuman and physical aspects of the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>** Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Social Sciences – involved in the study of society, social relations, and human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>** Economics, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, and History </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction to Sociology <ul><li>Sociology – is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. </li></ul><ul><li>- the systematic study of human society. </li></ul><ul><li>- Latin “socius” - companion </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: - the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>- how societies are established and change. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction to Sociology <ul><li>Sociology perspective - stresses the powerful role of social groups and social forces in shaping social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology focuses on : all kinds of social interactions ( social acts, social relationships, and social organizations, & social processes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus is the group and not the individuals. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction to Sociology <ul><li>Sociology is concerned with the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociologists seek not only the description but also the explanation of social behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociologists are interested in interactions between people, the way in which people act toward, respond to, and influence one another. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sociological Imagination <ul><li>Charles Wright Mills (1959) – coined the term Sociological Imagination . </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to underscore </li></ul><ul><li>the relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>what is happening in people’s </li></ul><ul><li>personal lives and the </li></ul><ul><li>social forces that surround </li></ul><ul><li>them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sociological Imagination <ul><li>is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a mindset that enables the individuals to examine their own experience by locating themselves in the period in which they live and by studying the events in the society. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sociological Imagination <ul><li>In this way they can better understand the relationship between their life and what is happening in the society, thus gaining a wider potential freedom from social pressures. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology <ul><li>15 th – 19 th Century (Period of discoveries and explorations) </li></ul><ul><li>- the beginning of anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>- accounted from Western explorers, missionaries, soldiers, and colonial officials </li></ul><ul><li>Early 19 th Century – flint tools and artifacts were discovered in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Tylor – the first professor of </li></ul><ul><li> anthropology in Oxford, England </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Broas – the first professor of </li></ul><ul><li>anthropology in the United States. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>1980 – ethnographers approached the study of local culture. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th – 19 th Century – development of sociology began in France, pioneered by Henri de Saint-Simon and Aguste Comte </li></ul>Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology
  13. 13. Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology <ul><li>20 th century – modern anthropology started pioneered by Edward Tylor, Lewis Morgan, and Herbert Spencer </li></ul><ul><li>Structural functionalism was used by Franz Broas and Alfred Kroeber. </li></ul><ul><li>Other anthropologists followed: </li></ul><ul><li>- Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe Brown </li></ul><ul><li>- Ralph Linton, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Auguste Comte (1798-1857) </li></ul><ul><li>- he believed that a theoretical science of society and systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society. </li></ul><ul><li>- he coined the term “sociology” </li></ul><ul><li>- he considered sociology as the “queen” and its practitioners “scientists-priests” </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) </li></ul><ul><li>- offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices of native Britain and United States. </li></ul><ul><li>- wrote a book “Society in America” </li></ul><ul><li>- conducted a research on the nature of female employment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) </li></ul><ul><li>- applied the concept of evolution of the species to the societies in order to explain how they change over time. </li></ul><ul><li>- adapted Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) </li></ul><ul><li>- first professor of sociology in France </li></ul><ul><li>- insisted that behavior must be understood within a larger context, not just in individualistic terms. </li></ul><ul><li>- interested on “ anomie ” (the loss of direction that a society feels when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Max Weber (1864) </li></ul><ul><li>- taught his students about “ verstehen ” - German word for “understanding” or “insight” </li></ul><ul><li>- pointed out that to fully comprehend behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions – how they view and explain their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>- credited for a key conceptual tool, the “ ideal type ” </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal Type – is a construct, a made-up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>- it was used to study family, religion, authority, economic systems, & bureaucracy. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Development of Sociology <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) </li></ul><ul><li>- with Friedrich Engels, attended secret meetings in London of an illegal coalition of labor unions, known as the Communist League . </li></ul><ul><li>- they prepared a platform called Communist Manifesto (an argue that the masses of people who have no resources other than labor or proletariat should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies.) </li></ul><ul><li>- examined the industrial societies, he saw that the factory is the center of conflict between exploiters and exploited . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Modern Developments of Sociology <ul><li>Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) </li></ul><ul><li>- preferred to use the sociological perspective to look first at smaller units – families, gangs, friendship networks </li></ul><ul><li>- increased our understanding of groups relatively small size </li></ul>
  21. 21. Modern Developments of Sociology <ul><li>Jane Addams (1860-1935) </li></ul><ul><li>- member of American Sociological Society </li></ul><ul><li>- with other female sociologists, they combined intellectual inquiry , social service work, & political activism to assist the underprivileged society. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Modern Developments of Sociology <ul><li>Robert Merton (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>- combined theory and research </li></ul><ul><li>- noted different ways in which people attempt to achieve success in life </li></ul><ul><li>- emphasized that sociology should strive to bring together the “ macro-level ” and the “ micro-level ” approaches to the study of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Macrosociology – concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsociology – stresses the study of small groups & often uses experimental study in laboratories. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Introduction to Anthropology <ul><li>Anthropology – is the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: the feature that is unique to humans – the cultural behavior. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Introduction to Anthropology <ul><li>the study of humanity and its society </li></ul><ul><li>It is a scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures, and it attempts to present an integrated picture of humankind. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Anthropology Biological Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Genetics & Evolution Fossil records Biodiversity Primatology Prehistoric Archaeology Historic Archaeology Cultural Resource Management Culture as species trait Variation in cultural systems Processes of cultural change Descriptive linguistic Language evolution Ethno semantics
  26. 26. Biological Anthropology <ul><li>The study of human biological variation in time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Archaeological Anthropology <ul><li>The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture’s material remains. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cultural Anthropology <ul><li>The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, explains social and cultural similarities and differences. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Linguistic Anthropology <ul><li>The descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and of linguistic similarities and differences in time, space, & society. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Applied Anthropology <ul><li>Focuses on the application of the ideas and information gathered for the solution of specific problems in order to achieve practical ends. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology <ul><li>Universalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All people are fully and equally human, whether they belong to indigenous groups or an urbanized area. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologists view societies within the context of the larger world or global perspective so that the influence of the global markets on small island societies, as well as the strategic concerns of foreign powers, is also studied . </li></ul></ul>Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
  33. 33. <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropologists study how humans are affected by their surroundings or environment and what adjustments they make. </li></ul></ul>Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
  34. 34. <ul><li>Holism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It means getting the whole picture of a phenomenon and the application of knowledge from different fields in order to understand an aspect of behavior. </li></ul></ul>Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
  35. 35. That’s all... <ul><li>Thank you... </li></ul>