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Integrative Methods
inTeaching Social
Science Discipline in
Basic Education
UNIT I
CURRICULUM
INTEGRATION
INTEGRATED CURRICULUM
The concept of an integrated curriculum and its
significance to the learners was expounded by
educators like Beane (1992), Johnson and Johnson
(1998), and Kellough (2003).
a. An integrated curriculum refers to a single course
that contains one or more disciplines. It consist of
one set of objectives and assessment that covers a
number of related disciplines (Johnson and Johnson,
1998)
b. An integrated curriculum is an educational approach
that cuts across and draws multiple areas for for
learning and instruction. Its purpose is to realistically
link various disciplines into the study and exploration
of certain aspects of the world (Beane, 1992)
c. An integrated curriculum is a way of
teaching a way of planning and
organizing the instructional program.
This enables the discrete disciplines of
subject matter related to one another
design that matches the developmental
needs of the learners to connect to their
learning's in ways that are meaningful to
their current and past experiences. This
is an antithesis of the traditional,
disparate, subject-matter oriented
teaching and curriculum designation.
(Kellough, 2003)
INTEGRATION IN BASIC EDUCATION
 To integrate is to make up, combine, or
complete to produce a whole or a larger
unit as parts do. Integration is applied in
education to facilitate the integrative and
interactive learning process in the
classroom. To Johnson and Johnson
(1998), integration is the process of
linking new information to prior learning,
and linking different parts of learning to
each other.
SPECTRUM OF INTEGRATED
CURRICULUM
Level 1: This is the traditional
organization of curriculum and
classroom instruction. In this level the
teachers plan and arrange the subject
through a specific scope and sequence
which uses a topic outline format.
Level 2: In this level the theme is one
discipline are not necessary planned to
correspond with the themes in another.
Level 3: In this level, the class is
studying two or more core learning
areas or subjects around a common
theme.
Level 4: Teacher teaching different
subjects collaborate on a common
theme and its content.
Level 5: A common theme likewise
chosen by a team of teachers. The
content and discipline boundaries
are blurred during the teaching-
learning process.
Theories Supporting Curriculum
Integration
1. Experiential Learning. Carl Roger
(2004), the proponent of this theory,
believe that all individual have a natural
propensity to learn. John Dewey (1938),
posits that school learning should be
experiential because students learn from
what they experience.
2. Multiple Intelligences. Howard
Gardner, affirms that there are more
kind of intelligence that what we thought
before.
The nine categories of intelligences
presented by Gardner and Associates
 Linguistic intelligence
 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
 Spatial Intelligence
 Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
 Musical Intelligence
 Interpersonal Intelligence
 Intrapersonal Intelligence
 Naturalistic Intelligence
 Existentialist Intelligence
3. Constructivism. This theory expounds that
development and learning occur through
constructive process and that knowledge is
constructed from experience.
Constructivist like John Dewey (1938),
Jean Piaget (1960), and Lev Vygotsky 91934)
maintain that children learn by actually
constructing meaning from their
simultaneously embedded experiences.
Teaching in a constructivist mode has a
slower pace, uses varied strategies and
resource materials, and provides
opportunities for the new creation of new
ideas.
Principles in Integrating Big Ideas
and Strategies
To ensure effective instruction. Beane
(1992) expounds the significance of the
following principles in integrating big ideas
and strategies.
1. Integrate several ideas and strategies.
2. Match content with strategies
3. Integrate relevant concepts.
4. Integrate big ideas across multiple contents
of instructions.
5. Provide opportunities to establish
connections.
Common Elements of an
Integrated Curriculum
Listed below are the common elements of
an Integrated Curriculum as expounded by
Lake (2000)
 A combination of subjects or learning areas
 An emphasis on projects
 Relationships among concepts
 Thematic units as organizing principles
 Sources that go beyond textbooks
 Flexible schedules
 Flexible student grouping
Planning Integrated Instruction
1. Draw content of instruction in basic education
from the learning competencies.
2. Identify a theme drawn from a core discipline.
3. Identify the related disciplines or learning areas
that can help unfold the chosen theme into
instruction.
4. Collaborate with the teachers teaching the
identified learning area addressing the chosen
theme.
5. Look for appropriate reading materials.
6. Use an approach to instruction that will
facilitate integrative teaching-learning in the
classroom.
UNIT II
CURRICULUM
INTEGRATION
IN MAKABAYAN
MAKABAYAN
Makabayan, the fifth learning
area in the basic education, has
learning components that are
interdisciplinary in nature. The
interdisciplinary of Makabayan
makes it a touchstone for
integration in basic education.
Makabayan Learning Components
Makabayan provides many opportunities
for integrative and interactive learning.
Elementary Makabayan
• Civics and Culture 1 to 3. The
competencies of Civics and Culture are
clustered around three major values: (1)
national identity and self-esteem; (2)
national unity; and (3) loyalty to the
nation.
 Geography, History and Civics 4 to 6.
In Grade 4, the geographic features of the
Philippines as the Southeast Asia and the
world, utilization of our natural resources and
the relationship of physical geography to
local culture.
In Grade 5, the history of the Philippines
from pre-historic period down to our
contemporary times.
In Grade 6, Democratic system of the
government and on the rights, duties and
responsibilities of citizens in Philippine
society.
 Home Economics and Livelihood
Education. This component of Makabayan
from Grade 4 to 6 focuses on the
development of the desirable work attitudes
and basic work skills and habits through
learning situations relevant to everyday
chores at home, in school, and in community.
Likewise, this learning component covers
phases of work in elementary agriculture,
home economics, industrial arts, retail trade,
computer education, and other livelihood and
entrepreneurship skills designed to develop
awareness of and interest in productive work.
 Music, Art, and Physical Education
(MAPE). This component in Makabayan in
Grade 1 to 6 will enable the child to
express his feelings, imagination, and
ideas through music, art and physical
activities. The children will learn basic
body movements, games, musical skills,
and art concepts.
Secondary Makabayan
 Social Studies
 Values Education
 Technology and Livelihood Education
(TLE)
 Music, Art, Physical Education and
Health
Makabayan Teaching Teams
Schools principals both in elementary
and secondary schools are tasked to
organized Makabayan teaching teams to
handle the following learning areas
(subjects).
Elementary Makabayan
• Civics and Cultures 1-3 (Sibika at Kultura, SK)
• Geography, History, and Civics 4-6
• Home Economics and Livelihood Education 4-6
• Music, Arts and Physical Education (MAPE) 1-6
•Character Education 1-6
Secondary Makabayan
 Social Studies I-IV (Araling
Panlipunan)
 Values Education I-IV (Edukasyong
Pagpapahalaga)
 Technology and Livelihood Education
(TLE) I-IV
 Music, Art, Physical Education and
Health (MAPEH) I-IV
Modes of Integrative Teaching
1. Content Based Instruction (CBI).
This refers to the integration of content
learning with language teaching aims. It
refers to the concurrent study of
language and subject matter with the
form and sequence of language
presentation dictated by the content
materials.
2. Focusing Inquiry. Inquiry teaching is
an interdisciplinary approach that uses
questions to organize learning.
3. Generic Competency Model. In
this models, the learners are
enrolled in three to four linked
courses. The links between the
courses rest essentially on “general
competencies”.
4. Thematic Teaching. Thematic
themes organize learning around
ideas. It provide a broad framework
for linking content and process from
a number of disciplines.
UNIT III
THEMATIC
TEACHING IN
BASIC
EDUCATION
THEMATIC TEACHING
Thematic teaching starts with the
identification of a theme, the underlying
concept that allows for the structure and
organization of specific content across
disciplines.
A theme is the topic of interest that
provides the core for group activities. It helps
learner see meaningful connections across
disciplines or learning areas (subjects). More
importantly, themes provide relevance for the
learners by drawing together concept under
one umbrella.
THEMATIC UNITS
Thematic means that the same topic is
used to develop the teaching plan(content
and instruction) for each of the different
subjects in which students are enrolled.
Presented in this unit are two models in
presenting thematic units: (1) the
integrated multidisciplinary thematic unit.
And (2) the integrated interdisciplinary
thematic unit.
Both approaches use the following
steps in planning instruction (Kellough).
a. Select a suitable topic or theme.
b. Select the goals of the unit.
c. Select suitable specific learning
objectives.
d. Detail the instructional procedures.
e. Plan for pre-assessment and assessment
of student learning.
f. Provide for the materials of instruction.
1. Integrated Multidisciplinary Thematic
Unit. This modification of
multidisciplinary teaching unit which
addresses a single discipline. This
attempts to provide two or more
disciplines in one single approach.
2. Integrated interdisciplinary Thematic
unit. This unit gives a sense of
cohesiveness and structure to student
learning and avoids to piecemeal
approach that might otherwise unfold.
Friegberg (2000) points that
interdisciplinary units can help achieve the
following objective:
1. Emphasize that the process of learning is
sometimes best pursued as an
interconnected whole rather than as a
series of specific subjects.
2. Encourage students to work cooperatively in
partnership and in small groups that focus
on the social value of learning.
3. Teach students to be independent problem
solvers and thinkers.
4. Assist students to develop their own
individual interests and learning styles.
5. Help students find out what they need to
know and what they need to learn rather
than always expecting the teacher to
give it to them.
Interdisciplinary Teaching teams
Comprising Interdisciplinary Teaching
teams on the school-based level could
be two or five teachers from different
subject areas working together to plan
the units of study.
UNIT IV
COMPONENTS IN
DESIGNING
INTEGRATED
THEMATIC UNITS
 Instructional Objectives- are
statements that describe what
learners shall be able to do upon
completion of a given learning
experience. These are the objectives
formulated by teachers for a
particular lesson or unit of study that
drive the performance of learners.
Essentially, instructional objectives
are the actual behaviors that the
learners are expected to accomplish.
Classification of
Instructional Objectives
 1. Cognitive Domain- This refers to the
intellectual operation from the lowest level
of simple recall of information to complex,
high-level thinking process. The six levels
of cognitive objectives in Bloom’s
taxonomy include knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation.
 2. Affective Domain- The affective domain
hierarchy includes from the least
internalized to the most internalized like
receiving, responding, valuing, organizing,
and internalizing (Krathwohl, Bloom, and
marsh, 1984).
 3. Psychomotor Domain- The hierarchy in
the psychomotor domain ranges from
simple gross locomotor control to the
most creative and inventive
behaviors.include naming, manipulating,
communicating, and creating.
Preparing Instructional
Objectives
 Kellough (2003) advocates the
ABCDs of writing objectives
using four components, namely,
audience (A), behavior (B),
condition (C), and degree or
level expected performance (D).
 A= refers to the audience (students) for
whom the objective is intended.
 B= refer to the expected behavior or
performance that should be written with
verbs that are measurable.
 C= refers to the condition or setting in
which the behavior will be demonstrated
by the student and observed by the
teacher.
 D= refers to the degree or level of
expected performance.
Choosing Themes
 Themes are important in planning a
thematic unit of study. These serve as the
core in undertaking group activities. With
the use of themes students see
meaningful connections across disciplines
and even in skill learning areas. Further,
themes serve as reference points in
conceptualizing, analyzing, synthesizing,
and consolidating learning experiences for
a given unit.
 When selecting themes that are
drawn from a given discipline or
learning area, teachers should
consider the interest of the
students and the broad scope of
the lesson to enable the
planners to further subdivide a
given topic into smaller
subtopics for further
investigation.
Be guided by the questions below in
selecting a theme for a unit of study
(Kellough, 2003).
 A. Is the theme within the realm of
understanding and experience of the
teachers involved?
 B. Will the theme be of interest to all
members of the teaching team?
 C. Are there sufficient materials and
resources to supply the needed
information?
 D. Does the theme lend itself to active
learning experiences?
 E. Can the theme lead to a unit of proper
duration; that is, not to short and not to
long?
 F. Is the theme helpful, worthwhile, and
pertinent to the instructional objectives?
 G. Is the theme one with which teachers are
not already so familiar that they cannot share
in the excitement of the learning?
 H. Will the theme be of interest to students
and will it motivate them to do their best?
Organizing Bodies of Knowledge
 Organizing bodies of the knowledge
drawn from multiple disciplines is the
key to effective instruction. These
are topics that combine facts,
concepts, generalizations, and the
relationships among them. In
planning thematic units, the content
of instruction could be presented this
way.
Teaching Approaches
 Integrative teaching and learning requires
particular teaching models for its
effectively. These teaching models are
larger than a particular strategy, method,
or tactic and are supported by theories of
instruction.
 Teaching Strategies are the means
techniques, or procedures used in
presenting data collected reflecting
interactive aspects of teaching.
Graphic Organizers
 Graphic Organizers are also called
learning organizers. Teachers use them
when presenting the scope of the lesson,
in giving the lectures, and during closure.
Students use them in presenting an
individual or group report and even in
formulating generalizations.
Study Skills
 Study Skills, which are important in
planning instruction, are teachable.
By and large, study skills are
competencies associated with
acquiring, recording, organizing,
synthesizing, remembering, and
using information and ideas found in
schools (Divine, 1981).
Integrating Values
 Values are integrated today in all learning
areas in the elementary and secondary
schools. Values are the standards or
criteria that we use in making judgments
about whether something is positive or
negative, good or bad, pleasing or
displeasing.
Assessment and Evaluation
 Assessment is the ongoing process of
gathering and analyzing evidence of what
students know and what they do not
know. (Burke, 1993)
 Evaluation is the process of interpreting
the evidence and making judgments and
decisions based on the evidence. It is the
process of making judgment about the
quality of performance.
UNIT V
Widely Applicable Teaching
Models, instructional
Strategies, and Graphic
Organizers
Teaching Models
Teaching Models are larger than a
particular strategy method, or tactic.
These are broad overall approaches to
instruction that do not only help teachers
in planning instruction, but also guide
them in acquiring information, developing
skills, internalizing values, and engaging
in other forms of learning activities.
Teaching models (Joyce and Weil,
2004)
Teaching Model are
patterns or plans that are
used to shape a course, to
select instructional materials,
and to guide teacher actions.
A. Discovery Learning. This teaching model
is based on the idea that content is not
given to learners in learners in finished
form.
B. Inquiry Learning. This is commonly
known as the inquiry process which is
apparently the application of scientific
method to teaching.
C. Problem-based Learning (PBL). The
essence of this model consists of
presenting students authentic and
meaningful problem situations to serve
as springboards for investigation.
D. Cooperative Learning. This is the procedure
whereby learners work together in small
groups and are rewarded for their collective
accomplishments. The key characteristics or
attributes of cooperative learning are the
ways the groups or teams are made up.
E. Decision-making. This is an intellectual
process that requires students to select the
best alternative choice on a set of conditions
or circumstances.
F. ACES Teaching Approach. The ACES teaching
Approach (Four As) follows a logical
sequencing of learning activities from the
mood-setting activity to the closing activity.
(Activity, Analysis, Abstraction, Application)
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES/PRESENTATION
TECHNIQUES
Instructional Strategies are the means,
techniques or procedures used in presenting
data interactive aspects of teaching.
A. Lectures are used when introducing a topic,
defining an issue, presenting a dilemma,
explaining a process, and in summarizing
key points.
B. A roundtable discussion usually involves a
small number of students, perhaps no fewer
than 3 and no mote than 8.
C. A panel discussion is similar to
roundtable discussion in many aspects,
but there are some differences.
D. A brainstorming technique is often used
by teacher in analysing an issue, an event
or problem that calls for a solution.
E. A role playing technique helps students
understand the perspective of others.
F. Socio-drama strategy used in
summarizing highlights of learning
experience through pantomime, skits, and
dramatization.
DESIGHNING GRAPHIC
ORGNIZERS
Graphic organizers are essential
tool of learning. These are forms of
visual representations that help both
teacher and students in teaching
learning process.
1. A concept map define a concept or
illustrate an idea drawn from a given
lesson.
2. A concept cluster illustrate a major
concept together with its sub-concepts to
show the coverage of a given lesson or a
given study.
3. A wheel map show the division of a lesson
into sup-topics to facilitate individual or
group investigation in the classroom.
4. A cycle graph presents a series of
connected events that occur in sequence
and procedure a repeated result.
5. A fact storming web fact storm the sub-
concepts under major concepts to show
the coverage of the lesson.
6. A discussion web helps students organize
arguments or evidence in connection with
the given lesson.
7. A bubble tree web represents
relationship among concepts.
8. A ladder web answer questions than call
for answers in enumerations.
9. A semantic web response to the core
questions are web strands.
10. A venn diagram compares two sets of
ideas or concepts.
11. A flow chart show a flow of a big ideas.
MEASUREMENT OF LEARNING:
ASESSMENT AND EVALUATION
 Assessment is the ongoing process
of gathering and analyzing of what
students know and do not know.
 Evaluation is the process of
interpreting the evidence and
making judgments.
UNIT VI
AUTHENTIC
ASSESSMENT
 Assessment is a systematic process of
getting information about student
performance .
 Assessment (Burke, 1993) is of great
importance in teaching-learning process
because it sets standards which sets serve
as the basis in evaluating the learning.
 Authentic Assessment is likewise called
alternative assessment or performance
assessment.
Authentic Assessment utilizes two
instruments to evaluate the teaching-
learning process like:
1. Performance based test assessments.
These are authentic assessments that
measure skills and understanding by
directly measuring students performance
in a natural setting (Kauchak and Eggen,
1998).
2. Portfolio Assessment. This is the second
form of authentic assessment.
Guidelines in Using Portfolio for
Assessment
 1. The portfolio should not be graded or
compared in any way with those of other
students.
 2. Determine what materials should be
kept in the portfolio and announce clearly
when, how, and by what criteria portfolios
will be reviewed.
 3. Contents of the portfolio should reflect
grade level goals, learning standards, and
target objectives.
 4. Everything that goes into the
portfolios should be dated by the
students.
 5. Portfolio maintenance should be
the students’ responsibility.
 6. Portfolio should not leave the
classroom.
 7. Students should be encouraged to
personalize their portfolios.
Rating Scales
 Both performance-based tasks
portfolios are commonly used for
student self-assessment and for
showing progress of learning as a
result of instruction.
UNIT VII
PLANNING
MULTIDISCILPLINARY AND
INTERDISCIPLINARY
THEMATICS UNITS
THEMATIC TEACHING
Highlighting the 2002 Basic
Education Curriculum (BEC) is
integration with thematic teaching as
one of its mode of delivery of
instruction.
THEMATIC UNIT
Thematic unit are units of instruction
that address a central theme.
Kellough (2003) suggest the following
components of a units that lead to the
development of the integrated study.
1. Topics. These are the subjects drawn from a
textbook or curriculum guide.
2. Goals ad Objectives. These are the lists of
learning intentions in broad and specific
terms.
3. Content outline. This is an outline of the
materials to be covered.
4. Learning Activities. These include teacher
and student activities comprising
introductory, developmental, and
culminating activities.
5. Resources and Materials. These include
the list of materials to be selected and
prepared for the unit.
6. Evaluation. This includes an outline of
evaluation procedures.
Approaches in Curriculum
Construction
1. Multidisciplinary Approach. When teachers
attempt to combine two or more disciplines
into one instructional approach, they are
using the multidisciplinary approach.
2. Interdisciplinary Approach. When teachers
purposely draw knowledge, perspectives,
and methods from more than one
disciplinary together to examine a central
theme, problem, person, or event, they are
using the interdisciplinary thematic
approach.
Planning Sequence in Unit
Development
I. Overview of the Unit
1. Presenting the knowledge content
2. Selecting a unifying theme or concept
3. Stating the skills to be developed
II. Objectives
1. Presenting instructional Objectives
a. Cognitive
b. Affective
c. Psychomotor
III. Content
1. Identifying the theme
2. Identifying the core discipline
3. Establishing the core discipline
4. Preparing content outline
5. Making reading available
6. Presenting materials about the unit of
study.
UNIT IX
A Model Integrated
Interdisciplinary
Thematic Units
Theme: Landforms in the Philippine Territory
(Eight Seasons: Third Year High School)
I. Objectives
 The students during the development of the unit shall be
able to:
 Discuss clearly the significance of location, size, and shape
of the Philippine territory with the use of globe and maps.
 Explain the theories supporting the origin of the Philippine
landforms using an outline map of the Philippine territory.
 Present in a chart the geologic events that took place
during the Permian Revolution with the use of an outline.
 Discuss the significance of major and minor landforms in
the country’s economic development by citing specific
examples.
 Identify distinctly the different landforms of our country on
the Philippine map.
 Show understanding of nationhood and nationalism in
Philippine music through discussion of the song text.
 Sing the song with appropriate expression.
II. Content.
A. Theme: Landforms in the Philippine
Territory
B. Concepts:
Territory Baseline
Location Origin
Size Theory
Shape Revolution
Doctrine Earth’s processes
C. Content Outline:
1. The Philippine Territory
1.1 Location
1.2 Size
1.3 Shape
2. Origin of the Philippine Landforms
2.1 How the Present Landforms Came About
2.2 Theories About the Origin of the Philippine
Landforms
2.3 Outline of the Philippine Archipelago
2.4 Permian Revolution
2.5 Bodies of Water Surrounding the Philippines
3. The Philippine Landforms
3.1 Major Landforms
3.2 Minor Landforms
3.3 Landforms and Economic Development
D. Readings:
Landforms in the Philippines
Origin of Philippine Landforms
Song: “Philippines, My Philippines”
E. Materials:
Maps, pictures
Reproduction of a painting by Fernando
Amorsolo
A copy of Noli Me Tangere by Jose Rizal
III. Procedure (ACES Teaching
Approach)
Day 1
A. Activities
1. Show the Philippine map to the class.
Ask:
a. What can you say about the structure of the Philippine
map?
b. In what part of the world is the Philippines located?
c. In what region in the Philippines do you live?
d. How would you compare the Philippines with other
countries of the world in –
◦ size?
◦ shape?
◦ structure?
2. Show to the class pictures about the different
physical features of the country. Ask the students
to choose a picture portraying the physical
features of the barangay where they live.
3. Encircle the words on the blackboard that refer
to landforms.
Arctic oceans plain
Hill butte continent
Equator mountain plateau
Canyon Valley
4. Ask the class again if the landforms in their
region are also found in other regions. Give
Examples.
5. Match the words on column A with the
words in Column B. Write the answer on the
line before the number.
A B
___e____1. Plain a. Baguio City
___f____2. Hills b. Mt. Apo
___b____3. Mountain c. Cagayan
___c____4. Valley d. Caraga
___a____5. Plateau e. Central Luzon
f. Carmen, Bohol
6. Divide the class into five groups. Ask each
group to choose their leader.
B. Analysis
1. Present to the class the topic of the study.
Ask each group to choose one. Address the
theme of the unit in the study of each topic.
 Group A-1: Location of the Philippine
Territory
 Group A-2: Size of the Philippine Territory
 Group A-3: Shape of the Philippine Territory
 Group B: Origin of the Philippine Landforms
 Group C: The Philippine Landforms
2. Give the guide questions below each group:
Group A-1: Location of the Philippine
Territory
a. What is a territory?
b. What is the location of the Philippine
Territory?
c. What is the neighboring countries of the
Philippines?
d. What are the northernmost and
southernmost islands in the Philippines?
e. Of what importance is the location of the
Philippines to the country?
Group A-2: Size of the Philippine Territory
a. Why is size an important factor in evaluating
the economic and political potentials of the
state?
b. Where are the present boundaries and limits
of the Philippine Archipelago defined?
c. What is the Archipelago Doctrine? What
does it state?
d. What is the underlying principle of the
Archipelago Doctrine?
e. What is the total land area of the
Philippines? Compare its size with other
countries of the world?
Group A-3: Shape of the Philippine
Territory
a. What is shape? What are the two
extremes in shape?
b. What are the classifications of countries
that have more than one unit?
c. What is the shape of the Philippine
Archipelago?
d. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of elongated and
fragmented structure of the Philippines?
Group B: Origin of the Philippine
Landforms
a. How did the present landforms of the
Philippines come about?
b. What are the minor landforms of the
Philippines?
c. When was the outline of the Philippine
Archipelago first marked?
d. What big bodies of water meet in the
Philippines?
Group C: The Philippine Landforms
a. What are the major landforms in the
Philippines?
b. What are the minor landforms in the
Philippines?
c. How important are landforms to the
country’s economic development?
3. Ask each group to read the selection entitled
“Landforms in the Philippines” and “Origin of
the Philippine Landforms.”
4. Tell the members of each group to answer
their question/s using the graphic organizers.
5. Ask each group to choose the presentation
strategy/technique that can be used in
reporting.
C. Abstraction
1. Ask the class to identify the landforms that are
found in their communities.
Ask the class:
a. What are the landforms in your community?
b. How do the people use these landforms?
c. What benefits do they get from these
landforms?
d. What protection should be given to our
landforms?
2. Guide the class in preparing inventory of
landforms in their respective regions.
3. After completing the chart ask the students to
give statements drawn from the data in the
chart.
4. Guessing game: Have the students match the creation
(song, book, painting) with the name/picture (optional) of
person on the board.
(Answer: Santiago –painting, Rizal –Noli Me Tangere)
a. Give a background of Dr. Francisco Santiago (First Filipino
Dean of the now U.P. College of Music, Nationalistic
composer of kundiman of the Philippine Art Song).
b. Have the students draw images on their notebooks as the
teacher sings “Philippine, My Philippines” in English the in
Filipino.
c. Discuss the images drawn by the students and relate these
to textual meanings in the song: nationalism (Ang bayan
ko’y tanging ikaw…) and patriotism (Ang puso ko at buhay
ma’y sa iyo ibibigay…)
d. Ask the students how they can show nationalism and
patriotism in everyday situations.
e. relate how these feelings of nationalism can be shown
through singing. (crescendo-descendo dynamics for intense
feeling and proper phrasing and vocal projection)
f. Sing the song in English then in Filipino reflecting proper
expressions.
5. Summarize the lesson by asking the students what they have
learned for the day.
6. Singing test in groups of five
Singing rubrics (20 points)
20-19 =correct lyrics, timing and melody (whole song), proper
dynamics and vocal projection, 1-2 mistakes only in lyrics, timing
or melody.
18-16 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (3/4 of the song), proper
dynamics and vocal projection, 3-5 mistakes only in lyrics or
melody.
15-13 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (1/2 of the song), proper
dynamics and vocal projection, 6-9 mistakes (wrong text /
unsteady beat / shaky intonation of melody) but maximum effort
was seen in singing properly.
12-10 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (1/4 of the song), proper
dynamics and vocal projection, 10 or more mistakes (wrong text
/ unsteady beat / shaky intonation of melody) but effort was seen
in singing properly.
9-6 = mostly wrong lyrics, timing and melody but effort was seen.
5-1 = wrong lyrics, timing and melody (whole song) but effort was
seen.
0 = wrong lyrics, timing and melody and no effort was expected.
D. Application
1. Ask the class to give ways and means on how we could –
a. give care and protection to our landforms.
b. show appreciation for the landforms in our respective
communities.
c. value in the Philippine landforms.
2. Guide the class in formulating generalizations about the unit of
the study.
a. The Philippines is a country in Southeast Asia.
b. . The Philippines has a strategic location with reference to
Southeastern Asia and Australia.
c. . The Philippines is physically separated from Asiatic mainland.
d. The combined land and water areas in the Philippines within the
treaty limits is about 1, 800, 000 km2 of which the water areas
comprise about 5 times the land areas.
e. The underlying principle of archipelago Doctrine is the unity of
land, water, and people into a single unit,
f. The total land area of the Philippines is 300, 000 km2 or 30, 000,
000 hectares.
g. The location, size and shape of a country influence its
socioeconomic, social and political development.
h. The present landforms of the Philippines have come about
through the complex processes of diatrophism, vulcanism, and
graduation.
i. The Asiatic theory posits that the Philippines was once a part of
the continental shelf of Asia.
j. The outline of the Philippine Archipelago was first marked at the
close Paleozoic Era during the Permian Revolution.
k. The outline of the Philippines is roughly triangular with Batanes
Island in the north as the apex and with Tawi-Tawi and
Saranggani Islands as the base.
l. The major landforms in the Philippines are plains, plateaus, hills,
and mountains.
m. The minor landforms in the country are valleys, buttes, basins,
and canyons.
n. The nature of landforms is the deciding factor if the area has to
be developed as agricultural, residential, or commercial.
o. Landforms are utilized for settlements, agriculture, and industrial
purposes in meeting the needs of the country and its people.
E. Evaluation
I. Match the words in Column A with group of words in the Column
B. Write on the blank the letter that represents the correct
answer.
A
___c__1. Y’ami a. An important event in geologic
history 200 million years ago
___f__2. Saluag b. An elevation that does not exceed
600 meters
___a___3. Permian Revolution c. The northernmost island in the
Philippines
___e__4. Mountains d. A valley between high steep hills
___b__5. Hills e. The highlands of the continent
___g__6. Valley f. The southernmost island in the
Philippines
___d__7. Canyon g. A large tract of land between
ranges of hills and mountains
___h__8. Archipelago h. A group or chain of islands
___i__9. Sierra Madre i. A mountain range in Eastern
Luzon
___j__10. Plain j. A wide level land
II. Identify the following. Write the answer on the line before the
number.
Chocolate Hills 1. Elevations not exceeding 600 meters in
Carmen, Bohol.
Mt. Arayat 2. A high elevation towering in Central Plain
of Luzon.
Lanao-Bukidnon Plateau 3. A high table land in Mindanao.
Baguio City 4. A high table land in CAR.
Treaty of Paris 5. The treaty that ceded that Philippines
to the US by paying Spain the sum of $ 20, 000, 000.
Fragmented Elongated 6. The shape of the Philippine Archipelago.
17,460 km. 7. The length of the Philippine Coastline.
Central Plain of Luzon 8. The largest level land in the Philippines.
Mt. Pinatubo 9. The volcano that erupted in 1991 in
Zambales.
Philippines 10. The center of the blending of East
and West.
III. Write an editorial about “Landforms in
the Philippine Territory.” Choose one from
the following themes.
 Description of the Philippine Territory
 Origin of the Archipelago: Its Geographic
History
 Major and Minor Landforms
 Landforms and Economic Development

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buildingbridgesacrossdisciplinesinbasiceducation-170207122746.pptx

  • 1. Integrative Methods inTeaching Social Science Discipline in Basic Education
  • 3. INTEGRATED CURRICULUM The concept of an integrated curriculum and its significance to the learners was expounded by educators like Beane (1992), Johnson and Johnson (1998), and Kellough (2003). a. An integrated curriculum refers to a single course that contains one or more disciplines. It consist of one set of objectives and assessment that covers a number of related disciplines (Johnson and Johnson, 1998) b. An integrated curriculum is an educational approach that cuts across and draws multiple areas for for learning and instruction. Its purpose is to realistically link various disciplines into the study and exploration of certain aspects of the world (Beane, 1992)
  • 4. c. An integrated curriculum is a way of teaching a way of planning and organizing the instructional program. This enables the discrete disciplines of subject matter related to one another design that matches the developmental needs of the learners to connect to their learning's in ways that are meaningful to their current and past experiences. This is an antithesis of the traditional, disparate, subject-matter oriented teaching and curriculum designation. (Kellough, 2003)
  • 5. INTEGRATION IN BASIC EDUCATION  To integrate is to make up, combine, or complete to produce a whole or a larger unit as parts do. Integration is applied in education to facilitate the integrative and interactive learning process in the classroom. To Johnson and Johnson (1998), integration is the process of linking new information to prior learning, and linking different parts of learning to each other.
  • 6. SPECTRUM OF INTEGRATED CURRICULUM Level 1: This is the traditional organization of curriculum and classroom instruction. In this level the teachers plan and arrange the subject through a specific scope and sequence which uses a topic outline format. Level 2: In this level the theme is one discipline are not necessary planned to correspond with the themes in another.
  • 7. Level 3: In this level, the class is studying two or more core learning areas or subjects around a common theme. Level 4: Teacher teaching different subjects collaborate on a common theme and its content. Level 5: A common theme likewise chosen by a team of teachers. The content and discipline boundaries are blurred during the teaching- learning process.
  • 8. Theories Supporting Curriculum Integration 1. Experiential Learning. Carl Roger (2004), the proponent of this theory, believe that all individual have a natural propensity to learn. John Dewey (1938), posits that school learning should be experiential because students learn from what they experience. 2. Multiple Intelligences. Howard Gardner, affirms that there are more kind of intelligence that what we thought before.
  • 9. The nine categories of intelligences presented by Gardner and Associates  Linguistic intelligence  Logical-Mathematical Intelligence  Spatial Intelligence  Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence  Musical Intelligence  Interpersonal Intelligence  Intrapersonal Intelligence  Naturalistic Intelligence  Existentialist Intelligence
  • 10. 3. Constructivism. This theory expounds that development and learning occur through constructive process and that knowledge is constructed from experience. Constructivist like John Dewey (1938), Jean Piaget (1960), and Lev Vygotsky 91934) maintain that children learn by actually constructing meaning from their simultaneously embedded experiences. Teaching in a constructivist mode has a slower pace, uses varied strategies and resource materials, and provides opportunities for the new creation of new ideas.
  • 11. Principles in Integrating Big Ideas and Strategies To ensure effective instruction. Beane (1992) expounds the significance of the following principles in integrating big ideas and strategies. 1. Integrate several ideas and strategies. 2. Match content with strategies 3. Integrate relevant concepts. 4. Integrate big ideas across multiple contents of instructions. 5. Provide opportunities to establish connections.
  • 12. Common Elements of an Integrated Curriculum Listed below are the common elements of an Integrated Curriculum as expounded by Lake (2000)  A combination of subjects or learning areas  An emphasis on projects  Relationships among concepts  Thematic units as organizing principles  Sources that go beyond textbooks  Flexible schedules  Flexible student grouping
  • 13. Planning Integrated Instruction 1. Draw content of instruction in basic education from the learning competencies. 2. Identify a theme drawn from a core discipline. 3. Identify the related disciplines or learning areas that can help unfold the chosen theme into instruction. 4. Collaborate with the teachers teaching the identified learning area addressing the chosen theme. 5. Look for appropriate reading materials. 6. Use an approach to instruction that will facilitate integrative teaching-learning in the classroom.
  • 15. MAKABAYAN Makabayan, the fifth learning area in the basic education, has learning components that are interdisciplinary in nature. The interdisciplinary of Makabayan makes it a touchstone for integration in basic education.
  • 16. Makabayan Learning Components Makabayan provides many opportunities for integrative and interactive learning. Elementary Makabayan • Civics and Culture 1 to 3. The competencies of Civics and Culture are clustered around three major values: (1) national identity and self-esteem; (2) national unity; and (3) loyalty to the nation.
  • 17.  Geography, History and Civics 4 to 6. In Grade 4, the geographic features of the Philippines as the Southeast Asia and the world, utilization of our natural resources and the relationship of physical geography to local culture. In Grade 5, the history of the Philippines from pre-historic period down to our contemporary times. In Grade 6, Democratic system of the government and on the rights, duties and responsibilities of citizens in Philippine society.
  • 18.  Home Economics and Livelihood Education. This component of Makabayan from Grade 4 to 6 focuses on the development of the desirable work attitudes and basic work skills and habits through learning situations relevant to everyday chores at home, in school, and in community. Likewise, this learning component covers phases of work in elementary agriculture, home economics, industrial arts, retail trade, computer education, and other livelihood and entrepreneurship skills designed to develop awareness of and interest in productive work.
  • 19.  Music, Art, and Physical Education (MAPE). This component in Makabayan in Grade 1 to 6 will enable the child to express his feelings, imagination, and ideas through music, art and physical activities. The children will learn basic body movements, games, musical skills, and art concepts.
  • 20. Secondary Makabayan  Social Studies  Values Education  Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE)  Music, Art, Physical Education and Health
  • 21. Makabayan Teaching Teams Schools principals both in elementary and secondary schools are tasked to organized Makabayan teaching teams to handle the following learning areas (subjects). Elementary Makabayan • Civics and Cultures 1-3 (Sibika at Kultura, SK) • Geography, History, and Civics 4-6 • Home Economics and Livelihood Education 4-6 • Music, Arts and Physical Education (MAPE) 1-6 •Character Education 1-6
  • 22. Secondary Makabayan  Social Studies I-IV (Araling Panlipunan)  Values Education I-IV (Edukasyong Pagpapahalaga)  Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) I-IV  Music, Art, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) I-IV
  • 23. Modes of Integrative Teaching 1. Content Based Instruction (CBI). This refers to the integration of content learning with language teaching aims. It refers to the concurrent study of language and subject matter with the form and sequence of language presentation dictated by the content materials. 2. Focusing Inquiry. Inquiry teaching is an interdisciplinary approach that uses questions to organize learning.
  • 24. 3. Generic Competency Model. In this models, the learners are enrolled in three to four linked courses. The links between the courses rest essentially on “general competencies”. 4. Thematic Teaching. Thematic themes organize learning around ideas. It provide a broad framework for linking content and process from a number of disciplines.
  • 26. THEMATIC TEACHING Thematic teaching starts with the identification of a theme, the underlying concept that allows for the structure and organization of specific content across disciplines. A theme is the topic of interest that provides the core for group activities. It helps learner see meaningful connections across disciplines or learning areas (subjects). More importantly, themes provide relevance for the learners by drawing together concept under one umbrella.
  • 27. THEMATIC UNITS Thematic means that the same topic is used to develop the teaching plan(content and instruction) for each of the different subjects in which students are enrolled. Presented in this unit are two models in presenting thematic units: (1) the integrated multidisciplinary thematic unit. And (2) the integrated interdisciplinary thematic unit.
  • 28. Both approaches use the following steps in planning instruction (Kellough). a. Select a suitable topic or theme. b. Select the goals of the unit. c. Select suitable specific learning objectives. d. Detail the instructional procedures. e. Plan for pre-assessment and assessment of student learning. f. Provide for the materials of instruction.
  • 29. 1. Integrated Multidisciplinary Thematic Unit. This modification of multidisciplinary teaching unit which addresses a single discipline. This attempts to provide two or more disciplines in one single approach. 2. Integrated interdisciplinary Thematic unit. This unit gives a sense of cohesiveness and structure to student learning and avoids to piecemeal approach that might otherwise unfold.
  • 30. Friegberg (2000) points that interdisciplinary units can help achieve the following objective: 1. Emphasize that the process of learning is sometimes best pursued as an interconnected whole rather than as a series of specific subjects. 2. Encourage students to work cooperatively in partnership and in small groups that focus on the social value of learning. 3. Teach students to be independent problem solvers and thinkers.
  • 31. 4. Assist students to develop their own individual interests and learning styles. 5. Help students find out what they need to know and what they need to learn rather than always expecting the teacher to give it to them. Interdisciplinary Teaching teams Comprising Interdisciplinary Teaching teams on the school-based level could be two or five teachers from different subject areas working together to plan the units of study.
  • 33.  Instructional Objectives- are statements that describe what learners shall be able to do upon completion of a given learning experience. These are the objectives formulated by teachers for a particular lesson or unit of study that drive the performance of learners. Essentially, instructional objectives are the actual behaviors that the learners are expected to accomplish.
  • 34. Classification of Instructional Objectives  1. Cognitive Domain- This refers to the intellectual operation from the lowest level of simple recall of information to complex, high-level thinking process. The six levels of cognitive objectives in Bloom’s taxonomy include knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
  • 35.  2. Affective Domain- The affective domain hierarchy includes from the least internalized to the most internalized like receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and internalizing (Krathwohl, Bloom, and marsh, 1984).  3. Psychomotor Domain- The hierarchy in the psychomotor domain ranges from simple gross locomotor control to the most creative and inventive behaviors.include naming, manipulating, communicating, and creating.
  • 36. Preparing Instructional Objectives  Kellough (2003) advocates the ABCDs of writing objectives using four components, namely, audience (A), behavior (B), condition (C), and degree or level expected performance (D).
  • 37.  A= refers to the audience (students) for whom the objective is intended.  B= refer to the expected behavior or performance that should be written with verbs that are measurable.  C= refers to the condition or setting in which the behavior will be demonstrated by the student and observed by the teacher.  D= refers to the degree or level of expected performance.
  • 38. Choosing Themes  Themes are important in planning a thematic unit of study. These serve as the core in undertaking group activities. With the use of themes students see meaningful connections across disciplines and even in skill learning areas. Further, themes serve as reference points in conceptualizing, analyzing, synthesizing, and consolidating learning experiences for a given unit.
  • 39.  When selecting themes that are drawn from a given discipline or learning area, teachers should consider the interest of the students and the broad scope of the lesson to enable the planners to further subdivide a given topic into smaller subtopics for further investigation.
  • 40. Be guided by the questions below in selecting a theme for a unit of study (Kellough, 2003).  A. Is the theme within the realm of understanding and experience of the teachers involved?  B. Will the theme be of interest to all members of the teaching team?  C. Are there sufficient materials and resources to supply the needed information?
  • 41.  D. Does the theme lend itself to active learning experiences?  E. Can the theme lead to a unit of proper duration; that is, not to short and not to long?  F. Is the theme helpful, worthwhile, and pertinent to the instructional objectives?  G. Is the theme one with which teachers are not already so familiar that they cannot share in the excitement of the learning?  H. Will the theme be of interest to students and will it motivate them to do their best?
  • 42. Organizing Bodies of Knowledge  Organizing bodies of the knowledge drawn from multiple disciplines is the key to effective instruction. These are topics that combine facts, concepts, generalizations, and the relationships among them. In planning thematic units, the content of instruction could be presented this way.
  • 43. Teaching Approaches  Integrative teaching and learning requires particular teaching models for its effectively. These teaching models are larger than a particular strategy, method, or tactic and are supported by theories of instruction.  Teaching Strategies are the means techniques, or procedures used in presenting data collected reflecting interactive aspects of teaching.
  • 44. Graphic Organizers  Graphic Organizers are also called learning organizers. Teachers use them when presenting the scope of the lesson, in giving the lectures, and during closure. Students use them in presenting an individual or group report and even in formulating generalizations.
  • 45. Study Skills  Study Skills, which are important in planning instruction, are teachable. By and large, study skills are competencies associated with acquiring, recording, organizing, synthesizing, remembering, and using information and ideas found in schools (Divine, 1981).
  • 46. Integrating Values  Values are integrated today in all learning areas in the elementary and secondary schools. Values are the standards or criteria that we use in making judgments about whether something is positive or negative, good or bad, pleasing or displeasing.
  • 47. Assessment and Evaluation  Assessment is the ongoing process of gathering and analyzing evidence of what students know and what they do not know. (Burke, 1993)  Evaluation is the process of interpreting the evidence and making judgments and decisions based on the evidence. It is the process of making judgment about the quality of performance.
  • 48. UNIT V Widely Applicable Teaching Models, instructional Strategies, and Graphic Organizers
  • 49. Teaching Models Teaching Models are larger than a particular strategy method, or tactic. These are broad overall approaches to instruction that do not only help teachers in planning instruction, but also guide them in acquiring information, developing skills, internalizing values, and engaging in other forms of learning activities.
  • 50. Teaching models (Joyce and Weil, 2004) Teaching Model are patterns or plans that are used to shape a course, to select instructional materials, and to guide teacher actions.
  • 51. A. Discovery Learning. This teaching model is based on the idea that content is not given to learners in learners in finished form. B. Inquiry Learning. This is commonly known as the inquiry process which is apparently the application of scientific method to teaching. C. Problem-based Learning (PBL). The essence of this model consists of presenting students authentic and meaningful problem situations to serve as springboards for investigation.
  • 52. D. Cooperative Learning. This is the procedure whereby learners work together in small groups and are rewarded for their collective accomplishments. The key characteristics or attributes of cooperative learning are the ways the groups or teams are made up. E. Decision-making. This is an intellectual process that requires students to select the best alternative choice on a set of conditions or circumstances. F. ACES Teaching Approach. The ACES teaching Approach (Four As) follows a logical sequencing of learning activities from the mood-setting activity to the closing activity. (Activity, Analysis, Abstraction, Application)
  • 53. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES/PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES Instructional Strategies are the means, techniques or procedures used in presenting data interactive aspects of teaching. A. Lectures are used when introducing a topic, defining an issue, presenting a dilemma, explaining a process, and in summarizing key points. B. A roundtable discussion usually involves a small number of students, perhaps no fewer than 3 and no mote than 8.
  • 54. C. A panel discussion is similar to roundtable discussion in many aspects, but there are some differences. D. A brainstorming technique is often used by teacher in analysing an issue, an event or problem that calls for a solution. E. A role playing technique helps students understand the perspective of others. F. Socio-drama strategy used in summarizing highlights of learning experience through pantomime, skits, and dramatization.
  • 55. DESIGHNING GRAPHIC ORGNIZERS Graphic organizers are essential tool of learning. These are forms of visual representations that help both teacher and students in teaching learning process.
  • 56. 1. A concept map define a concept or illustrate an idea drawn from a given lesson. 2. A concept cluster illustrate a major concept together with its sub-concepts to show the coverage of a given lesson or a given study. 3. A wheel map show the division of a lesson into sup-topics to facilitate individual or group investigation in the classroom. 4. A cycle graph presents a series of connected events that occur in sequence and procedure a repeated result.
  • 57. 5. A fact storming web fact storm the sub- concepts under major concepts to show the coverage of the lesson. 6. A discussion web helps students organize arguments or evidence in connection with the given lesson. 7. A bubble tree web represents relationship among concepts. 8. A ladder web answer questions than call for answers in enumerations.
  • 58. 9. A semantic web response to the core questions are web strands. 10. A venn diagram compares two sets of ideas or concepts. 11. A flow chart show a flow of a big ideas.
  • 59. MEASUREMENT OF LEARNING: ASESSMENT AND EVALUATION  Assessment is the ongoing process of gathering and analyzing of what students know and do not know.  Evaluation is the process of interpreting the evidence and making judgments.
  • 61.  Assessment is a systematic process of getting information about student performance .  Assessment (Burke, 1993) is of great importance in teaching-learning process because it sets standards which sets serve as the basis in evaluating the learning.  Authentic Assessment is likewise called alternative assessment or performance assessment.
  • 62. Authentic Assessment utilizes two instruments to evaluate the teaching- learning process like: 1. Performance based test assessments. These are authentic assessments that measure skills and understanding by directly measuring students performance in a natural setting (Kauchak and Eggen, 1998). 2. Portfolio Assessment. This is the second form of authentic assessment.
  • 63. Guidelines in Using Portfolio for Assessment  1. The portfolio should not be graded or compared in any way with those of other students.  2. Determine what materials should be kept in the portfolio and announce clearly when, how, and by what criteria portfolios will be reviewed.  3. Contents of the portfolio should reflect grade level goals, learning standards, and target objectives.
  • 64.  4. Everything that goes into the portfolios should be dated by the students.  5. Portfolio maintenance should be the students’ responsibility.  6. Portfolio should not leave the classroom.  7. Students should be encouraged to personalize their portfolios.
  • 65. Rating Scales  Both performance-based tasks portfolios are commonly used for student self-assessment and for showing progress of learning as a result of instruction.
  • 67. THEMATIC TEACHING Highlighting the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) is integration with thematic teaching as one of its mode of delivery of instruction.
  • 68. THEMATIC UNIT Thematic unit are units of instruction that address a central theme. Kellough (2003) suggest the following components of a units that lead to the development of the integrated study. 1. Topics. These are the subjects drawn from a textbook or curriculum guide. 2. Goals ad Objectives. These are the lists of learning intentions in broad and specific terms.
  • 69. 3. Content outline. This is an outline of the materials to be covered. 4. Learning Activities. These include teacher and student activities comprising introductory, developmental, and culminating activities. 5. Resources and Materials. These include the list of materials to be selected and prepared for the unit. 6. Evaluation. This includes an outline of evaluation procedures.
  • 70. Approaches in Curriculum Construction 1. Multidisciplinary Approach. When teachers attempt to combine two or more disciplines into one instructional approach, they are using the multidisciplinary approach. 2. Interdisciplinary Approach. When teachers purposely draw knowledge, perspectives, and methods from more than one disciplinary together to examine a central theme, problem, person, or event, they are using the interdisciplinary thematic approach.
  • 71. Planning Sequence in Unit Development I. Overview of the Unit 1. Presenting the knowledge content 2. Selecting a unifying theme or concept 3. Stating the skills to be developed II. Objectives 1. Presenting instructional Objectives a. Cognitive b. Affective c. Psychomotor
  • 72. III. Content 1. Identifying the theme 2. Identifying the core discipline 3. Establishing the core discipline 4. Preparing content outline 5. Making reading available 6. Presenting materials about the unit of study.
  • 73. UNIT IX A Model Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Units
  • 74. Theme: Landforms in the Philippine Territory (Eight Seasons: Third Year High School) I. Objectives  The students during the development of the unit shall be able to:  Discuss clearly the significance of location, size, and shape of the Philippine territory with the use of globe and maps.  Explain the theories supporting the origin of the Philippine landforms using an outline map of the Philippine territory.  Present in a chart the geologic events that took place during the Permian Revolution with the use of an outline.  Discuss the significance of major and minor landforms in the country’s economic development by citing specific examples.  Identify distinctly the different landforms of our country on the Philippine map.  Show understanding of nationhood and nationalism in Philippine music through discussion of the song text.  Sing the song with appropriate expression.
  • 75. II. Content. A. Theme: Landforms in the Philippine Territory B. Concepts: Territory Baseline Location Origin Size Theory Shape Revolution Doctrine Earth’s processes
  • 76. C. Content Outline: 1. The Philippine Territory 1.1 Location 1.2 Size 1.3 Shape 2. Origin of the Philippine Landforms 2.1 How the Present Landforms Came About 2.2 Theories About the Origin of the Philippine Landforms 2.3 Outline of the Philippine Archipelago 2.4 Permian Revolution 2.5 Bodies of Water Surrounding the Philippines 3. The Philippine Landforms 3.1 Major Landforms 3.2 Minor Landforms 3.3 Landforms and Economic Development
  • 77. D. Readings: Landforms in the Philippines Origin of Philippine Landforms Song: “Philippines, My Philippines” E. Materials: Maps, pictures Reproduction of a painting by Fernando Amorsolo A copy of Noli Me Tangere by Jose Rizal
  • 78. III. Procedure (ACES Teaching Approach) Day 1 A. Activities 1. Show the Philippine map to the class. Ask: a. What can you say about the structure of the Philippine map? b. In what part of the world is the Philippines located? c. In what region in the Philippines do you live? d. How would you compare the Philippines with other countries of the world in – ◦ size? ◦ shape? ◦ structure?
  • 79. 2. Show to the class pictures about the different physical features of the country. Ask the students to choose a picture portraying the physical features of the barangay where they live. 3. Encircle the words on the blackboard that refer to landforms. Arctic oceans plain Hill butte continent Equator mountain plateau Canyon Valley 4. Ask the class again if the landforms in their region are also found in other regions. Give Examples.
  • 80. 5. Match the words on column A with the words in Column B. Write the answer on the line before the number. A B ___e____1. Plain a. Baguio City ___f____2. Hills b. Mt. Apo ___b____3. Mountain c. Cagayan ___c____4. Valley d. Caraga ___a____5. Plateau e. Central Luzon f. Carmen, Bohol 6. Divide the class into five groups. Ask each group to choose their leader.
  • 81. B. Analysis 1. Present to the class the topic of the study. Ask each group to choose one. Address the theme of the unit in the study of each topic.  Group A-1: Location of the Philippine Territory  Group A-2: Size of the Philippine Territory  Group A-3: Shape of the Philippine Territory  Group B: Origin of the Philippine Landforms  Group C: The Philippine Landforms
  • 82. 2. Give the guide questions below each group: Group A-1: Location of the Philippine Territory a. What is a territory? b. What is the location of the Philippine Territory? c. What is the neighboring countries of the Philippines? d. What are the northernmost and southernmost islands in the Philippines? e. Of what importance is the location of the Philippines to the country?
  • 83. Group A-2: Size of the Philippine Territory a. Why is size an important factor in evaluating the economic and political potentials of the state? b. Where are the present boundaries and limits of the Philippine Archipelago defined? c. What is the Archipelago Doctrine? What does it state? d. What is the underlying principle of the Archipelago Doctrine? e. What is the total land area of the Philippines? Compare its size with other countries of the world?
  • 84. Group A-3: Shape of the Philippine Territory a. What is shape? What are the two extremes in shape? b. What are the classifications of countries that have more than one unit? c. What is the shape of the Philippine Archipelago? d. What are the advantages and disadvantages of elongated and fragmented structure of the Philippines?
  • 85. Group B: Origin of the Philippine Landforms a. How did the present landforms of the Philippines come about? b. What are the minor landforms of the Philippines? c. When was the outline of the Philippine Archipelago first marked? d. What big bodies of water meet in the Philippines?
  • 86. Group C: The Philippine Landforms a. What are the major landforms in the Philippines? b. What are the minor landforms in the Philippines? c. How important are landforms to the country’s economic development? 3. Ask each group to read the selection entitled “Landforms in the Philippines” and “Origin of the Philippine Landforms.” 4. Tell the members of each group to answer their question/s using the graphic organizers. 5. Ask each group to choose the presentation strategy/technique that can be used in reporting.
  • 87. C. Abstraction 1. Ask the class to identify the landforms that are found in their communities. Ask the class: a. What are the landforms in your community? b. How do the people use these landforms? c. What benefits do they get from these landforms? d. What protection should be given to our landforms? 2. Guide the class in preparing inventory of landforms in their respective regions. 3. After completing the chart ask the students to give statements drawn from the data in the chart.
  • 88. 4. Guessing game: Have the students match the creation (song, book, painting) with the name/picture (optional) of person on the board. (Answer: Santiago –painting, Rizal –Noli Me Tangere) a. Give a background of Dr. Francisco Santiago (First Filipino Dean of the now U.P. College of Music, Nationalistic composer of kundiman of the Philippine Art Song). b. Have the students draw images on their notebooks as the teacher sings “Philippine, My Philippines” in English the in Filipino. c. Discuss the images drawn by the students and relate these to textual meanings in the song: nationalism (Ang bayan ko’y tanging ikaw…) and patriotism (Ang puso ko at buhay ma’y sa iyo ibibigay…) d. Ask the students how they can show nationalism and patriotism in everyday situations. e. relate how these feelings of nationalism can be shown through singing. (crescendo-descendo dynamics for intense feeling and proper phrasing and vocal projection) f. Sing the song in English then in Filipino reflecting proper expressions.
  • 89. 5. Summarize the lesson by asking the students what they have learned for the day. 6. Singing test in groups of five Singing rubrics (20 points) 20-19 =correct lyrics, timing and melody (whole song), proper dynamics and vocal projection, 1-2 mistakes only in lyrics, timing or melody. 18-16 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (3/4 of the song), proper dynamics and vocal projection, 3-5 mistakes only in lyrics or melody. 15-13 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (1/2 of the song), proper dynamics and vocal projection, 6-9 mistakes (wrong text / unsteady beat / shaky intonation of melody) but maximum effort was seen in singing properly. 12-10 = correct lyrics, timing and melody (1/4 of the song), proper dynamics and vocal projection, 10 or more mistakes (wrong text / unsteady beat / shaky intonation of melody) but effort was seen in singing properly. 9-6 = mostly wrong lyrics, timing and melody but effort was seen. 5-1 = wrong lyrics, timing and melody (whole song) but effort was seen. 0 = wrong lyrics, timing and melody and no effort was expected.
  • 90. D. Application 1. Ask the class to give ways and means on how we could – a. give care and protection to our landforms. b. show appreciation for the landforms in our respective communities. c. value in the Philippine landforms. 2. Guide the class in formulating generalizations about the unit of the study. a. The Philippines is a country in Southeast Asia. b. . The Philippines has a strategic location with reference to Southeastern Asia and Australia. c. . The Philippines is physically separated from Asiatic mainland. d. The combined land and water areas in the Philippines within the treaty limits is about 1, 800, 000 km2 of which the water areas comprise about 5 times the land areas. e. The underlying principle of archipelago Doctrine is the unity of land, water, and people into a single unit, f. The total land area of the Philippines is 300, 000 km2 or 30, 000, 000 hectares.
  • 91. g. The location, size and shape of a country influence its socioeconomic, social and political development. h. The present landforms of the Philippines have come about through the complex processes of diatrophism, vulcanism, and graduation. i. The Asiatic theory posits that the Philippines was once a part of the continental shelf of Asia. j. The outline of the Philippine Archipelago was first marked at the close Paleozoic Era during the Permian Revolution. k. The outline of the Philippines is roughly triangular with Batanes Island in the north as the apex and with Tawi-Tawi and Saranggani Islands as the base. l. The major landforms in the Philippines are plains, plateaus, hills, and mountains. m. The minor landforms in the country are valleys, buttes, basins, and canyons. n. The nature of landforms is the deciding factor if the area has to be developed as agricultural, residential, or commercial. o. Landforms are utilized for settlements, agriculture, and industrial purposes in meeting the needs of the country and its people.
  • 92. E. Evaluation I. Match the words in Column A with group of words in the Column B. Write on the blank the letter that represents the correct answer. A ___c__1. Y’ami a. An important event in geologic history 200 million years ago ___f__2. Saluag b. An elevation that does not exceed 600 meters ___a___3. Permian Revolution c. The northernmost island in the Philippines ___e__4. Mountains d. A valley between high steep hills ___b__5. Hills e. The highlands of the continent ___g__6. Valley f. The southernmost island in the Philippines ___d__7. Canyon g. A large tract of land between ranges of hills and mountains ___h__8. Archipelago h. A group or chain of islands ___i__9. Sierra Madre i. A mountain range in Eastern Luzon ___j__10. Plain j. A wide level land
  • 93. II. Identify the following. Write the answer on the line before the number. Chocolate Hills 1. Elevations not exceeding 600 meters in Carmen, Bohol. Mt. Arayat 2. A high elevation towering in Central Plain of Luzon. Lanao-Bukidnon Plateau 3. A high table land in Mindanao. Baguio City 4. A high table land in CAR. Treaty of Paris 5. The treaty that ceded that Philippines to the US by paying Spain the sum of $ 20, 000, 000. Fragmented Elongated 6. The shape of the Philippine Archipelago. 17,460 km. 7. The length of the Philippine Coastline. Central Plain of Luzon 8. The largest level land in the Philippines. Mt. Pinatubo 9. The volcano that erupted in 1991 in Zambales. Philippines 10. The center of the blending of East and West.
  • 94. III. Write an editorial about “Landforms in the Philippine Territory.” Choose one from the following themes.  Description of the Philippine Territory  Origin of the Archipelago: Its Geographic History  Major and Minor Landforms  Landforms and Economic Development